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How to do Self-Breast Examination?
The best time to do your Breast self-examination is while having a shower. Soap your hands and body, then use the flat of your fingers and move them over the breasts step by step as indicated below:-
Step 1: Look at your breasts in the mirror with your shoulders straight and your arms on your hips. Observe the size, shape and colour of the breasts. Look for any deviation from normal – any visible distortion or swelling should be immediately brought to the doctor’s attention. Also, look for the following changes:-
- Dimpling or small depression on the breast
- Change in nipple position or inversion of nipple (nipple being inward instead of sticking out)
- Redness, soreness, rash, or swelling
Step 2: Raise your arms and look for the same changes. Sometimes, the changes in size and shape are more evident in this position.
Step 3: Look for any signs of fluid coming out of one or both nipples (this could be a watery, milky, a yellow or bloody discharge). Gently squeeze the nipples to check for discharge and observe the colour of the discharge.
Step 4: Lie down and feel your breasts using your right hand to feel your left breast and then your left hand to feel your right breast.
- Use a firm, smooth touch with the finger pads of your hand (ring finger, middle finger and index finger), keeping the fingers flat and together.
- Use circular motion (each motion measuring about the size of a coin) to palpate* the breasts.
- Cover the entire breast from top to bottom, side to side – from your collarbone to the top of your abdomen, and from your armpit to your cleavage.
- Follow a pattern (either horizontal – side to side or vertical – up and down) to be sure that you cover the whole breast.
- Squeeze the nipples and observe if there is any discharge.
Step 5: Repeat step 4 in standing and sitting position.
I am a 32 year old woman, I feel sharp shooting pain in the extreme right side of my right breast. It occurs whenever I get up. The pain is too sharp which is unbearable. I had diagnosed with a lump in my right armpit which I don't feel while touching. Doctor said it usually occurs due to waxing.
Dr. My friend have a lump in breast and my other classmates to and my friend is always worried about that. We went to Dr. he said it is ok in this age but he is depressed. Please advice what to do?
Oral cancer is the name given to cancer that develops in the tissues of the mouth or oral cavity. If you interact with a specialist, you will know that oral cancers belong to a larger group of cancers called head and neck cancers. And more importantly, oral cancers are one of the most preventable cancers. You may already be aware that cancers develop when cells begin to divide indiscriminately forming malignant tumors. In oral cancers, the dividing cells are the ‘squamous’ cells found in the lining of your mouth, tongue, and lips.
India is the oral cancer capital of the world and almost half of the total nber of oral cancers in the world happen in our country. Also, oral cancers have a high local failure rate and are therefore beat treated by surgery and radiotherapy in most cases.
An implausible fact about oral cancers is that these are most often discovered after they have spread to the lymph nodes of the neck- which means at the stages III and IV. All cancers including oral cancers become more difficult to cure at these later stages. This is why early detection is key to surviving oral cancer.
Types of oral cancers
- Oral cancers, to be precise, including cancers of the:
- Floor of the mouth
- Roof of the mouth, including hard and soft palate
Usually, it’s your dentist who is the first to notice the first signs of oral cancer.
Tobacco use is the biggest risk factor for oral cancer. Tobacco includes smoking cigarettes, cigars, hookahs, and pipes, as well as chewing tobacco. Alcohol is another big risk factor. So, if you are one of those heavy drinkers, be aware of the scourge of oral cancer and get yourself tested periodically to rule out this killer. The risk for oral cancer also increases exponentially when both alcohol and tobacco are used together.
Other important risk factors are:
- HPV infection i.e. human papillomavirus is a sexually transmitted virus that spreads through unprotected vaginal as well oral sex
- Chronic sun exposure on the face, especially the lips
- Family history of oral or other types of cancer
- Men are more susceptible to oral cancers
- Being older than 45
- Radiation exposure
- Having any other form of head and neck cancer
Symptoms of oral cancer
- Sore lip or mouth that is not healing
- Any growth inside your mouth
- Bleeding from the mouth, including jaws
- Loose teeth
- Difficulty or pain while swallowing
- Major trouble wearing dentures
- A lump in neck or cheek
- Chronic earache
- Serious weight loss
- Numbness in lower lip, face, neck, or chin
- Any colored patch in the mouth or lips
Diagnosis of oral cancer
- Diagnosis starts with a physical exam of your mouth. The physician will examine the roof and floor of your mouth, the back of your throat, tongue, and cheeks, and the lymph nodes in your neck.
- If your doctor finds any tumor, growth, or suspicious lesions in your mouth, she/he will perform a biopsy to collect cells from a tumor. This tissue is then examined for cancerous cells.
- Other tests include X-rays to see if cancer cells have spread to your jaw, chest, or lungs; a CT scan to check for and reveal any tumors in your mouth; PET scan to see whether the cancer has traveled to the lymph nodes or other organs like the lungs.
- An excess of sun exposure on your face and lips increases the risk of oral cancer so you can start reducing the danger of getting this cancer by using a lip balm or cream with SPF regularly.
- Another way to reduce risk is alcohol and tobacco cessation.
- Eating a balanced diet containing fruits and vegetables
- Removing your dentures at night and using them the next day only after cleaning them
- Visiting your dentist on a regular basis so that she/he can warn you about any alarming change in your mouth.
Oral cavity cancers are these days treated with Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IGRT with IMRT). In this form of radiation therapy, the dose of radiation is focused only to organs at risk with sparing of critical swallowing neural and speaking structures. It also saves important organs like salivary glands and eyes etc. This has a huge impact on quality of life outcomes of patients. At the very least it decreases immediate problems that occur during radiation therapy and leads to better long-term outcomes such as it decreases the risk of mouth and closure non - healing ulcers, etc.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I have enlarged prostate of 32 GM. Size, with 5 ml of post void residual and 6.2 PSA. The Dr. Has put me on Urimax 0.4 mg. Is it ok?
Skin cancer occurs when the DNA of the cells undergo mutations, thus causing unsystematic cell growth which evolve into a cancerous mass. This abnormality stems from the over-exposure of your skin to the Ultraviolet Radiations of the sun.
However, there are other factors too that escalate the risks of skin cancer.
- Fairer skin tone: Inadequate pigmentation or melanin content in the skin offers less protection against the harmful UV radiations. Having red or blond hair or light-colored eyes makes you more vulnerable to this condition.
- Sunburns: A history of sunburns can often be the root cause behind skin cancer.
- Excessive exposure to the sun: If you spend a considerable amount of time under the sun and especially if your skin is not protected by clothing or sunscreen, you tend to get a tan. A tan is the skin’s response to extreme UV radiations.
- Moles: Abnormally large moles, known as dysplastic nevi, are more likely to turn malignant. Watch out for any change in the texture of the moles, which is one of the most important symptoms of skin cancer.
- Family history: According to studies, genes are considered to be one of the causes behind skin cancer. Hence, a family history of this condition could spell trouble for one.
- Personal history: Having suffered from skin cancer previously in life could endanger one even more.
- Pre-cancerous skin injury: Skin lesions, also known as actinic keratosis, make you prone to developing pre-cancerous growths on the skin. These could appear as scaly rough patches, ranging from brown to pink in color. They usually crop up on the hands, head and faces of people who are comparatively of a fairer skin tone.
- A weak immune system: People having a poor immunity system, including the ones affected by HIV/AIDS or are on immunosuppressant drugs which follow any organ transplantation have greater risks of developing cancer.
- Exposure to radiation: Radiation therapy is an often used treatment method for treating various skin conditions such as acne and eczema. Having been exposed to radiations, one could be indisposed to this condition even more.
- Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain substances such as arsenic might increase your vulnerability manifold.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Hi, My baby who has benign tumor in left gluten and I want to know the reason behind the cause of this tumor. My husband has lipoma (benign) allover his body. Is it genetic disorder? Please advise. Await your response.
Skin cancer most often develops on skin that has faced sun exposure. At the same time, it can also affect skin areas that haven't been exposed to sun's rays. Do you know, skin cancer can be prevented by consuming some foods? Yes, and there are some out there:
1. Fatty fish - Including fatty fish in your diet can shield you against melanoma as they contain the beneficial nutrient Omega-3 fatty acids. In fact, these kinds of fatty acids are considered to be best for consumption as unlike saturated fats, they don't increase your risk for certain types of cancer. A study in the International Journal of Epidemiology reveals that individuals who consume a diet containing fish that is high in these healthy fats have low rates of this form of cancer.
2. Vegetables - This is another food option that is known to possess strong skin cancer-fighting properties. Dark leafy veggies like spinach, kale and broccoli can aid fighting against melanoma. A pigment found in tomatoes called lycopene has properties that guard you against cardiovascular diseases as well as cancers of all kinds. Similarly, the pigment carotenoids found in vegetables like carrots, sweet potatoes, etc are known to protect against sunburn.
3. Herbs - Including herbs in your diet can help in replenishing the minerals and vitamins that get depleted due to the action of the sun. According to experts, about 80% of your body's vitamin levels see a reduction when you stay under the sun for 30-45 minutes. Basil, parsley, and rosemary are a few of the herbs that possess cancer-fighting qualities.
4. Flaxseeds - The unique qualities of flaxseed make it the best option against skin cancer. It contains both antioxidants and omega 3 fatty acids, making it an all-around solution to fighting skin cancer.
Related Tip: Colon cancer - You shouldn't ignore these warning signs!