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Fungi are organisms that can grow in or on the body, causing infections of internal organs or of the skin, nails, and hair. These fungi are common in the environment and can affect anyone causing a wide range of illnesses, from minor skin conditions to life-threatening diseases. Learning about them can help you and your doctor recognize the symptoms of a fungal disease early and may help prevent serious complications.
Fungal infections are often described as opportunistic or primary. They can affect many areas of the body (systemic) or only one area (localized).
- Opportunistic fungal infections take advantage of a weakened immune system. Thus, they usually occur in people with a weakened immune system, such as those with AIDS. Opportunistic fungal infections can be very aggressive, spreading quickly to other organs and often leading to death.
- Primary fungal infections occur in people with the normal immune system and generally do not spread to organs deep in the body. They are more common in certain geographic areas. Because many primary fungal infections develop slowly, months or years may pass before people seek medical attention.
- Localised fungal infections typically involve the skin and nails, vagina, mouth, or sinuses.
Fungal infections of the skin
For those who like to spend time outdoors, at the gym, or other places that may cause the skin to become sweaty and dirty, it is important to understand the risk of contracting a fungal infection of the skin. Fungi usually make their homes in moist areas of the body where skin surfaces meet: between the toes, in the genital area, and under the breasts. Fungal infections of the skin are often diagnosed on the basis of their appearance and their location on the body.
Common fungal skin infections are caused by yeasts (such as Candida or Malassezia furfur) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Many such fungi live only in the topmost layer of the epidermis (stratum corneum) and do not penetrate deeper. Obese people are more likely to get these infections because they have excessive skin folds, especially if the skin within a skin fold becomes irritated and broken down (intertrigo). People with diabetes tend to be more susceptible to fungal infections as well.
Strangely, fungal infections on one part of the body can cause rashes on other parts of the body that are not infected. For example, a fungal infection on the foot may cause an itchy, bumpy rash on the fingers. These eruptions (Dermatophytids, or identity or id reactions) are allergic reactions to the fungus. They do not result from touching the infected area.
Antifungal drugs may also be taken by mouth. Keeping the skin dry and clean is helpful. Other skin infections, however, do not respond to such treatment. They require a doctor's attention and systemic treatment with prescription antifungal medications.
When you say weight loss, the first thing that comes to mind is the need to starve oneself and skip eating. This thought is very scary for people who are used to 4 regular meals a day. But, now you can feel good, because it is not just scary, it is false too. The idea is to eat healthy and low-calorie foods and not to stop eating completely.
You should also learn to trick your body, eat something filling that will control and delay your hunger pangs. Your stomach is busy, but not digesting anything that adds a lot of calories into your system. Sounds great, isn't it? Try these low-fat, filling foods and see how different your body reacts.
- Eggs: They are not just filled with protein, but provide all the essential amino acids for your system. These amino acids have the ability to suppress hunger, and it will be quite some time before you start feeling hungry. Scrambled or hard-boiled or in any form you like, pick an egg if you have a choice and see the difference.
- Oatmeal: Breakfast is considered as the most important meal of the day and try to make it as wholesome as possible. Oats, loaded with fiber, fills your stomach and prolongs your hunger pangs. They are not just low on calories, but help control your body mass index (BMI) as well. Oats can be cooked in different ways, and by adding fruit or vegetables you can make it more wholesome. Oats helps in controlling cravings and oats in form of salads is a very healthy option.
- Apples: With about 75 calories in each average-sized fruit, apple is packed with nutrients and accelerates weight loss. The ursolic acid present in apples improves fat burning and promotes leaner muscle mass. Best eaten raw, you can also add it to oats or have a smoothie.
- Beans: Packed with water, fiber, and protein, beans in any form will keep you full and is a great addition to your diet. Either as a soup, baked, or cooked in your preferred way, beans will help you eat less and lose more weight.
- Nuts: While nuts are usually considered off radar for people who are watching their weight, it is not true. Whether almonds, walnuts, cashews, pecans, or pistachios, nuts contain unsaturated fats and are packed with fibers. They are packed with calories, but you will feel full for a long time before you are hungry again, and that helps. A glass of water along with the nuts will prolong the digestion and keep your hunger pangs away for more hours.
If you are planning to lose some weight, eating these types of foods will definitely help you.
Flu is caused by a virus known as influenza and is a common respiratory disease. It is typically caused from the month of October to May. Some of the common symptoms include fatigue, runny nose, fever, cough, muscle ache, sore throat, body ache, etc.
The flu vaccination helps to protect from influenza. The effect generally lasts for a year. It is recommended that an individual takes this vaccination once in a year since the strain of the virus keeps changing every year. Flu vaccine comprises of an egg-based technology.
Who Can catch flu?
Anyone can get a flu vaccination. Children above the age of 6 months or more are eligible to get a flu vaccination. In addition, the person who has a severe outbreak of allergic reaction due to the flu vaccination should also stay away from this.
Pregnant women can also get this vaccination without any worry about the baby. They not only safeguard the mother, but protect the child from influenza too. Adults who are more than 65 years old can take this vaccination without worrying. Patients with an acute allergy should consult their doctors before taking a flu shot.
Are there any side effects?
Although most people do not feel a thing after the flu shot, some might experience mild symptoms, such as redness of the area where the vaccine has been injected, mild body aches, soreness, redness and fever. Other serious side effects include allergic reaction resulting in soreness and very high fever. A doctor or healthcare personnel should be immediately contacted in such an instance.
Can flu shot cause flu?
This is totally a myth. A flu vaccine doesn’t result in the flu. The virus content of the flu vaccine doesn’t contain any live virus that can potentially trigger an outbreak of flu in the body. They are noninfectious in every sense of the word. It takes a couple of weeks for the flu vaccine to build immunity in the body. A person might get affected during this time if he comes in contact with an infected person.
Confusing flu with similar symptoms:
Common symptoms of flu such as nausea, vomiting, sneezing, body ache and fever can be symptoms of an entirely different disease such as diarrhoea. Until the tests are conducted and the doctor gives an assured verdict of flu, it is unwise to take a flu vaccination based on gut feel and mere speculation.
When is an ideal time to take flu vaccine?
There is no right or wrong time of taking a flu shot. It is seriously infectious and can catch hold of a person at any time. The right time to take a flu shot is now. It is readily available over the counter and can be injected at any time of the year.
Post-pregnancy weight can be difficult to get rid of. It is a gradual process and often takes time. Experts are of the view that hormonal imbalance and a sudden increase in the diet are the major cause of the additional weight. This being said, shedding weight is possible if a consistent effort is made on a daily basis. Here is a list of hat tips to get you started:
- Walk every day: Walking 5 minutes a day does the world of good in the endeavor of shedding weight. Post the 6-week check-up after the arrival of the baby, the duration of walking can be increased. Brisk walking for half an hour can help the body to weight as much as 300 calories a day.
- Weight training- Weight training is one of the best forms of exercise to lose weight quickly. If hitting a gym is a problem, a personal trainer can be hired for working out. Certain exercises such as lifting small weights, doing lunges is a good way to start.
- Breastfeed: Breastfeeding for a time duration of 30-45 minutes (about3-4 times a day) helps to lose 600-800 calories per day. Some women even report of shedding all their extra weight just through breastfeeding. This is by far the easiest way of losing weight.
- Say no to calories- Calories, by all means, will have to be avoided. Certain fast food items such as soda, chocolate, and chips should not be consumed at all. Instead, meals rich in nutrient, fresh vegetable, fruits, whole grains etc. should be consumed on a daily basis.
- Frequent meals- 2 to 3 heavy meals a day are detrimental to a person trying to shed weight. Frequent meals, on the other hand, maintain a steady blood sugar level, reduce the tendency of over-eating and do not let fat store in the body.
- Frequent naps- Studies show that frequent naps can help a great deal of weight. It reduces the craving of eating food with high calorie. It also revitalizes the metabolism and refrains a person from long term self-deprivation. Naps will also help to gather enough energy to perform other physical activities.
- Healthy snacks- Home-made snacks containing whole wheat, low-fat milk and yogurt are good snack options for post pregnancy weight loss. These snacks block hormones that are responsible for storage of fat in the body.
- Yoga or meditation- Yoga has proved to be extremely effective for women trying to shed post-pregnancy weight. It especially helps in toning down the fat in the upper and lower abdomen which is extremely difficult to get rid of. Yoga also relaxes the mind and helps to focus more.
- Consumption of warm water- Drinking warm water after every meal serves two purposes.
- It doesn’t let the fat store inside the body.
- It helps in better digestion. It has to be ensured that the water is mildly warm and drinkable.
- Avoid stress- Nurturing a baby is exhausting enough. Stress on top of this can be disastrous. It leads to depression resulting into junk eating. It has to be ensured that stress is avoided by engaging in activities such as cooking, painting or listening to music.
What should I do to remove extra fat from face and chin area? Which exercise? Which food supplement? What to do?
My 3 year old is picky eater and underweight .she drinks very less milk. I added pediasure in her drink but weight didn't gain. Yesterday I bought Amul whey protein powder, can I give it to her? Is whey protein good for my daughter?
My weight is 70 kg right now I have fat percentage 24 my height is 5 feet 2 inch I don't have any health issues I am 26 year old I want to reduce my weight to 56 is this possible with a good balanced diet and one hour workout my diet I have planed in breakfast chapati lunch salad dinner milk or Daal rice and one time in morning a cup of tea workout will include 30 minutes of jogging and 30 minutes of cycling in how many days will I be able to achieve my target am I planning right or wrong I am mesomorph hourglass by body shape n type.
I 67 yrs, Type 2 Diabetes since 6 years .On 5 July 17 - Amylase -207 U/L, Lipase- 285.(method- Enzymatic Colorimetric Assay, by Thyrocare) but by SRL Diagnostics on 25 July 17 -Amylase-90 U/L & Lipase -242 (method- spectrophotometry - Ref. Interval units- 73-393? By thyrocare report range is 13-60 U/L? In ultrasound my pancreas is normal, I have no physical symptoms of pancreatitis. What I should do?
I am 62 years old, diabetic since 20 yrs. Took oral allopathic medicines till July 6th. Had an heart attack and standing was done due to a 100% block. As my hbA1c was 11.4 I have been asked to take 40 units of insulin and blood thinners, statins and thyronorm for thyroid problem. My glucose readings vary from 115 to 400. BP normal, TSH is 5.93. Creatinine is 1.7. Now along with present allopathic medicines Can I take Ayurvedic medicines (Divya kit). Will it be helpful. Does insulin taken for long create any further complications? Pl advice.
My TSH is 8.06 T3-100 T4-8.5 I am taking thyronorm 25 mg what mg should I take now And I am gaining weight how to loose weight.
I am getting so fat day by day. But I don't eat more. Last 1 year my gone 60 kg to 75 kg. I want to lose my weight. Please help me.
Mere body thik hai lekin face itne patla hai sabhi log Bolte Tu khata nehi hai Kiya itne patala kyui hai. Sir what's my problems. Mujhe phulka sa cheeks Chahiye please help me.
Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs in the ovaries, often in multiples, which are very common in women. This is absolutely different condition from polycystic ovaries. Most of them are benign and not indicative of an underlying problem. They produce no specific symptoms and even if detected, can be watched over a period of time. Treatment may be required only if there are serious symptoms or there is higher possibility of cancerous nature of the cyst. Read on to know more.
- Functional: There are two types in this. The follicular variety is when the egg that is ready for fertilization does not completely shrink and stays for a few more days before it disappears. Another variety, the luteal ovarian cysts are formed when after the release of the egg, there is blood filling up in the corpus luteum.
- Pathological: There are many types here – dermoid, cystadenomas, endometriomas, cancerous cystadenocarcinomas etc. These are worrisome and need to be treated. Both varieties, once identified, should be monitored. The functional variety, though may not cause a problem, can cause infertility and so necessitate treatment.
Any ovarian follicle larger than 2 cm can be called as an ovarian cyst. They are usually benign and do not produce any symptoms. However, if they turn pathologic or grow in size, they can cause various symptoms such as:
- Irregular menstruation
- Heavy bleeding
- Intermittent spotting
- Painful and/or frequent urination
- Severe, recurrent abdominal pain
- Abdominal bloating
- Constipation or loose motions
- Nausea, sudden vomiting
- Fever, dizziness, and weakness
While cysts are often quiet and do not produce any symptoms, they can cause intermittent, nonspecific symptoms like above. If there is a family history of ovarian cancers in mothers, maternal aunt, Sisters, Grandmothers etc then women should have regular Gynaecological checkups to have a check done for ovarian cysts.
Why go for laparoscopic surgery?
- Laparoscopic surgery is considered to be one of the most effective ways of treating the condition of ovarian cysts. During the surgery, problem causing non-cancerous cyst can be removed without harming the ovaries. In the case of cancer, both ovaries along with uterus etc may have to be removed. This decision is taken by the operating surgeon depending upon age of the patient, characteristics and nature of the cyst and future fertility desires of the patient.
- The patient is given general anesthesia during the surgery. After the surgery, one is suggested to rest for a day and may be permitted to return to normal activities within a day’s time. However, one needs to avoid any strenuous activity for almost a week.
- While some cysts can be watched for years, others need treatment. This would be specifically true in cases where the couple is facing infertility issues or if there is a higher possibility of cancerous cysts. Such cysts need urgent intervention and should be monitored by a gynecologist with an experience in oncology. There are few blood tests that are needed to be done to know the nature of the cyst if it is benign or cancerous.
The bones and joints in your body provide the basic framework on which all movement takes place. The joints are even more important as they act like hinge for the various types of movement that we require. However, these are the first to be affected due to muscle or bone disorders and thus limit your mobility. In most cases, these problems are caused by lifestyle disorders which can be easily corrected by making a few changes.
Some tips which will allow you to keep your joints healthy are mentioned as follows:
- Lose weight: Not just full-fledged obesity, but being overweight and also slightly chubby may not be in the best interest of your joints. The heavier you are, the more load your joints have to carry and thus, this may affect their health over time. Losing weight and being close to your ideal body weight will allow your joints to be under less stress thus keeping them healthy for longer.
- Start moving and stay in motion: One of the greatest evils of the modern lifestyle is its sedentary nature. While at work or at home, you probably spend far less time moving or walking than sitting or lying down. It is important to move and keep the joints functional. The more functional they are, the stronger they will be.
- Vitamin D for your bones: All joints in your body are made up of bones; and for healthy joints, you need healthy bones. Vitamin D and calcium are thus important ingredients required to make your bones strong. Dairy products such as milk or leafy green vegetables can easily satisfy your requirements. However if you can’t have dairy, then your doctor could prescribe calcium supplements to you.
- Don’t overwork or strain your joints: While it is necessary to stay in motion to ensure that your joints remain strong, overusing those joints could damage them. It is important to know your limits and also slowly push and improve on yourself rather than trying to make quick leaps. Start off with lower impact exercises such as cycling, walking or swimming and gradually go to more intense workouts when your joints are stronger.
- Always warm up: Before you do any kind of exercise, warm up slowly so that your joints are loose enough and lubricated to take the strain you put on them; no matter how light the exercises are. Stretching and warm up exercises are a must as they help you minimize long term damage to your joints.
- Diet: Diet is one of the most important aspects for overall health and hence it is very important in the case of joints as well. Certain types of foods rich in Omega-3 fatty acids are very good for your joints as they help reduce inflammation, such as some varieties of fish. On the other hand, certain types of food can cause inflammation and may even lead to long term problems.
Weight training is a method of exercise where you use either your body weight or external weight to build strength and increase muscle size. The principle of weight training centers on eccentric and concentric movements of the skeletal muscles, thus stimulating them to grow. Usually the sets, reps and the tempo of the exercise are manipulated to concentrate on size, endurance or strength.
It is important to note that certain aspects of weight training are detrimental to your body. You need to be aware of these aspects so that you can maximize your strength gains.
Here are 4 ways that weight training may harm your body are:
- Warm up: Warming up before working out is very essential, as it increases blood flow in the body. It loosens up your stiff joints and elevates your heart rate. You may do basic cardio exercises, such as jumping jacks and bodyweight squats as your warm up regime.
- Don't push yourself too hard: Don't over exert yourself in your workouts, listen to your body and stop when you feel that you can't go on anymore. It increases the likelihood of you being injured and thus is detrimental to your health.You may try to lift heavier weights compromising on form or posture, which can lead to various muscle tears or strains.
- Stretch after your workout: It is very important that you stretch after your weight training workout. It aids in muscle recovery after a heavy workout and also makes the joints more mobile and flexible. Stretching also allows the tensed muscles to relax and improves posture. Lack of stretching increases chances of injuring your muscles and may put a damper on your weight training muscles.
- Injuries: Injuries such as pulling a muscle or injuring your joints are very common if you lift weights. It is of utmost importance that you follow proper form while working out. An example of this would be when you don't keep your spine straight while squatting, thus resulting in a slipped disc injury.