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Diabetes is a disorder that is characterized by an inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin or effectively utilize the insulin produced by the body. Insulin is the hormone that is produced by the pancreas to metabolize sugar in the body, the sugar that is present in the food that you consume.
Diabetes is commonly classified into two types: Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
In Type 1 diabetes, the cells in the pancreas do not produce insulin in the required amounts; this disorder usually tends to occur in children. Type 2 diabetes generally occurs in people who are above 40 years of age; this type is characterized by an inability of the body to efficiently utilize the insulin produced by the pancreas.
How can diabetes affect your kidneys?
Too much glucose, also called sugar, in your blood from diabetes damages your kidneys’ filters. If the filters are damaged, a protein called albumin, which you need to stay healthy, leaks out of your blood and into your urine. Damaged kidneys do not do a good job of filtering wastes and extra fluid from your blood. The wastes and extra fluid build up in your blood and make you sick.
Diabetes is a leading cause of kidney disease. Diabetic kidney disease is the medical term for kidney disease caused by diabetes. Diabetic kidney disease affects both kidneys at the same time.
Signs of Kidney Disease in Patients with Diabetes
- Albumin/protein in the urine
- High blood pressure
- Ankle and leg swelling, leg cramps
- Going to the bathroom more often at night
- High levels of BUN and creatinine in blood
- Less need for insulin or antidiabetic medications
- Morning sickness, nausea and vomiting
- Weakness, paleness and anemia
What are the possible complications?
- End-stage kidney failure: If this occurs then you would need kidney dialysis or a kidney transplant.
- Cardiovascular diseases: Diabetics have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease, stroke and peripheral arterial disease. If you have diabetes and diabetic kidney disease, your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is increased further.
- High blood pressure: Kidney disease has a tendency to increase blood pressure. In addition, increased blood pressure has a tendency to make kidney disease worse. Treatment of high blood pressure is one of the main treatments of diabetic kidney disease.
What to do?
- It is essential to get your urine checked at least once every year to detect signs of kidney damage.
- Some other symptoms that you may experience are swelling in the ankles, weight gain and a rise in your blood pressure.
- The first step to treat kidney damage caused by diabetes is to get your blood sugar levels under control.
- You should also avoid consuming medications that can cause damage to the kidneys.
- A kidney transplant or dialysis may be advised if the damage to kidneys is significant. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a nephrologist.
- Kidney disease can affect children in various ways, ranging from treatable disorders without long-term consequences to life-threatening conditions.
- Acute kidney disease develops suddenly, lasts a short time, and can be serious with long-lasting consequences, or may go away completely once the underlying cause has been treated.
- Chronic kidney disease (CKD) does not go away with treatment and tends to get worse over time.
Kidney disease in children can be caused by
- birth defects
- hereditary diseases
- nephrotic syndrome
- systemic diseases
- urine blockage or reflux
A health care provider diagnoses kidney disease in children by completing a physical exam, asking for a medical history, and reviewing signs and symptoms. To confirm diagnosis, the health care provider may order one or more of the following tests:
- urine tests
- blood test
- imaging studies
- kidney biopsy
Treatment for kidney disease in children depends on the cause of the illness.
- Children with a kidney disease that is causing high blood pressure may need to take medications to lower their blood pressure. Improving blood pressure can significantly slow the progression of kidney disease. As kidney function declines, children may need treatment for anemia and growth failure.
- Children with kidney disease that leads to kidney failure must receive treatment to replace the work the kidneys do. The two types of treatment are dialysis and transplantation.
- For children with CKD, learning about nutrition is vital because their diet can affect how well their kidneys work. Parents or guardians should always consult with their child’s health care team before making any dietary changes.
What are the Symptoms Associated with Pediatric Kidney Disease?
Kidney disease often goes undetected in the general population, but children and adolescents are at an even greater risk due to the nature of the causes of the diseases and the ambiguity of the symptoms.
Children might not be aware of some of the changes that are impacting their body and will not always let their parents know of potential issues.
Common symptoms for children are:
- Swelling (even mild) of the hands and feet and/or puffiness around the eyes caused by excess fluid build-up, to the point where the child’s ability to move around normally is compromised
- After initial swelling, socks or a belt can leave an indentation in the skin that will persist
- Lack of or decrease in appetite.
- In children with ESRD it is especially important to keep their appetite up because transplant eligibility is based partially on growth.
- Decreased or increased frequency of urination. Children who can normally use the toilet without assistance may suddenly begin to wet the bed at night
- Long-lasting changes in the color of the urine such as unusually dark or red, which can indicate blood, and changes in appearance of urine such as extra foam that can indicate protein
- Headaches resulting from high blood pressure
- Flu-like Symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite
- Stunted or poor growth as compared to similar age group peers
- Difficulty concentrating and poor school performance
Another potential indicator of pediatric kidney disease is family history of kidney disease. Genetic related disease is much more common in children than in adults. If there is family history, it is a good idea to get a check-up.
In parents that are pregnant with a child with polycystic kidney disease a common symptom is decreased amniotic fluid.
Looking at the list of common symptoms it is easy to see how CKD can go undiagnosed. As a parent or caregiver, it is important to have conversations with your children to understand the severity and duration of the symptoms and follow up with pediatric nephrologist.
Hello Actually from yesterday I feel ball like below left side near kidney. Some times I feel tight at the same place .I also feel vomiting continues, and more I Wake up early morning. I feel slide pain in my lower abdomen sometimes. Is the pain gradual or sudden? Gradual Any nausea or vomiting? No Any recent weight loss? No Any loss of appetite: No Any bloating of stomach: Yes.
I was tested for moderate escherichia coli few months ago, I was given ceftriaxone which I took for two days and some antibiotics. Sometimes I notice some vibrations in my groin and some frequent urination. What kind of antibiotic can I take to clear the infection if some r still there?
After marriage I am getting very frequently t uti and its very severe also, as when I go to doctor they are doing urine culture telling its uti, so can you tell why its happening.
I want to know that does drinking beer helps to remove a kidney stone and ureter stone. I have a kidney stone of 6 mm. I have never taken beer but someone said it helps to remove a stone or will I get habitual to it. Please help.
I have been fatigue since few months back and I urinate as soon as I consume any liquid. I can't rest well in my sleep too, and I get tired easily when I work unlike in the past where I'm energetic, my mother is a diabetic patient am I also suffering from diabetics?
When I do urine everything is normal but when I finished doing afterwards drops of urine still comes like leakage.
My friend has a stone in kidney she is 20 years girl she getting unconscious in college at abdomen part hard pain was there she is in a danger suggest a medicine and home remedies to dissolve stone or to bring out stone through urine is there any medicine some of doctors saying that it should be cleared only by operation.
I want to ask ayurvedic doctor. Whether kidney stone of size 1.2 cm can be expelled out by "nerunji mull" juice? I want to avoid operation.
Hello sir. My mom is suffering from chronic kidney stones- calcium oxalate. From 68 + years. She is very weak n very thin now. Can we give her nutrilite (amway) calcium supplements and also protein powder?
I am 59 years old, I have suffered a sharp urgency in urination without any other symptoms that could relates to the phenomena, even urine color is normal. I can not afford reach home if I am outside, urination involuntarily will start and end before put off my clothes. Please help.
I am suffering from post void dribbling and little but slow urine speed. Otherwise I don't have any other problems. Is it caused by masturbations?
Hello doctor I have a question for my wife. She is feeling toilet frequently more than normal. Is this a sign of pregnancy or some kind of urinal infection. Thanks.
Please suggest that surgery is the only way to deal with kidney stones of size 12 mm, OR is there any other technique to diagnose it.
Many persons report to doctors complaining about weakness, backache, loss of energy and other vague symptoms attributing these all to the loss of calcium and sometime semen with urine. How do they get to this conclusion? They may have noticed ‘white discharge (particularly in morning sample) in urine, they leak few drops of white discharge while talking to women (talking over phone included) or thinking about them, their neighborhood ‘test wala’ (lab technician) report their urine containing a few calcium carbonate crystals (anyways its almost always same test wala or ‘medical wala’ (medical store owner) who orders their urinalysis in first instance), they suffer (as per them) from frequent night emissions associated with wet dreams or without wet dreams and so on (list is exhaustive).
This is precipitated and perpetuated by commonly held belief about extreme preciousness of semen in sub-continental cultures including ours. This is based on an old hindu belief that it takes forty drops of blood to create a drop of bone marrow and forty drops of bone marrow to create a drop of sperm (wikipedia). These persons usually spend good amount of resources for treatment of ‘calcium or semen loss’ without much success.
This is actually a neuro-asthenic syndrome first described by professor (dr) narendra wig as ‘dhat syndrome’.
Females also suffer from an equivalent syndrome characterized by excessive vaginal discharge or leucorrhea, which is again considered a" precicious fluid.
Reassurance and proper education is the mainstay of treatment. Many times counseling, anti-anxiety and anti-depressant medications are needed.