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There are many structures in the lumbar spine that can cause pain. Any kind of trouble to the nerves and veins that goes through the spine, joint issues, the disks themselves, the bones and the muscles - would all be able to act as a cause behind the pain.
Numerous lumbar spine conditions are interrelated. For instance, an unstable joint can lead to disk degeneration, which can put weight on the nerve roots and cause the disk to collapse at times. The following are the main reasons behind the lumbar disk pain:
- Problems in the muscles: The biggest reason behind lumbar disk pain is muscle strain or other muscle issues. Strain because of truly difficult work, twisting, or different activities that can put pressure on your spine like heavy lifting, cause the disk to rupture or slip at times.
- Disk degeneration: Intervertebral disks are pads that are spongy and act as shock absorbers. This can cause pain in your disk. This condition can be referred to with many names, however, is famously known as degenerative disk disease.
- Lumbar Disk Herniation: Herniated disks are most common reasons behind the lumbar disk pain. A herniated disk may be caused all of a sudden because of damage to the spine or truly difficult work or happen gradually as a form of general wear and tear in the spine. Leg pain (sciatica) is the most widely recognized symptom of a herniated disk.
- Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction: The sacroiliac joint, which attaches to the base of the lumbar spine and the tip of the tailbone, can cause lumbar disk pain or even sciatic pain if there is any kind of fracture in the joint that allows for movement or rather, limits any particular movement.
- Spondylolisthesis: Spondylolisthesis happens when one vertebra slips behind the other or underneath it. The slip most normally happens in the lower lumbar vertebrae (e.g. L4 –L5 or L5 – S1). In case that the slipped vertebra presses the nerve root at that point, it can bring about shooting leg pain and gradually foot pain as well.
There are certain ways in which this problem can be treated to a certain extent. These methods are as follows:
- Common medications: Muscle relaxants. This solution works as an anti-depressant of the nervous system and expands as well as relaxes the tense muscles, easing pain from muscle stiffness or fits
- Back supports: A few patients find that a back support can be used to bring comfort and gradually diminish the pain. There is some proof that using a brace every day, can speed up the healing process and lessen the pain. A back support may likewise be useful after back surgery.
- Back Braces: Epidural steroid infusion. This infusion includes a steroid inserted specifically into the external piece of the dural sac, which surrounds the spinal chord. An x-ray, called fluoroscopy, is utilized to control the needle in the right area. The objective of the infusion is to soothe the pain by decreasing irritation around a compressed nerve root.
A Jet Airways aircraft Boeing 737, travelling from Mumbai to Jaipur with 166 passengers on board, had to return to the airport as the crew forgot to turn on the cabin pressurisation system which maintains air pressure inside an aircraft to a comfortable level.
The mistake led to several passengers suffering from nosebleed, bleeding from ear and severe headache. Some of the passengers were even admitted to the hospital with these complaints.
What does Air Pressure mean?
Air pressure, also known as Barometric pressure or atmospheric pressure, is the weight of the atmosphere pressing down on earth. It is measured by a barometer in units called millibars. The standard or average atmospheric pressure at sea level on the earth is 1013.25 millibars per square inch, which is about 14.7 pounds.
What are the causes of Air Pressure?
Air pressure is caused due to air molecules present in the atmosphere. The higher the altitude, the lower is the air pressure, which makes it tough for humans to survive without proper equipment.
The aircrafts use cabin pressure by pumping in ‘bleed air’ to maintain barometric pressure. This pressurisation becomes highly necessary when the aircraft touches altitude above 10,000 feet (3,000 meters) from sea level.
What health issues do low Air Pressure cause?
Low air pressure can cause mild as well as death threatening conditions which include:
Blood pressure: As the air pressure reduces, the blood pressure also starts falling. It can be observed if you are feeling dizziness or a blurred vision.
Severe headache: Change in barometric pressure can lead to severe headache or migraines by creating a pressure difference between the atmosphere and air-filled sinuses.
Joint pain: As per a study, the change in barometric pressure increases the severity of joint pain and arthritis.
Blood sugar: Change in air pressure bring cold fronts , which is not good for a diabetic person.
Hypoxia: The lower oxygen pressure reduces the oxygen tension in the lungs, subsequently in the brain. This can lead to dimmed vision, sluggish thinking, loss of consciousness and eventually death.
Altitude sickness: In the most common response to hypoxia, the human body starts hyperventilation. It does help in partially restoring oxygen in the blood but it also leads to carbon dioxide to out-gas which increases the blood pH level. In this condition, people may suffer fatigue, nausea, headache, sleeplessness and even pulmonary oedema.
Decompression sickness: It leads to tiredness, forgetfulness, headache, stroke, thrombosis and subcutaneous itching.
Barotrauma: As the aircraft climbs or descends, passengers may face discomfort or acute pain as gases trapped inside their bodies try to expand. The most common problems faced due to this situation include air trapped in the middle ear or paranasal sinuses by a blocked Eustachian tube. It can also cause pain in gastrointestinal tract or even the teeth.
What emergency steps should be taken in situation of low air pressure?
The effects of low air pressure may vary from person to person. Some people do not feel any health problems even while being at an altitude as high as 8,000 feet while some would start feeling restless from 5,000 feet onwards.
There may be many precautions including carrying an oxygen cylinder always while travelling to the high altitude places. In aircrafts, oxygen masks are provided to each passenger but if you are planning to go on a trek, you must know some important aspects of surviving at high altitude places. Have a look:
- Avoid smoking and alcohol consumption
- Avoid switching on the heater
- Take proper sleep at night with a pillow under your head
- Keep yourself hydrated and do not over-hydrate
- Do not overeat
- Never exert yourself
Emergency tips to keep yourself safe at high altitude places:
- Ginger or ginger water
- Lavender oil
These things can help you keep your mind and body fit even at the reasonably high altitude places.
Retrograde ejaculation is a disorder of the male reproductive system. It is the entry of semen into the urinary bladder. In this case, the sperm fails to emerge through the penis at the time of ejaculation. It is to be noted that the male patient may continue to reach sexual climax, though. He may not ejaculate or very little semen. It is medically termed as a dry orgasm. It is a major cause of male infertility. This is a rare problem. Only 0.3 to 2% of the infertility problems due to male are caused by this disorder.
There are certain risk factors attached to this disorder. This may occur due to the following reasons:
- Nerve damage caused due to Diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis
- Bladder or Prostate Surgery
- Side effects of certain drugs taken for high blood pressure or mood disorder
- Spinal cord injuries
- Symptoms: The obvious symptoms of this disorder are listed below:
- Little or no semen discharged during ejaculation
- Male infertility
- Cloudy urine post sexual climax
Signs and tests: This can be detected through urine analysis. The test is conducted on the urine collected shortly after ejaculation. It will reveal the presence of a large amount of sperm in it.
Complications: It is not a fatal condition. But it will lead to unwanted complications in your life. You will have to face the stress and strain of being infertile. It will hamper your conjugal relationship and sex life to a great extent.
Deal with retrograde ejaculation by homoeopathy: A homoeopathic practitioner will take a detailed report of your lifestyle first. It may include information about your habits, lifestyle, food choices, other preferences, etc. It helps the doctor to understand your basic constitution of the body. Thereafter, the right homoeopathic medicine stimulates the body and starts taking action against the disorder. The first course of action of the medicine is the primary action. After this, the body produces a secondary action, specifically against the disease. Homoeopathy provides a total treatment of this problem and the results are long-lasting.
It treats all the factors causing the disease and also lessens the risk factors. Acute drugs are prescribed to treat symptoms like abnormal semen discharge. Constitutional treatment offers relief from distressful symptoms like a dry orgasm. Regular homoeopathic treatment aims to correct the abnormality of the sympathetic nervous system that controls the process of ejaculation.
The bladder is a muscular sac that is seated just above the pubic bone. The organ stores urine produced by the kidneys allows us the control the frequency of urination by the expansion and contraction of its muscles.
Pain in the bladder is usually caused due to one of three reasons:
- Interstitial cystitis: This is a chronic condition which affects more women than men. It makes the bladder inflamed and irritated. The bladder walls turn stiff because of this which makes it difficult for the bladder to expand. Interstitial cystitis may be caused by a defect in the lining of the bladder.
- Urinary tract infection: Urinary tract infections can affect a person at any age and may develop in the ureter, urethra, bladder or kidneys. However, it is most commonly seen in the bladder. This infection is caused by bacteria that enter the body through the urinary tract.
- Bladder cancer: Cancer that develops in the bladder is known as bladder cancer. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer cell. This begins in the innermost layer of the bladder lining. Pain during urination and discomfort in the lower pelvic region are common symptoms of this disease. Once the cause is diagnosed, antibiotic medication can help treat bladder pain.
Along with that, there are a few things you could do at home as well-
- Drink plenty of fluids: Ideally, we should drink 8-10 glasses of water a day. Water keeps the body hydrated and helps flush toxins from the body. It also helps dilute the urine. This can make urination less painful as concentrated urine may be acidic and difficult to pass. Water also helps prevent the formation of kidney stones and thus helps the kidneys function optimally.
- Urinate frequently: Do not try to control your urine. Holding urine in for extended periods of time allows bacteria to multiply within the body. It is also important to urinate after intercourse as sexual activities can push the bacteria present on the skin deeper into your body. This is important for both men and women.
- Dress comfortably: Avoid synthetic, tight fitting underwear and clothes. Instead wear, loose, comfortable clothes that are preferably made out of cotton. These clothes will help keep your skin dry and not allow bacteria to breed.
- Pain relievers and heating pads: Sometimes, antibiotics can take a day or two before addressing bladder pain. In such cases, pain relievers can help deal with the discomfort and cramps. Heating pads can also help soothe abdominal and lower back pain that results from bladder infections.
- Diet: It is recommended that alcohol tomatoes chocolates caffeinated beverages may contribute to bladder irritation and inflammation BB.
- Smoking: Smoking makes the bladder symptoms worse therefore should be avoided.
- Certain stretching exercises: This also help to relieve PBS symptoms Drug therapy also used for this but takes around 6 months to relieve symptoms.
Dilation and curettage is a surgical procedure where the cervix (the lower part of uterus) is dilated and tissues are removed from the inside of the uterus. The procedure is usually done to treat heavy menstrual bleeding or clean the lining of the uterus after an abortion or miscarriage.
During the procedure, the cervix is dilated with medication and a thin surgical instrument is inserted through the vagina. This instrument is then used to scrape (curettage) the uterine tissues.
Reasons for Conducting the Procedure
Dilation and curettage is mostly done to either treat or diagnose certain uterine disorders. Dilation and curettage is recommended if your doctor needs to diagnose conditions such as:
1. Irregular uterine bleeding
2. Postmenopausal bleeding
3. Discovery of unnatural endometrial cells while conducting a common test for cervical cancer
Sometimes, the doctor can take a sample tissue from the uterus and perform tests on it to check for the following conditions:
1. Uterine cancer
2. Uterine polyps (abnormal tissue growth)
3. Endometrial hyperplasia (precancerous thickening of the uterine lining)
Dilation and curettage, when used for therapeutic purposes, is used in the treatment of the following conditions:
1. To clear away molar pregnancy; which is characterized by formation of tumours.
2. To treat heavy bleeding after childbirth; any remaining placenta in the uterus is removed.
3. To remove benign uterine or cervical polyps.
4. To clear away fibroids (benign tumours which form on the uterine wall)
5. To remove any tissue that could have been left behind after an abortion or miscarriage to prevent heavy bleeding or infection
What needs to be considered before opting for it?
The procedure of dilation and curettage is mostly safe. Complications from this procedure are rare, but some factors should always be taken care off.
1. The surgical instrument can perforate or poke a hole in the uterus. Sometimes, perforations can heal on their own; but if any organ or blood vessel gets damaged, then another surgery will be required.
2. The cervix can be damaged during the procedure. The doctor can stitch the wound close, or apply pressure on the wound to stop the bleeding.
3. Sometimes, there might be scar tissues on the wall of the uterus. This can cause irregular, painful or absent menstrual cycles, augment risks of infertility and future miscarriages.
A biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch is a less common kind of weight-loss procedure. The procedure is conducted in two steps. The first step involves sleeve gastrectomy, where about 80 percent of the stomach gets removed, hence leaving behind a small stomach, in the shape of a tube. Though the valve, which releases food to the small intestine remains intact along with a small portion of the small intestine that normally stays connected to the stomach. The second step ensures that the major part of the intestine gets bypassed through connecting the end portion of the intestine to the duodenum close to the stomach. A Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD) puts a limit on how much one can eat and thus reduces the nutrients from getting absorbed, which includes fats and proteins.
BPD is usually conducted as a single procedure but in some selective situations, the procedure might get performed as two separate operations, sleeve gastrectomy and that is followed by intestinal bypass once the process of losing weight has begun.
Why the surgery is conducted?
A Duodenal Switch with Biliopancreatic Diversion is done in order to assist a person in losing excess weight and thus reduce the risk of developing potential life-threatening health problems related to health, which includes:
- High blood pressure
- Heart disease
- High level of cholesterol
- Severe kind of sleep apnea
- Type 2 Diabetes
Eligible candidates for the surgery
- This surgery is mostly done only when people have tried to lose weight by making improvements in their diet and exercise habits.
- Still, this surgery is not for every individual who is overweight. People would have to go through an extensive process of screening to determine if they qualify.
- Patients, who become eligible, have to be willing to make permanent changes so as to lead a healthy lifestyle both before as well as after the surgery.
- This might include long-term plans where they follow-up by monitoring if they are maintaining their nutrition, lifestyle, behaviour and also their medical conditions.
Risks associated with the surgery
This particular surgery, as with any other surgery, carries some potential risks. They are both in the short-term and in the long-term.
Risks associated with BPD/DS are similar to any abdominal surgery and include:
- Excess amount of bleeding
- Adverse reactions to anesthesia
- Blood clots
- Shortness of breath due to breathing problems
- Leaks might arise in the gastrointestinal system.
- Long-term risks and complications from this surgery might include:
- Obstruction in the bowel movements
- Dummping syndrome leading to diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting tendencies.
- Gallbladder stones
- Hernias might arise
- Blood sugar level might come down
- People might even suffer from malnutrition
- There could be perforation in the stomach
If there is blood in your urine, it is a sign of renal illness. While this could be happening because of various reasons, it is advisable to see your doctor soon.
Following are the causes of blood in your urine:
- An enlarged prostate - An enlarged prostate is a common cause of the appearance of blood in the urine in men who are in their middle ages or older. Enlargement of the prostate gland causes the urethra to be compressed. This prevents the urethra from getting fully emptied while urination.
- Cancer - A cancerous kidney, bladder or prostate gland can also cause blood to appear in the urine. It is another major cause of hematuria but usually occurs in older patients.
- Infection - Infections like urethritis, pyelonephritis, cystitis or infection in any other body organ along the urinary tract is one of the most common causes of hematuria. Such bacterial infection in the urethra can also infect the kidneys and the urinary bladder. It results in the urge to urinate frequently and also causes blood to appear in the urine.
- Kidney stones and bladder stones - Another reason that can cause blood to appear in the urine is the presence of stones in the kidney or bladder. These stones are crystallized minerals that are formed in the kidney or the bladder but fail to pass through the urinary tract. They cause blockage and pain and result in hematuria.
- Polycystic kidney disease - PKD is a kidney disorder in which cysts filled with fluid form in the kidneys and impair the kidneys, causing them to fail entirely at times. It is an inherited disease and causes blood to appear in the urine.In children who are between 6-10 years of age, kidney disorder after streptococcal glomerulonephritis can be a possible cause of hematuria.
PMS is often treated as a joke but for many women, it is a monthly nightmare. Muscle cramps, headaches, bloating, breast tenderness, anxiety and depression are common symptoms of PMS. Though there is no set cure for PMS here are a few tips that will help you deal with it.
Set yourself an exercise routine
Exercising not only helps you maintain weight but also helps dealing with PMS. All you need are 30 minutes a day set aside to go for a brisk walk, jog, swim or even dance. Aerobic exercises like this improve blood circulation, ease stress and help the brain release more happy hormones.
Change your diet
If you are feeling bloated and depressed, cut back on simple carbohydrates like sugar and fat and increase your consumption of complex carbohydrates like fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Do not attempt a low carb diet to lose weight if you suffer from PMS. Reducing the simple carbohydrates in the body and increasing the complex carbohydrates keeps you body feeling full for longer and increases the serotonin levels in the body.
Quit alcohol and caffeine
Drinking a glass of wine of a cup of coffee may give you temporary relief from PMS symptoms but in the long run they aggravate your PMS symptoms such as headaches, breast tenderness and mood swings. Alcohol may also contribute towards lowering the magnesium levels in your body and thereby make you feel bloated.
One of the effects of PMs is to make you feel anxious and tense. The easiest way to address this is by learning to relax. Try meditation or yoga for half an hour every morning. This will improve your overall health as well as soothe muscle pains.
Take a few supplements
Research says that certain fatty acids like omega 3 and linoleic acid can lower irritability and body aches associated with PMS. Calcium is also known to help ease PMS symptoms. Getting these nutrients in the required levels may not be possible only through your daily meals. Hence, you can also consider supplements to ease your pains.
Birth control pills with the drospirenone hormone can help ease symptoms of severe PMS. Menstruation is often accompanied by a drop in estrogen levels that can lead to migraines. Regular of birth control pills also regulates your hormones and hence avoids these fluctuations. It also keeps your ovaries from releasing eggs every month and hence reduces the intensity of the associated cramps.
Talk to people
You are not alone when it comes to PMS. Instead of keeping quiet about your discomfort, talk to people who may be experiencing something similar. Sharing your problems will introduce you to new ways of dealing with it. You could also get online support though various discussion groups.
The first and the most important thing to be cleared is what exactly insulin is. Now we all are well accustomed with the fact that we get the energy to do what we do by eating the food we eat. So how exactly is all this energy generated? That is exactly what is going to be explained in the briefest way possible.
Most carbohydrates contain a type of sugar known as glucose. After we finish eating, the carbohydrates break down into smaller sugar molecules called glucose inside the digestive tract. Pancreas is a gland, which is located somewhere behind the stomach and is the source of all the endocrine functioning. This gland produces a hormone named Insulin. When the glucose molecules are released into our bloodstream, this insulin helps the cells throughout our body to soak up these simple sugar molecules and use them for providing the body with energy. Now that our base is clear, let’s move on to the importance of insulin in our body.
Insulin helps our body to absorb glucose and provides the body with all the energy to do what it does. Another really important task that insulin does is balance the glucose levels in our blood. As soon as there is extra glucose in our blood-stream, insulin gives a signal in which the excess glucose is stored in the liver for future use, i.e, in situations when blood sugar drops and the body needs an extra energy boost.
Occurrence of diabetes
In a certain turn of events, when the body refuses to use the insulin properly or in worse cases, the body fails to produce enough insulin, diabetes mellitus occurs. Diabetes can be of two kinds:
Type 1 - In this case, the immune system destroys all the insulin producing cells, thereby, ceasing the production of insulin. As such, insulin injections are mandatory to maintain blood sugar levels.
Type 2 - In this case, the body does not respond well to the instructions of insulin and the sugar level in the body is not regulated. The body in turn produces a lot of insulin in a desperate attempt to improve blood sugar levels. The patients can turn the situation over by changing their food habits and lifestyle and taking certain medications.
For people taking insulin treatment, it is good to note that insulin can be of rapid acting type, short-acting type, long-acting type and intermediate-acting type.