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Collectively grouped under the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors, Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common form of bone cancer, which is commonly seen in children and adolescents. Very rarely is it experienced in adults above the age of 30.
Typically forming in the bones of the chest, pelvis, head, back or trunk and in the long bones of the arms and legs, Ewing's sarcoma is believed to originate in certain kinds of primitive cells. When it begins to affect similar kind of cells found outside the bone, it is usually called an extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma.
1. Similar to all types of Ewing tumors, Ewing's sarcoma is generally caused by an alteration in a certain cell compelling a gene named EWS found on chromosome no. 22 to move over to a DNA section on any one of the surrounding chromosomes resulting in the activation of the EWS gene.
2. While it is not a hereditary condition, it usually occurs after childbirth, but no substantial evidence has been found as to why it happens so.
Symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma may include:
1. Swelling and pain especially in the arms, legs, back, chest or pelvis
2. Swelling accompanied by joint immobility
3. A bone breaks having no apparent cause
4. Swelling which may or may not be accompanied by a warm, tingling sensation
5. Fever resulting from unknown causes
6. Lumps or bumps which do not subside over time
7. Abnormal weight loss
8. High levels of fatigue
9. Tumors which have spread over to the lungs may cause shortness of breath
10.Tumors spread over to the spine may cause weakness or even paralysis.
Because the symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma can hardly be distinguished from symptoms caused by other infections or injuries, an early diagnosis is absolutely necessary for a successive treatment. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Generally identified as a rare and uncommon phenomenon, vaginal cancer most often occurs in the cells present in the outer lining of the vagina, also called the birth canal. Although primary vaginal cancer is rare and unusual, there are various other types of vaginal cancer that originate elsewhere in the body, but have spread over to your vagina.
Depending upon the nature of origin, vaginal cancer can be divided into the following types:
- Vaginal adenocarcinoma, beginning in the glandular cells on the surface of your vagina
- Vaginal sarcoma, developing in the connective tissue cells and multiple cells lining the walls of your vagina
- Vaginal squamous cell carcinoma, originates in the squamous cells lining the surface of the bacteria
- Vaginal melanoma, developing in melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells in your vagina
Symptoms: As vaginal cancer progresses from one stage to the next, you may experience any one of the following signs and symptoms:
- Diluted, watery vaginal discharge
- Painful urination
- Odd cases vaginal bleeding, for instance, after menopause or after intercourse
- Formation of lumps in your vagina
- Frequent and regular urination
- Pelvic pain
Causes: Normally, cancer develops when healthy cells undergo genetic mutations. Cancer cells are known to break off from pre-existing tumors and can easily spread everywhere, in what is referred to as metastasize.
Beyond the natural process of development, here are a few factors, which may further contribute to the growth of cancerous cells:
- Increasing age
- Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Are you aware of cervical cancer, which develops in the cervix of a woman? The cervix is the entrance to the womb from the vagina, and unusual vaginal bleeding accounts for being the primary symptom of this condition. Although abnormal vaginal bleeding may indicate several other conditions, you should get diagnosed for cervical cancer.
The various symptoms of cervical cancer are as follows:
- Abnormal and unusual bleeding from the vagina between periods, after having sex, and after menopause in women
- Pain in the pelvis or lower abdomen
- Pain while having sex
- Abnormal vaginal discharge
- Over several years, cells lining the cervix go through various changes. In some rare cases, these cells, which are precancerous, may turn out to be cancerous. These cell changes in the cervix can be detected early, and proper treatment is capable of reducing the development of cervical cancer.
- A screening for cervical cancer should be carried out for diagnosing this condition. Cervical screening, or smear test involves the study of sample cells taken from the cervix. The sample cells are observed under a microscope for detecting cervical cancer or other abnormalities. An abnormal cervical screening does not always indicate cervical cancer, as abnormal results can occur because of an infection or because of the presence of precancerous cells that are treatable.
- Screening should be undertaken by women of all ages. It is recommended for women between the ages of 25 to 49 to undergo this cervical cancer screening once in every three years. For women between the age of 50 to 64, screening should be carried out once in five years. For women above the age of 65, screening is recommended for the ones who did not have a screening since the age of 50 and for the ones who had abnormal test results in the past.
- Cervical cancer can be successfully treated by a surgical procedure, if it is diagnosed at an initial stage. In some cases, the womb can be left in place, while it may be removed in some other cases. The surgical procedure used for removing the womb is known as hysterectomy.
- Radiotherapy is an alternative surgical procedure that is undertaken by women with cervical cancer, at an early stage. In more serious cases, a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is used for the treatment of cervical cancer. Although quite effective, some treatment procedures for cervical cancer are associated with side effects such as infertility and early menopause.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
In today’s world, females have advance techniques available for shaping up their breasts. It is a part of their overall persona and beauty. Breast augmentation is one of the greatest plastic surgery operations that is done in hospitals across the globe.
Gone are the days, when you would sit back at home and blame nature for your saggy breasts. You have the gift of plastic surgery at your rescue. Breast augmentation can enhance the beauty of your breast and uplift its features. In this process, the implant is put under the pectoral muscle so that you can still breastfeed your infant if needed.
The process is executed with the help of a small 4 cm incision. The recovery process takes a week’s time. Breast augmentation can be carried out in a surgical centre or in any hospital’s outpatient facility. It doesn’t require a hospital stay in most cases. In some selected cases only, the procedure is done using local anaesthesia. In those cases, the patient stays awake. The breast region is made numb.
What to expect during the procedure?
The woman opting this must know what all are expected to happen during the procedure. The surgeon will insert the breast implant by making a single cut in one of the following three areas:
1. In the crease under breast
2. Underarm (axillary)
3. Around the nipple (periareolar)
After the incision is done, the surgeon will try and separate the breast tissue from the patient’s muscles and connective tissue. This will lead to the creation of a pocket either behind or in front of the pectoral muscle. After this, the surgeon will put the implant into the newly-created pocket. It will be centred behind the nipple.
Saline implants are put in an empty form and then filled with sterile salt water. Silicone implants are, however, pre-filled with silicone gel. After the implant is over, the cut is stitched with sutures and the skin is bandaged with adhesive and tape.
What to expect after the procedure?
For a few weeks, the patient might experience Soreness and swelling. It is also possible to develop bruises. Your scars will fade away with time. It is quite possible that the scars will not vanish permanently ever in your lifetime. You must wear a compression or sports bra at the time of healing. You might be required to take painkillers, as advised by the surgeon.