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Please tell me how to reduce the size of right my right testis. Once I went to a doctor. The doctor give me a medicine, by this medicine my testis size reduced but my medicine was finished. Now my size of testis are not completely reduced. There is no pain in my testis. Please tell me the medicine through which the size of testis reduced. I want to be an marine engineer so, please tell me also that in Marin engineering there is any problem by the size of testis in medical.
A mastectomy is surgical removal of a breast. The surgery depends on various factors and choosing a type of mastectomy best suited for an individual suffering from breast cancer requires experience and expertise. With advancing technology, there are more options available for women to opt for surgeries, which are minimally invasive and conserving in nature. Following are the various types of mastectomies and the factors, which influence them:
Types of Mastectomy
1. Total or simple mastectomy
This is a surgical procedure which involves complete removal of the breast including the nipple. The lymph nodes, which are small glands, are an important part of your immune system and are kept intact during the surgery. This form of surgery is most suitable if the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
2. Preventive mastectomy
Preventive mastectomy, also known as prophylactic mastectomy, is an option for women who have a high risk of developing breast cancer. Preventive mastectomy reduces the risk of breast cancer by a huge margin. In certain cases, removal of the entire breast along with the nipple is advisable. Women who develop cancer on one breast often opt for preventive mastectomy and remove the other unaffected breast as well.
3. Partial mastectomy
Women who are in stage I or stage ii of breast cancer can choose this procedure. It is a breast conserving technique where the tumor is removed along with the tissue that surrounds it. It is followed up by radiation therapy on the remaining breast tissue, which terminates the cancer cells and stops them from spreading. There are two types of partial mastectomy, namely, lumpectomy and quadrantectomy.
4. Radical mastectomy
Although this procedure is almost out of use, it is still considered in case the cancer has spread to certain areas like the chest muscle. In this form of surgery, the breast is removed entirety along with muscles beneath it and the lymph nodes.
5. Modified mastectomy
It is a more commonly used procedure characterized by complete removal of the breast including underarm lymph nodes. The chest muscles are untouched in the procedure, therefore allowing a breast reconstruction to follow.
Factors influencing the type of mastectomy:
• Age of the individual
• Health in general
• Size of the tumor
• The spread of the tumor
• The rate of progression of the tumor
• Whether lymph nodes are affected or not
Colposcopy is a procedure that is used to get a closer view of a women’s cervix, vagina and vulva. It is a procedure carried on to detect the presence of any abnormal cells on the cervix and nearby areas.
Why is Colposcopy done?
This procedure is carried out to see the problems in the vagina and cervix which may otherwise be not visible with a naked eye. A colposcopy is done when the Pap test results are abnormal. These abnormalities could be due to several reasons like viral infections namely human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or any other fungal (yeast), bacterial or protozoan (Trichomonas) infection. Atrophic vaginitis or natural cervical changes due to menopause can also lead to abnormal Pap test results. However one needs to be careful because these untreated cervical cell changes that lead to abnormal Pap tests can at times develop into precancerous or cancerous changes.
In case during colposcopy, an abnormal tissue is found in the problem areas, the doctor will remove a tiny sample of it and send it to the lab. This is normally known as a biopsy or cervical biopsy which is done from inside the opening of the cervix or endocervical canal.
Procedure for a colposcopy and biopsy
A colposcopy is normally a pain free procedure where at times some women might feel a slight tingling or burning sensation when the solution is applied. Biopsy might lead to a little discomfort like that of a sharp pinch or a menstrual cramp. During colposcopy a speculum or a small instrument is inserted into the vagina to spread apart the vaginal walls. In order to see the area more clearly the doctor dabs the cervix or vagina with a cotton swab dipped in vinegar (acetic acid) or Iodine (Lugol's solution). The solution is used to remove any kind of mucus and also makes the abnormal cells turn white in order to be clearly visible.
The doctor then uses a colposcope, a light magnifying device that looks like binoculars and has a bright light mounted to it. It also has a camera attached to it to take the videos or pictures of the cervix and vagina.
Biopsies are normally done by scraping away abnormal cells with a small brush or a small curette.
Results of colposcopy or cervical Biopsy
In case of Normal results the vinegar or iodine will not show the presence of any abnormal cells and the vagina and cervix look normal. But in case of abnormal results, there are abnormal tissues seen in the problem areas. It could also be a sore or a genital wart or infection in and around the vagina. The biopsy report would clarify whether it is cervical cancer or is likely to develop. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
What is cancer? How can anyone avoid it? What are precautions have to be taken? Refer few doctor in Delhi and Mumbai?
What are the cause for lung cancer & the precautions to overcome from the lung cancer and how to take of body.
Respected sir my name is pratiksha and my age is 24. I have a benign fibroadenoma so I would like to know that in future there is a change to get cancer. I consulted with a doctor and he told me it's benign. I have not done surgery till now. It's is compulsory to remove the tumor. If I don't remove in lifetime will there be a risk?
My mom had breast cancer doctor ask us that chemo without port may damage the veins but I research internet and I found that it is patients choice to have port or not, even port could cause infections. Sir Please If you can give us some advice.
What are the causes of skin cancer and what are the syndrome of it also tell me it's preventive measures.
I am a 60 year old male (100 Kg.) with slightly enlarged prostrate, fatty lever, pain in both knees and swelling at ankles. What course of medicine do you suggest? Presently taking low dosage tablets for hypertension and Uric acid and colestarol.
He was suffering from cancer at first stage Dr. Please tell where I go with him to treat himself please tell immediately I'm waiting for your answer.
I am having some problem with urine frequency and lower pressure of urine and have to apply more force while passing urine. Is there any need to go for any prostate test etc. While I am having sound sleep of 6-8 hrs and not waking up for the urination. Please suggest me some remedy, proper diet and exercise.
I had noticed blood traces at the beginning urination about one month back. I carried out a blood urine examination it said PSA as 7.69, Further scanning showed prostate is of normal size. I took ciplox 500 for a month and retestedt PSA and the result showed 7.67. The doctor said that a biopsy is needed. Since I am 74 years old, I don't intend to go for biopsy. If I leave it as is, will there be any complication later? Is there any medication available for high PSA?
I am diagnosed with prostate glad for which doctor has prescribed tab. Tamdura daily for regular use. Please advice if I can get remedy with your suggestion and can get rid of my daily dose of medicine. Thanking you.
Angelina jolie's revelation for her family history of cancer and brca mutations has really benefitted genetic labs, who are getting more and more requests for brca testing from doctors and patients.
The point which everyone is missing out on is that not every patient with breast cancer requires this test. Another important thing which is being left out is the pre-test counseling, which highlights the implications of a positive and negative test.
In India, the test has to be offered judiciously because indian ladies will not readily agree for bilateral mastectomies or salpingo-oophrectomies, if the test comes positive.
It is best to consult your breast onco-surgeon or genetic counselor before ordering these tests.