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Depression is one of the complex physical and psychological disorders. The disease is characterized by loss of pleasure or interest, sadness, feelings of guilt, low self worth, disturbed sleep and appetite, poor concentration and feelings of tiredness. The common effect of this condition is leads to the decreased activity level in some parts of the brain. The disease is a mild one that causes little annoyance in daily life. But the extreme stages may lead to severe effects where the affected person may fail to participate in their social life. In rare cases severity of suicide is even possible.
Depression is diagnosed by these symptoms:
- Lack of interest or joy in activities
- Sadness or low mood levels
- Feel of guilt without any reason
- Inferiority thoughts
- Slow thought process
- Slow in interpreting sensorial stimuli
- Slow physical reactions
- Slow physical processes or digestion.
Types of depression
It can be either be a single disease or the effect of other diseases. It can also be due to two or more factors. Based on the cause the disease, it has been divided into six types, which are
- Reactive depression: Caused due to psychological struggle and stress.
- Endogenous depression: Caused due to strain or lack of rest.
- Depression by physical disease: This is caused due to any physical disease such as Parkinson’s disease, stroke, hypertension, heart disease, cushing’s syndrome, mononucleosis, hypothyroidism neurotransmitters in the brain etc.
- Depressive consequence of unsound lifestyle: This is caused due to less exercise, too much alcohol, coffee or tea consumption, least intake of necessary nutrients, too much sugar intake and fat.
- Postnatal depression: This happens mostly in women after pregnancy and child birth.
- Seasonal affective disorder: This happen due to cold and dark seasons of the year. The lack of light is the factor for causing depression as well.
Treatment of depression
Best way to treat depression is through Psychotherapy, also anti - depression medicines are usually prescribed to treat the effects of depression. But the intake of these types of medicines result in nervous disorder. However, the best way to treat is through environmental changes and positive and happy surrounds to the affected person along with psychological counseling. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a psychiatrist.
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a person’s mood, knowledge, thought and several other characteristics gets disturbed. We can notice most of the adults and old people with few symptoms of schizophrenia, which are most commonly left unidentified. The exact cause of schizophrenia is not yet known. The person feels that they are being constantly watched, they feel the presence of someone or something, which is not actually there. They are always suspicious and think that other people are gossiping and thinking about them.
Possible causes of Schizophrenia
Though the exact cause of schizophrenia is not known there are few factors, which contribute to the cause of schizophrenia.
- Genetic factors: People with a family history of schizophrenia are at higher risk of getting schizophrenia.
- Environmental factors: Environmental factors include excessive stress during pregnancy or later stages of life. Several other factors during pregnancy and childhood are responsible for causing schizophrenia. These factors are:
- Decreased oxygen level during delivery due to premature birth or prolonged labour
- Parental loss or separation in early stages of life
- Parental exposure to virus or during infancy
- Childhood physical or sexual abuse
- Abnormal brain structures and brain chemistry
Sings and symptoms of schizophrenia
- Hallucination: To see, feel or hear anything that really does not exist is known as hallucination.
- Delusion: A thought or belief of a person, which is either false or impossible in reality is known as delusion.
- Thought and speech disturbances: The thought process and speech of a schizophrenic will be disorganized, due to which he or she will fumble or is distracted as they are unable to align their thoughts.
- Difficulty in concentrating: It is difficult for people suffering from schizophrenia to concentrate on the task at hand.
- Erratic behaviour: People suffering from schizophrenia tend to behave erratically, either they will be too jumpy or will be perfectly still for hours at a stretch. Most people belief that those who are suffering from schizophrenia are often violent in nature, which actually is not the case.
Treatment for schizophrenia
Schizophrenia can be treated, if identified at an early stage. It is best advised to consult a psychiatrist the moment you spot the symptoms. Anti psychotic drugs, self help behaviour change, counselling and rehabilitation are few treatment modalities available for schizophrenia.
Psychiatry is not just a form of medicine to identify and treat the psychiatric illness, but it also helps in improving attention, cognition, memory and concentration. Psychiatry has its role in different fields and working in the field of memory improvement is quite interesting. Memory is basically the process through which a person stores information for days, months and years.
Human brain is a dynamic entity and has wonderful capacity to store information and recall it as and when required. However, our memory is affected by a number of reasons, such as aging, accidents, negligence and certain diseases, which involves our brain and nervous system. Further, the memory of an event will improve, based on the frequency at which it has been recalled.
Apart from the frequency of recall, psychiatry can also help a person to improve the capacity of brain and sharpen their memory to store incidents or events for a prolonged period of time.
How along with psychiatric therapy you can improve your memory
- Improving your concentration while doing any work will naturally improve your memory. Doing things with concentration will help us in storing information for a longer period of time.
- Relieving your mind from stress or anxiety is also a great way to improve your memory as stress has the ability to hamper your memory.
- Eating a balanced and nutritious diet is essential for a better memory. For increasing the memory power, psychiatrists insist on a diet which is anti inflammatory, rich in protein and Omega-3 fatty acids.
- A simple 20 minute exercise routine will not just help you to stay fit physically, but mentally as well.
- It also important to sleep properly, as sleep helps your mind and body to prepare for the next day. It is also advised to have a short nap in the afternoon to improve your brain functioning during the day time.
- Smoking and frequent consumption of caffeine also hampers your memory, thus, it is advised that one should quit smoking and reduce the consumption of caffeine. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a specilized psychiatrist and ask a free question.
Sleep is the normal physiological process of our body which is as important as respiration and digestion. Sleep is vital for maintaining our physical and mental health. Normal adults require 8 hours of sleep every day, whereas it 14 to 15 hours of sleep is recommended for for infants and toddlers.
What are the different stages of Sleep
Every human has a natural circadian clock in their body, which is responsible for maintaining our sleep - wake homeostasis. The different stages of sleep include REM and NREM that is rapid eye movement sleep and non rapid eye movement sleep respectively. REM is the deep sleep stage in which it is very difficult to wake up the person as this stage includes the sensory inhibition and all voluntary muscles along with almost all interactions with the surroundings are inhibited. Therefore, a person’s physical stress and tiredness also gets relieved during this stage of sleep. NREM sleep is the stage between REM and awakening and here the person may have sensory connection with his or her surroundings, but may not respond.
Sleep and its benefits
Sleep and stress have a very strong connection with each other. The best way to relieve stress and any other mental disturbance is sleep. It is essential to have knowledge about sleep psychiatry for almost all physicians as they face many sleep deprived patients in their day to day practice.
- Sleep is not only responsible for relieving mental stress and depression, but has other benefits as well
- Sleep is also essential for the normal physiological growth in early infancy and it is vital for development of normal alertness, attention and knowledge
- It also relaxes our voluntary muscles and thereby, relieves us from physical stress
- Sleep disturbance may also aggravate diseases in our body. Sleep is also the state of recovery and healing.
Sleep psychiatry also insist on meditation and ensures that people have normal pattern of sleep, in order to maintain the mental health of the person in a normal state.