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Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs. These abnormal cells do not carry out the functions of normal lung cells and do not develop into healthy lung tissue. As they grow, the abnormal cells can form tumors and interfere with the functioning of the lung, which provides oxygen to the body via the blood.
Lung cancer is the most common cause of death due to cancer in both men and women throughout the world. According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, approximately one out of every 14 men and women in the U.S. is diagnosed with cancer of the lung at some point in their lifetime. Lung cancer is predominantly a disease of the elderly; almost 70% of people diagnosed with lung cancer are over 65 years of age, while less than 3% of lung cancers occur in people under 45 years of age.
What Causes Lung Cancer?
The development of lung cancer is strongly associated with cigarette smoking, approximately 90% of lung cancers are attributable to use of tobacco. Pipe and cigar smoking can also cause lung cancer, but the risk is not as high as with cigarette smoking. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4,000 chemical compounds, many of which are cancer causing (carcinogens). Passive smoking, i.e. the inhalation of tobacco smoke by non-smokers who live or work with smokers, is also an established risk factor for the development of lung cancer.
Genetic susceptibility (i.e. family history) may play a role in the development of lung cancer. Other causes of lung cancer include air pollution (from vehicles, industry, and power generation) and inhalation of asbestos fibres (usually in the workplace).
Lung Cancer Symptoms:
Early symptoms and signs of lung cancer:
There may be no symptoms at the onset of the disease. When present, common symptoms of lung cancer may include:
- Coughing: This includes a persistent cough that doesn't go away or changes to a chronic smoker's cough, such as more coughing or pain.
- Coughing up blood: Coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum (spit or phlegm) should always be discussed with your doctor.
- Breathing Difficulties: Shortness of breath, wheezing or noisy breathing (called stridor) may all be signs of lung cancer.
- Loss of Appetite: Many cancers cause changes in appetite, which may lead to unintended weight loss.
- Fatigue: It is common to feel weak or excessively tired.
- Recurring infections: Recurring infections, like bronchitis or pneumonia, may be one of the signs of lung cancer.
Signs of advanced stages of lung cancer: Advanced stages of lung cancer are often characterized by the spread of cancer to distant sites in the body. This may affect the bones, liver or brain. As other parts of the body are affected, new lung cancer symptoms may develop, including:
- Bone pain
- Swelling of the face, arms or neck
- Headaches, dizziness or limbs that become weak or numb
- Lumps in the neck or collar-bone region
Treatment: Treatment for cancer involves a combination of surgery to remove cancer cells, chemotherapy and radiation therapy to kill cancer cells. Lung cancer is incurable unless complete surgical removal of the tumour cells can be achieved. Surgery is the most effective treatment for lung cancer, but only a few percentage of lung cancers are suitable for surgery i.e. Stage I and II NSCLC and cancer that has not spread beyond the lung.
Radiation therapy may be used for both NSCLC and SCLC and is a good option for people who are not suitable for surgery or who refuse surgery. Chemotherapy is used for both NSCLC and SCLC. Chemotherapy drugs may be given alone or in combination with surgery or radiation therapy. Chemotherapy is the treatment of first choice for SCLC since it has usually spread extensively in the body by the time it has been diagnosed.
Also used in the treatment of lung cancer are targeted therapies. These are drugs (gefitinib and erlotinib) or antibodies (cetuximab, bevacizumab) that block the growth and spread of cancer by interfering with specific molecules involved in tumor growth and progression. They are used in some patients with NSCLC that does not respond to standard chemotherapy.
Please advise me what can do when I suffered from cancer and what are the symptoms of blood cancer? Please advise.
M taking lithosun 400 arip mt5 since 2 years everything was going ok but then my father was diagnosed with cancer now I am feeling very low what can be done in this please help.
I am known patient of squamous cell carcinoma in right boarder of tongue. It is operated on 15th nov, 2014 and port is completed on 31st jan, 2015.5 chemotherapy and 30 radiotherapy completed. 1st time mri with contast done in the 1st week of april, 2015. No sign of cancer is found in the mri. Now I am suffering swelling in my buckle mucosa and my inner side of mouth became red. I have consulted ent. He suggested me some antibiotics and mouth paste. Then I consulted with my oncologist. He suggested a multivitamin capsule and didn't. Give any attention. He said me that this type. Of problem will appear. Now suggest me the remedy? give opinion why does it occur?
I want to know about latest technology of cancer diagnosis and treatment in the world. Specially secondary malignancies.
I am 62 years Male suffering from Prostate Enlargement for the last 4 years. Now I am planning to go for TURP which is suggested by Urologist. Now I understand that Laser surgery for this is available which is painless and bloodless where recovery is reported to be very fast unlike conventional surgery. Please inform me which is best type of surgery ie. Either conventional or laser surgery.(weight of the gland is 140 gms.
I think that I have cancer but hesitate to tell my parents I have a very small swelling on left side of neck near jaw And I have rough skin cell on my back which get removed by hand but emerge again Also I feel tiredness and have very light hair fall.
Hello doctor, what r the symptoms in Cancer, and how to come in our body? Then which is the best treatment?
Enlarged prostate surgery is a very common type of surgery that many have to undergo nowadays. An enlarged prostate causes many health problems including urinary tract obstructions and urinary tract infections. It may also lead to the passing of blood via urine. Thus, enlarged prostate must be treated as soon as possible as neglect may lead to prostate cancer and its associated health issues. There are various types of prostate surgeries that a doctor performs on his/her patients. However, of late, radical prostatectomy is the most popular of them all.
What is Radical Prostatectomy?
This process can be handled in two ways. Firstly, the prostate can be reached through an incision in the abdomen. This would help the doctor work with precision and carefully avoid all the other nerves and muscles in the area the operation take places. The prostate is examined and any nodule or lymph formed over it is carefully removed. The advantage of this surgery is that the patient is less likely to suffer from any erectile problems post- surgery. The second option would be to make an incision between the scrotum and the anus. This process is best for those who are obese. The surgery is performed quickly and there is less loss of blood. Furthermore, the healing time is less too.
How To Recover From The Surgery?
Like most other prostate operations, even in radical prostatectomy, you would have to wear a catheter till you recover completely. For a few days post the surgery your urine would be collected through a urine bag attached to the catheter. One might feel a little sore in his/her genitals after the surgery, but that is quite normal to occur. The soreness is caused due to the surgery and the incisions made and would heal in a matter of a few days. Interestingly, since the urethra plays an important role in this surgery, the catheter has to be in place for at least two to three weeks but the patient can be discharged after a two to three night stay at the hospital. It is advised that the patient takes ample rest. But this does not mean all rest and no work. In fact, it is seen that patients can walk a little and even go back to a normal diet within a week to ten days of the operation. But regular checkups, till the urethra is healed, are compulsory.
Hence, these are some of the recovery procedures after an enlarged prostate surgery. Such surgeries are quite common and heal quickly. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
My age is 23. Height 6 ft. Weight 76 kg. My question is that what are the early symptoms that an adrenal cancer 's patients suffer?
While sexual problems are common among colorectal cancer patients, they are not necessarily caused by surgical treatment, Dutch researchers report. The patients may already have sexual issues before surgery.
Noting that there was not much information available on colorectal cancer patients? sexual function and quality of sexual life before surgery, the researchers aimed to describe these aspects for both patients and their partners. They also wanted to use standardized sexual health assessments and compare the scores of those patients and partners to mean norm scores.
To do this, they recruited 136 patients who had been diagnosed with colorectal cancer, but had not yet undergone surgical treatment. One hundred six of the patients? partners were also involved.
To measure sexual function and quality of life, the researchers used several questionnaires.
Male patients and male partners completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), which assesses erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction.
All of the women were given the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), which is used to evaluate arousal, lubrication, orgasmic function, sexual desire, sexual pain, and intercourse satisfaction.
Participants with partners completed the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), which addresses the quality of sexual life. They were also given the Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ), which examines relationship issues.
Finally, all participants completed an adapted version of the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire, which provides data on any comorbidities.
Mean norm scores were provided in the manuals of each questionnaire.
The researchers found that when compared to mean norm scores, both male and female colorectal patients had lower scores on the sexual functioning and quality of sexual life domains on the given assessments. Female patients had lower sexual functioning and lower quality of sexual life than male patients. The partners also had lower scores in these areas when compared to mean norm scores. Male partners had lower scores than male patients.
The lower scores could be explained by stress, as there were not many differences between the scores of colon cancer patients and those with rectal cancer. Past research has shown high levels of stress in cancer patients and a link between psychological issues (such as stress, anxiety, and depression) and sexual dysfunction.
In spite of the lower scores, however, the participants? scores on relationship functioning were comparable to the corresponding mean norm scores, suggesting that the sexual issues did not seem to damage relationships.
The findings could help healthcare providers consider the sexual needs of colorectal cancer patients. ?More information provision and/or psychosexual guidance may be needed preoperatively in order to give license to couples to discuss sexual problems and to search for adequate professional support during any point in treatment, especially as the majority of patients do not take the initiative to discuss the treatment options for possible sexual dysfunction,? the authors wrote.