Treatment of Lumpectomy
Minor Ot Service Procedures
Prostate Laser Surgery
Treatment Of Deep Vein Thrombosis - Dvt
Kidney Stones Treatment
Accident Injuries Treatment
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Procedure
Stitching Of Wounds Procedure
Dressings Of Wounds Procedure
Vascular Trauma Treatment
Arterial Thrombosis Treatment
Vascular Surgery Treatment
Corn Removal Procedure
Removal Of Stitches Procedure
Submit a review for Arpan Nursing HomeYour feedback matters!
Diagnosis of tuberculosis is based on a combination of clinical features, smear examination of sputum where available, tuberculin skin testing or Mantoux test, chest X-ray and Histopathologic / cytologic examination as appropriate. Common clinical features are weight loss, persistent fever and /or cough of more than 2 weeks duration and history of close contact with another Tuberculosis patient.
Mantoux test also known as Tuberculin skin test is used for the detection of infection by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis bacteria. The test consists of slowly injecting a liquid intradermally (superficially within the layers of the skin) on the forearm, leading to formation of a raised vesicle which should be easily visible to the naked eye. This liquid, used in India, is Tuberculin PPD RT 23 strain. Tuberculin is a glycerol extract of the Tuberculosis bacteria. This is one of the two WHO accepted standard tuberculins, apart from PPD-S. In India, where the prevalence of tuberculosis is high, the recommended dose of this liquid is 0.1 ml of 1 TU (TU stands for tuberculin units) .1 TU is the strength of the liquid mentioned on the vial. This liquid is usually administered by a very tiny syringe, usually of 26 gauge. (Needle diameter).
Please click on the link to watch a video demonstrating how this procedure is performed.
Test principle : The individual who has been infected with Tubercle bacilli responds with a hypersensitivity reaction at the test site in the form of induration. Induration is the palpable raised hardening of the skin, while erythema refers to redness of skin. Only induration is clinically significant and measured after 48 to 72hours following injection. Diameter of the Induration is measured by a scale in millimetres perpendicular to the long axis of the forearm.
Interpretation of the tuberculin test
- Size of induration 15 mm and above : - signifies infection with tubercle bacilli
- Size of induration 10-14 mm : - could be due to infection with tubercle bacilli, BCG induced sensitivity, or due to cross reaction with other environmental mycobacteria.
It is more likely to be attributable to infection with tubercle bacilli in case of history of contact with smear positive case of pulmonary TB, clinically confirmed TB OR X-ray consistent with active TB.
- Size of induration 5 -9 mm: usually non tuberculous in nature generally
- Size of induration <5 mm : indicates absence of any type of mycobacterial infection.
Precautions during this procedure :
- If a raised vesicle does not appear it means that the liquid has been injected too deeply, and the test should be repeated on the other arm. If the same arm is used the injection site should be should be separated at least 5 cm from the first injection site.
- Occasional patients may experience severe allergic reaction to the tuberculin PPD
- Larger the size of the induration, higher the probability of presence of infection with tubercle bacilli.
- Almost all reactions with induration more than 15 mm maybe considered attributable to infection with tubercle bacilli.
- Formation of necrosis (ulcer) at the test site, indicates high degree of tuberculin sensitivity and suggests presence of infection with tubercle bacteria.
- Tuberculin reaction may be suppressed (falsely low) in presence of immunosuppressive states. Like HIV, malnutrition, patient on steroid therapy etc.
- Mantoux test is generally not recommended for infants less than 12 weeks old. If the test turns out to be positive, then it is significant, but if the test is negative, then the test needs to be repeated again.
- The tuberculin test detects only the presence or absence of tuberculosis infection. The presence of infection is not synonymous with disease. It simply means, that even if you have tuberculosis infection in your body, as detected by positive Mantoux test, it does not mean you have active Tuberculosis in your body and require anti tuberculosis drugs in all cases. The clinician will correlate your mantoux test result with other tests ( as mentioned at the top of the blog) to give you a final picture.
- For more such interesting articles please visit my blogsite www.doctors4patients.com
एक समय था जब झुर्रियों को बुढ़ापे की निशानी माना जाता था। लेकिन, आजकल, यह आश्चर्यजनक नहीं होगा कि आप केवल 25 वर्ष के हों, तो भी यह दिखना शुरू कर दें। व्यस्त जीवनशैली, तनाव, नींद की कमी और अनुचित आहार अक्सर त्वचा का नुकसान होने के कारण होता है।
झुर्रियां पतली, सगनी त्वचा के कारण होती हैं। वे विशेष रूप से चेहरे, गर्दन, हाथों की पीछे, और अग्र-भुजाओं के शीर्ष पर दिखाई देते हैं। झुर्रियां तब होती हैं जब त्वचा के संयोजी ऊतक में कोलेजन और इलास्टिन कमजोर हो जाते हैं और टूट जाते हैं। समय से पहले या अधिक झुर्रियां अन्य कारकों जैसे सूरज की रोशनी या कठोर वातावरण, धूम्रपान, कुछ दवाओं के उपयोग, अत्यधिक तनाव, अचानक वजन घटाने, विटामिन ई की हानि, गतिहीन जीवन शैली और आनुवंशिक पूर्ववृत्ति के कारण भी हो सकती हैं।
झुर्रियों से बचाव के घरेलू उपाय
यदि आपने हाल ही में अपने चेहरे पर महीन रेखाओं पर गौर किया है या लंबे समय से उन्हें छुटकारा पाने के लिए संघर्ष कर रहे हैं, तो यहां कुछ अद्भुत घरेलू उपाय हैं जो झुर्रियों को बहुत प्रभावी ढंग से हटा सकते हैं।
1. जैतून का तेल:
जैतून का तेल आपकी त्वचा के लिए एक अद्भुत मालिश तेल है। यह एंटीऑक्सिडेंट जैसे विटामिन ए और ई, का एक अच्छा स्रोत है, जो त्वचा के लिए हानिकारक मुक्त कणों से लड़ते हैं। नियमित रूप से प्रभावित त्वचा क्षेत्र पर जैतून का तेल मालिश करना त्वचा की कोशिकाओं को मॉइस्चराइज, मरम्मत और पुनर्जीवित करेगा।
आप 1 बड़े चमच जैतून के तेल में 1/2 चम्मच कालनजी तेल को भी जोड़ सकते हैं, इसे अधिक शक्तिशाली बनाने के लिए।
मेथी के पत्ते विटामिन और खनिजों में बहुत समृद्ध हैं जो आसानी से शरीर द्वारा अवशोषित होते हैं और झुर्रियाँ और अन्य त्वचा की समस्याओं का इलाज करते हैं। ताजी मेथी के पत्तों को पीस लें, एक पेस्ट बनाने के लिए। अपने चेहरे पर पेस्ट को लागू करें और इसे रात भर छोड़ दें। सुबह इसे गुनगुने पानी से धो लें।
आप मेथी के बीज के साथ उबला हुए पानी से भी अपना चेहरा धो सकते हैं या अपनी झुर्रियों और महीन रेखाओं पर मेथी तेल लगा सकते हैं।
यह इलास्टिन के टूटने को रोकने में मदद करता है, झुर्रियां और महीन रेखाओं के मुख्य कारणों में से एक है। अदरक एंटीऑक्सिडेंट्स में समृद्ध है, इस प्रकार भी झुर्रियों को रोकने में मदद करता है। शहद की एक चम्मच के साथ कसा हुआ अदरक मिलाएं और हर सुबह इस मिश्रण को खाएं। आप अदरक और शहद वाली चाय भी पी सकते हैं।
एलोवेरा विटामिन ई का एक समृद्ध स्रोत है, जो त्वचा के लिए एक बूस्टर है। एलोवेरा एंटीऑक्सिडेंट और शोथ रोधक यौगिकों के साथ सुस्त त्वचा को भी स्वस्थ कर देता है। 1 बड़ा चमचा एलोवेरा जेल और 1 अंडे के सफेद हिस्से का उपयोग करके पेस्ट बनाएँ और इससे अपने चेहरे पर मालिश करें। इसे आधे घंटे के लिए छोड़ दें और फिर धो लें।
केले विटामिन, खनिज और एंटीऑक्सिडेंट्स में समृद्ध हैं जो झुर्रियों और महीन रेखाओं के कारणों से मुकाबला करते हैं। एक गाढ़ा पेस्ट बनाने के लिए दो केलों को कुचल दें। झुर्रीदार क्षेत्रों पर पेस्ट को लागू करें। इसे कम से कम आधे घंटे के लिए छोड़ दें और फिर इसे गुनगुने पानी से धो लें।
बादाम में विटामिन ई होता है जो त्वचा की प्राकृतिक लोच को लौटाता है। बादाम फाइबर, लोहा, जस्ता, कैल्शियम, फोलिक एसिड, और ओलिक एसिड का भी एक उत्कृष्ट स्रोत है, जो संयुक्त रूप से बुढ़ापे की प्रक्रिया में देरी कर सकते हैं और झुर्रियों का इलाज कर सकते हैं।
रात भर के लिये कच्चे दूध में कुछ बादाम सोखें। सुबह, उन्हें छील लें और पीसकर गाढ़ा पेस्ट बनायें। इसे चेहरे पर लागू करें, 15 मिनट तक सूखा दें और फिर पानी से धो लें।
अनानास में एंजाइम होते हैं जो त्वचा लोच को बढ़ावा देते हैं, त्वचा को मॉइस्चराइज करते हैं और साथ ही मृत त्वचा कोशिकाओं को खत्म करने में मदद करते हैं। यह एंटीऑक्सिडेंट, फाइबर और विटामिन में भी समृद्ध है जो त्वचा के स्वास्थ्य को बढ़ावा देते हैं।
प्रभावित त्वचा क्षेत्र पर अनानस मांस रगड़ें। आपकी त्वचा पर अनानस का पल्प लागू करें। इसे लगभग 20 मिनट तक सूखने के लिए छोड़ दें और फिर इसे धो लें।
Hi Doctor, I'm Abinash! One of my friend told me that if I apply Beer (alcohol) on my face then it will glow and it really helps in removal of dead cells from the face. How far is it true?
Mai 38 years old hu. Par 4 mahinose muze eka hi din blooding Hoti hai. Badame bus spot dikhate hai. Aur mere chehare me bahot sare pimals AA Gaye hai. Skin bhi dry ho gai hai. Aur pigmentation ho Gaya hai.
My Mother 40 have a black small patches on her hand in other words black circle mark on her hand please suggested her some home remedy or treatment and tell us how it come please it's your most kindness. thanks.
I suffer from chapped lips. I have been suffering from this from my childhood. It is very embarrassing. Please help me cure it. Please tell me the permanent remedy.
45 years old lady and having a very bad ulcer problem not only in my mouth but also in the stomach. Most of the time feel something warm in the mouth and stomach. I have completely avoid spicy food from 4 month but nothing improve. Pls let me know what should I do and what is exactly this problem called? My test report shows: observation scope passed till D2 D1, D2: duodenitis at D1, Normal D2 stomach- Antral gastritis, normal body and fundus of the stomach. GE Junction - 35 cm with hiatus hernia. Esophagus - esophagitis Impression- Antral Gastritis and duodenitis with hiatus hernia.
From few months I was in a depression of my health but now I was cleared everything and because of that depression my skin became dull (I have no bad habits) now what should I do to get chubby and fair skin as I am moving to my Post graduation.
I feel pain during passing stools. Even sometimes I see blood. I do not feel my stomach empty. Pet saf nhi hota hai. Wht I have to do to get rid of this.
Has your skin become dry or itchy? Has it darkened or reddened after contact with a foreign material or substance? These symptoms may indicate allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), a skin condition which is caused by an allergic reaction of the skin after coming in contact with an external material. The condition usually arises after some time of the skin coming in contact with the material.
ACD is commonly caused due to skin contact with nickel or gold jewellery, latex gloves, several chemicals present in cosmetics, perfumes and poison oak. After being exposed to a foreign substance, the body releases inflammatory chemicals, which lead to irritation and itching on the skin. The skin may become scaly, flaky, appear leathery and dry blisters may develop.
There are several ways to treat ACD. They are as follows:
- Avoiding the cause: Identification and avoidance of the allergens and irritants which cause ACD is the first step of treatment. By avoiding these allergens or reducing your exposure to them, the symptoms can be reduced.
- Emollients: Emollients offer a form of moisturizing treatment and are directly applied to the skin for reduction of water loss. A protective film covers the skin. They are efficient in treating conditions such as dry and scaly skin. There are different types of emollients.It is recommended that you apply a mix of emollients, which include an ointment for dry skin and a cream or lotion for dry skin. You should use emollients in place of soaps and should add them to your bath water as well. Make sure you use different emollients on your face, hands and body.
- Topical corticosteroids: In case your skin is severely red, inflamed or sore, a topical corticosteroid can be applied to your skin directly. This helps in reducing the inflammation quickly. Corticosteroids are different from anabolic steroids and are quite safe for the treatment of ACD. There are topical corticosteroids of different strengths and the dosage to be used depends upon the severity and location of ACD.
You may be instructed to use a strong topical corticosteroid in case of intense ACD. When the condition is mild, a weaker dosage of corticosteroid should be used. For treating contact dermatitis on the face, genitals or in the crease of the joints, a weaker dosage is used, whereas for treating it on the soles of your feet and the palms, a stronger dosage is required. Major cases of ACD go away on their own. However, when the condition is severe and the rashes are developed near the eyes or mouth, you should consult a doctor right away for proper and timely treatment.
Hpyer-pigmentation can be removed by laser permanently? If yes what will be the charge for treating both the cheeks?
I am having very very dark circles since many year ,I tried lots of remedies and also improve my diet to get rid of it but there is no improvement .pls help me.
There is pimple on my out side of my anus hole. Its paining like a wound. Its almost 4th time im suffering from this. I consulted from a allopathic doctor. I want a final cure for this issue, and also I want the reason why it's happening often. Please help me to sort this out.
I have small spots on my shoulders which excretes solid black substance. There are multiple such spots which looks like acne but has solid black substance filled in them.
A breast examination is a way of detecting early changes that may find lumps of other growth in the breast. This is a manual form of examination that may be carried out by the doctor or even by the patient. This kind of examination helps in detecting the onset of breast cancer and helps in successful treatment of the same. It is an essential screening strategy that all women must go through. Let us cast a glance on the various details regarding this examination, and also how frequently it must be conducted.
- Age: Women who have reached the age of 18 are said to have matured physically and sexually. They should perform this examination once they have reached the said age in order to detect any anomalies in the way the physical changes occur in the breast tissue.
- Procedure: One should begin by looking at one's reflection in the mirror to find any rashes or dimpling in the breasts. The shape, size and colour of the breasts and nipples must also be studied so as to check for any anomalies. Inverted nipples, redness and soreness must also be reported to the doctor. Once you are done checking the visuals, you can raise your arms and look for any changes. Then, you will need to lie down and feel your breasts by using a circular motion. The finger pads must be used in order to check for any lumps. One must start from the centre and move the breasts sideways. Any wet and slippery feeling must be reported to the doctor immediately.
- Pressure: During the breast examination, you must use light pressure for the skin and tissue that lie beneath the breasts, while medium to moderate pressure should be used for the middle portion of the breasts. One must use a firm hand to check the tissue that lies at the back of the breasts, near the rib cage.
- Frequency: One must get into the habit of conducting a breast examination at least once a fortnight or once a month, without fail. You can also go to the gynaecologist for an examination in case you are not confident of conducting it on your own with proper movements and accuracy. You may also journalise your breast examination findings.
- Menstrual Cycles: When you are going through your menstrual cycle or period, it is important to remember that your breasts can become tender just before or after the start of the cycle. So, do not panic if you think you have found a lump or any other growth at this time. It is best to check again after a week and then visit the doctor about checking the same. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
As the number of candles on our birthday cakes increases, so do the number of wrinkles on our faces. As more and more wrinkles emerge on our faces, the number of bottles containing anti-ageing serums grows on our dressing tables too. But, do these serums work as promised? can you expect a serum to make you really look younger than you are?
- First, understand the difference between anti-ageing creams and serums!
The key to differentiating between anti-ageing creams and serums is looking at how they work. In essence, both offer the same benefits. An anti-ageing cream or serum treats acne, wrinkles, sunspots and other common signs of ageing. However, while creams hydrate and nourish the skin, serums work their way past the epidermis and thus penetrate deeper layers.
- Serums do moisturize the skin
Keeping the skin hydrated is the secret of good skin. To this effect, anti-ageing serums deliver as promised. By locking the moisture into your skin, they make your skin look healthy and supple and thus indirectly make the skin appear firmer and younger.
- Each serum affects different people in a different way
Skin care efficacy differs from person to person. While for some people exfoliating twice a week can make your skin brighter, others need a little more care. Don't look at the price to determine the effectiveness of the serum on your skin but take a look at the ingredients. If you're looking to reverse the damage of the past years on your skin, look for antioxidant-based serums.
- Anti-ageing serums can be used at any age but can also produce side effects
Some anti-ageing serums claim that women should start using them from when they turn 20, to maintain the glow of their skin. However, before you start using an anti-ageing serum, you must know what you're putting on your skin. Retinol that stimulates collagen production in the latter years can be not only ineffective but can also act an irritant for the skin. Overusing a serum can also make your skin dry.
- The same anti-ageing serum doesn't work for all ages
As mentioned above, anti-ageing serums can be used by women of all ages. Since each anti-ageing serum addresses a different symptom of ageing, the type of serum you should use depends on the symptom of ageing you want to address. Thus, while you might want to use an anti-ageing serum that prevents wrinkles right now, later on, you may want to use one that removes sunspots.
To sum it up, an anti-ageing serum can't make your skin actually younger, but the right anti-ageing serum can make it appear so.