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Overview

Pioglitazone

Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor required

Pioglitazone is a drug used to control high blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is an anti diabetic drug. It makes the blood cells more sensitive to the action of insulin thus lowering the blood sugar levels in the body. It is used in combination with a proper diet and exercise program to maximize its effects. It also helps in preventing kidney damage, nerve problems and sexual problems. Controlling blood sugar level also helps reduce the risk of a heart attack or stroke.

Pioglitazone is a drug used to control high blood sugar level in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is an anti diabetic drug. It makes the blood cells more sensitive to the action of insulin thus lowering the blood sugar level. It is used alongside a proper diet and exercise program to maximize its effects. It also helps in preventing kidney damage, nerve problems and sexual problems. Controlling blood sugar level also helps reduce the risk of heart attack or stroke.

Pioglitazone is a prescribed drug and should always be taken under the guidance of a medical expert. It is available in three doses: 15mg, 30 mg and 45mg orally consumed tablets. The course duration for this medication is normally3 to 6 months after which the doctor examines its effects on the patient.

There are a few conditions under which you shouldn’t take Pioglitazone: if you are allergic to any ingredients of this medicine, if you have suffered from a heart attack in the past or if you have any liver disease. It is also important to mention to your doctor if you are currently using any prescribed drugs or dietary supplements. Pioglitazone might also cause changes in the menstrual cycle and increase the risk of becoming pregnant. Hence, it is advisable to use reliable birth control while using this medication. During pregnancy, use this drug only when it’s extremely necessary. Pioglitazone might also cause certain side effects.

Some common side effects of this medication are: cold, headache or sore throat. These side effects last for a few days before going away on their own. However sometimes severe side effects occur in which case one should immediately consult the doctor. These side effects are allergic reactions, blurred vision, symptoms of liver problems (like dark urine, stomach trouble or vomiting), or symptoms of low blood sugar. These side effects appear rarely, but if they do, you should immediately consult the doctor.

Pioglitazone should be stored at a temperature between 15 to 25 degrees C. It should be kept moisture free and away from direct sunlight. Keep it out of the reach of children or pets.

type diabetes

Information given here is based on the salt and content of the medicine. Effect and uses of medicine may vary from person to person. It is advicable to consult a Diabetologist before using this medicine.

Type II Diabetes Mellitus
Pioglitazone is used to control blood sugar levels in adults with Type II Diabetes Mellitus. The medicine is generally taken in conjunction with controlled diet and regular exercise.
Pioglitazone is not recommended if you have a known history of allergy to the medicine. It is not recommended for use in people who are sensitive to any medicine belonging to the parent class Sulphonamide derivatives. It is a very broad group and hence caution is advised.
In addition to its intended effect, Pioglitazone may cause some unwanted effects too. In such cases, you must seek medical attention immediately. This is not an exhaustive list of side effects. Please inform your doctor if you experience any adverse reaction to the medication.
Hypoglycemia Major Common
Dizziness Moderate Less Common
Headache Moderate Less Common
Nausea Moderate Less Common
Asthenia Moderate Rare
Flu like symptoms Moderate Common
Allergic skin reaction Moderate Rare
Elevated liver enzymes Major Common
Anemia Major Rare
Jaundice Major Rare
Weight gain Moderate Common
How long is the duration of effect?
The effect of this medicine lasts for an average of 24 hours.
What is the onset of action?
The effect of this medicine can be observed within an hour of oral administration. However, it takes 2-4 hours for the medicine to reach its peak effect.
Are there any pregnancy warnings?
This medicine is not recommended for use in pregnant women. There is a possibility of an adverse effect on the fetus and there is a lack of conclusive evidence from clinical studies. It is advisable to consult your doctor.
Is it habit forming?
No habit forming tendencies were reported
Are there any breast-feeding warnings?
This medicine is suspected of passing into breast milk and having a harmful effect on the baby. Alternative therapy should be considered in such cases after consulting the doctor.
Are there any missed dose instructions?
The missed dose can be taken as soon as you remember. If it is time for the next dosage then the missed dose can be skipped.
Are there any overdose instructions?
It is recommended to discontinue the medication and contact your doctor immediately if an overdose is suspected. Symptoms like dizziness, confusion, increased heartbeat, tremor and sweating after taking the medication should be reported immediately.
India
United States
Japan
Below is the list of medicines, which contains Pioglitazone as ingredient
Dr. Reddys Laboratories Ltd
Alembic Ltd
Micro Labs Ltd
Mitoch Pharma Pvt Ltd
Mitoch Pharma Pvt Ltd
Systopic Laboratories Ltd-Mem
Abbott Healthcare Pvt. Ltd
Mova Pharmaceutical Pvt Ltd
Wockhardt Ltd
Elder Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Medley Pharmaceuticals
Aprica Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd
Abbott India Ltd
Alkem Laboratories Ltd
Alembic Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Whenever you take more than one medicine, or mix it with certain foods or beverages, you"re at risk of a drug interaction.
Interaction with Disease
Heart disease Major
Pioglitazone should be administered with extreme caution if you suffer from any disease of heart and blood vessels.
Kidney disease Major
Pioglitazone should be administered with extreme caution in you suffer from any disease of the kidneys. You should consult your doctor to make suitable adjustment in dosage quantity and/or time-interval between two dosages.
Liver disease Major
Pioglitazone should be administered with extreme caution in you suffer from any disease of the liver. You should consult your doctor to make a suitable adjustment in dosage quantity and/or time-interval between two dosages.
Hypoglycemia Moderate
Pioglitazone should be administered with caution in if you are prone to having episodes of low blood sugar. This population includes diabetics who are also malnourished or those receiving Beta-blocker drugs such as Metoprolol and Propranolol.
Hemolytic Anemia/G6PD Deficiency Moderate
Pioglitazone is not recommended for use in people suffering from Hemolytic Anemia. Reporting this condition to the doctor is a must. In such cases, alternate medication not belonging to Sulfonylureas should be considered.
Interaction with Alcohol
Ethanol Moderate
Consumption of alcohol in large quantities is not recommended when you are taking Pioglitazone for controlling blood sugar levels. It is recommended to reduce the alcohol intake so that the adverse effects can be avoided. Symptoms of both reduced or elevated blood sugar levels should be reported to the doctor immediately.
Interaction with Lab Test
Elevated ALT Minor
You should consult the doctor about the usage of Pioglitazone if a liver test is to be taken in immediate future. This is necessary as the likelihood of getting a false result is very high in such cases.
Interaction with Food
Food
Information not available.
Interaction with Medicine
Gatifloxacin Major
Pioglitazone is not recommended for use along with Gatifloxacin. You should report the use of either of the medicines to the doctor. Symptoms of high blood sugar, as well as low blood sugar, should be reported immediately. You should not stop the usage of any medicine without talking to the doctor.
Miconazole Major
Pioglitazone should not be used with the oral form of Miconazole. Report the usage of either of the medication to the doctor. Suitable dose adjustment and safety monitoring are required in these cases. Symptoms like headache, dizziness, tremor, sweating after taking these medicines should be reported immediately.
Fluconazole Moderate
Pioglitazone should not be used with Fluconazole. Report the usage of either of the medication to the doctor. Suitable dose adjustment and safety monitoring are required in these cases. Symptoms like headache, dizziness, tremor, sweating after taking these medicines should be reported immediately.
Moderate
Pioglitazone should not be used with Rifampin. Report the usage of either of the medication to the doctor. Suitable dose adjustment and safety monitoring are required in these cases. Symptoms like increased thirst, hunger, and urination after taking these medicines should be reported immediately.
Moderate
Report the usage of either of these medications to the doctor. Pioglitazone and Colesevelam should be taken with suitable time gap to avoid the interaction from happening. Normally, there should be a gap of 4 hours between the administration of these two medicines.
Diclofenac Moderate
Pioglitazone should not be co-administered with Diclofenac or other NSAIDs. Appropriate dosage adjustment and more frequent monitoring of blood sugar levels are necessary in such cases. Do not stop the usage of any drug without consulting your doctor.
Pioglitazone activates peroxisome proliferator activator receptor causing an increase in the production of components that breaks down lipids and glucose in the body. It also increases insulin response without effecting its secretion.
What are you using Pioglitazone for?
Type II Diabetes Mellitus
Other
How much was the improvement?
Average
Excellent
Poor
How long did it take before seeing improvement?
Within 2 days
More than 2 days
Within a day
How frequently did you take this medicine?
Twice a day
Once a day
How did you take this medicine?
With Food
What were the side effects of this medicine?
Other
Hypoglycemia
Nausea
Disclaimer: The information produced here is best of our knowledge and experience and we have tried our best to make it as accurate and up-to-date as possible, but we would like to request that it should not be treated as a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Lybrate is a medium to provide our audience with the common information on medicines and does not guarantee its accuracy or exhaustiveness. Even if there is no mention of a warning for any drug or combination, it never means that we are claiming that the drug or combination is safe for consumption without any proper consultation with an expert.

Lybrate does not take responsibility for any aspect of medicines or treatments. If you have any doubts about your medication, we strongly recommend you to see a doctor immediately.

Popular Questions & Answers

I was being treated with combination of metformin, pioglitazone and other drugs since 15 yrs. My HBA1c, Fasting, PP was normal in the last month. But for some other reason I had to change my doctor. And he stooped all the previous drugs and started OXRA 10 with metformin. Noe my Fasting, PP level are increasing every week. It is now 230, 270. What should I do?

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
I was being treated with combination of metformin, pioglitazone and other drugs since 15 yrs. My HBA1c, Fasting, PP w...
Mr. lybrate-user, Thanks for the query. The glucose levels mentioned are definitely high. It appears that present (new) treatment is not suiting you. Since no details are mentioned in terms of drugs and dosage, it is difficult to comment. If the previous treatment was giving good results with better glucose control, what was the reason for changing? You should tell the doctor that you were better of with earlier treatment and hence, he should revert you to that. Find out what he says. Or else if you want my advise and treatment please come back with following details: current fasting and PP, glucose levels, HbA1c%, drugs being taken with dosage, dietary pattern and extent of daily exercise. Based on those I will be able to give specific guidance or even shift you to earlier treatment. Choice is yours. Thanks.
4 people found this helpful

Hi. My father is 76 years old. Weight 92 kg. Last two days he has swelling in both legs. No pain. His blood sugar normal. But he is taking medication for high blood pressure and one ppi. At present he has no physical problem except swelling in legs. My question is that is there any serious issues for swelling of legs?

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
Hi. My father is 76 years old. Weight 92 kg. Last two days he has swelling in both legs. No pain. His blood sugar nor...
Mr. lybrate-user, Thanks for the query. Swelling in lower limbs can occur due to a multiple causes like uncontrolled high blood pressure, some heart related issues and even due to improper functioning of kidneys. Sometimes certain drugs also lead to that, like Amlodepine used in reducing BP and pioglitazone used in treating diabetes. EVen over weight and inactivity can also be a cause. So please check his kidney function test, BP readings and also level of physical activity. Thanks.
2 people found this helpful

I am52 years old woman taking glimer2 & cetapinxr500 each twice daily before and after meal respectively for 3 years maintaining food restriction also. Fasting bs level increases from 170 to 253 mg/100 ml in this period. pioglitazone is not suited as I have fatty liver, what to do for my fatty liver problem?

Diploma in Psychological Medicine, Doing Post Diploma MD, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Ludhiana
I am52 years old woman taking glimer2 & cetapinxr500 each twice daily before and after meal respectively for 3 years ...
Hi mam, fatty liver is an initial phase when damage of liver starts happening, it indicated degenerative changes in liver in the begining .DM might contribute to liver damage by promoting inflammation and fibrosis through an increase in l oxidative stress mediated by adipokines (vhemicals which cause inflammation). Recent reports regarding the use of the SGLT2 inhibitors as well as the new incretin-based therapies such as injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and oral inhibitors of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4).But an opinion from physician is required for the optimiztion of the medications .You must visit your primary physician for the adjustment of the medications. Best of luck.

I have lost my weight about 2 Kg in last one year. The accumass weight gainer can be taken or not by me, pl suggest. I am diabetic since 1998. My age is 67 years. Height 5 f, 10 inches. At present I take Glypride 2 mg BD. Galvus Met (50 850) before breakfast, Roimet 500 mg OD before dinner, and Winofit OD. My weight has reduced from 75 Kg to 73 Kg in last one year after taking Galvus Met in place of poiz 15. Kindly suggest to maintain the weight. After observing following test report my Doctor added Zivast 10 for cholesterol .Blood test report of-18/01/17 is HBA1C- 7, Average Blood Glucose- 154, Total cholesterol -237, HDL- 59 ,LDL -162, Triglycerides-109, LDL/HDL Ratio-2.8,VLDL Cholesterol-21.72 ,Hemoglobin-14.4,

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
I have lost my weight about 2 Kg in last one year. The accumass weight gainer can be taken or not by me, pl suggest. ...
Mr. lybrate-user, Looking at your age, height and weight, your ideal body weight (IBW) should be 177.5 - 100 = 77.5 X 0.9 = 69.75 kgs. Hence I do not see any reason why one should be worried about the weight loss. Your current BMI is 23.17 kgs / M2, which absolutely normal. When a person is on pioglitazone then there is a tendency to add weight, due to that drug's side effect. Vildagliptin is a weight neutral drug and metformin can help in weight reduction if one is over weight. In fact maintaining a good weight close recommended BMI of 23 kgs/M2 is excellent. I do not see any reason why one should think of adding extra at all. Thanks.
3 people found this helpful

I am 37 years of age - no alcohol - non smoker but bit addicted to COLA drinks - bit overweight My recent blood reports shows FBS 240 mcg And Hb1Ac: 8.6 Creatine n lipid profile within the range Appreciate if you can suggest some medication either allopathy or Ayurveda to control my sugar levels Afraid to visit any Doctor due their scary lectures/advise Please help.

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Mumbai
I am 37 years of age - no alcohol - non smoker but bit addicted to COLA drinks - bit overweight
My recent blood repor...
You have diabetes and require medication. I cannot comment on homeopathy or ayurveda regarding the same. Your sugar is very high, and given the HbA1c report, it has been high for a while. Diabetic foot when untreated or when the sugar is uncontrolled, leads to sepsis, and eventually amputation (cutting off the infected toe or leg). I suggest you visit a physician who will advise appropriate medication, even if he does give you a scary lecture. Your situation is definitely scary. You will also require lifestyle modification, dietary changes and exercise.
1 person found this helpful

Popular Health Tips

Hirsutism - What Are The Causes Behind It?

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, DGO
IVF Specialist, Mumbai
Hirsutism - What Are The Causes Behind It?

There are women who feel their looks are spoilt because of the presence of excessive body hair. While hair on women's body is common, excessive body hair isn't a normal condition and must be taken seriously. Women are generally unaware that the condition is known as Hirsutism.

What is Hirsutism?

Hirsutism can be defined as growth of excessive facial and body hair in women. With the world obsessed with flawless skin, such changes from feminine hair pattern (soft, fine, vellus hair) to masculine hair pattern (hard, dark, terminal hair) in a woman is generally unwelcoming and, hence, very distressing for the woman.

Why do some women develop Hirsutism?

In order to understand the reasons for such excessive growth in some women, it is important to understand the differences in the physiology of men and women. The male or female appearance of one's body is dependent on a delicate balance between male and female sex hormones. There is a predominance of the hormone estrogen in a woman's body, whereas androgens (testosterone) are the predominant sex hormones among men. However, some amount of androgens is secreted by the ovaries and adrenal glands (located next to kidneys) in women also. But, an excessive production of these hormones results in Hirsutism. Hormonal imbalance is by far the most common cause of Hirsutism.

Causes of Hirsutism

The common causes of hirsutism include:

1. Endocrine causes

  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) - PCOS is a condition of hormonal imbalance in the body, which can result in an irregular menstrual cycle, enlarged ovaries with a cystic appearance on USG, infertility, obesity and hirsutism. For more information on the causes and management of PCOS.
  • Cushing's syndrome - Excessive production of hormone Cortisol by the adrenal glands can lead to symptoms such as high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, skin discoloration, muscle weakness, irregular menstruation, and hirsutism etc. This syndrome is known as Cushing's syndrome.
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) - CAH is a condition of excessive production of hormones Androgens and Cortisol by the adrenal glands and generally manifests in childhood in the form of virilization. In such cases, CAH can present with symptoms such as ambiguous genitals, obesity, hypertension etc. However, sometimes the manifestation of CAH is deferred to early adulthood and results in milder symptoms, hirsutism being one of them.

2. Tumors - Tumors in ovary or adrenal glands can again cause hirsutism due to excessive production of androgens

3. Medications

4. Idiopathic - the woman may be having hirsutism despite normal hormone levels

Treatments


There are essentially two lines of treatment for hirsutism - one is medical management and the other is a cosmetic treatment.

Medical treatments for hirsutism -

A. Birth control pills - It's possible to reduce the severity and intensity of hair growth using birth control pills- the most commonly prescribed medical intervention! The birth control pills help by decreasing the production of androgens by ovaries. Besides this, estrogen present in the pills also helps the liver to produce more of sex hormone binding protein- these proteins bind to circulating androgens, thereby reducing their action on the body. Both these actions help in reducing the growth of hair on the body.

B. Anti-androgen medications - There are three categories of anti-androgen medications, which are commonly used for the treatment of hirsutism.

 

  • I. Spironolactone - Spironolactone is a diuretic medicine, which blocks the effects of androgens on the hair follicles, thus controlling hair growth.
  • II. Finasteride - Finasteride works by blocking the conversion of body testosterone into its more potent chemical entity, thereby limiting the effect of testosterone on hair growth.
  • III. Flutamide - Flutamide is a potent anti-androgen, which blocks the actions of androgens and helps in controlling the hair growth.

However, we have to ensure that the woman is not pregnant when taking any of these three medications. These medicines are often combined with oral contraceptives, which also have a synergistic effect in reducing the severity of hirsutism. One should also seek an expert opinion before starting these medications as there can be serious side effects, especially on liver.

C. Steroids - Low dose dexamethasone can be used to control the overactive adrenal glands when used carefully. However, long-term steroid therapy has got its own side effects and this therapy should only be considered under expert care and guidance.

D. Insulin sensitizing medicines - Medicines such as Metformin and Pioglitazone (Basically these are anti-diabetic medications) help in reducing insulin resistance in the body, which, in turn, helps in controlling the effects of excessive circulating androgens.

Cosmetic treatment for hirsutism -

One very important aspect of cosmetic management of hirsutism is self-care. This can include shaving, waxing, use of depilators and bleaching creams. All these measures help to reduce the amount of visible hair in undesired parts of the body. But, this needs to be done very frequently for a sustained visible effect.

Permanent hair removal is also possible using electrolysis or LASER treatment. In electrolysis treatment, electric current is passed into the hair follicle using a needle, which damages the root of the hair permanently. Similarly, LASER treatment uses LASER to destroy the hair follicle. Both these are effective methods to get rid of the undesired hair. However, we do not yet know if there are any long-term complications or side effects of these methods and these methods are not yet approved by the US FDA. https://www.lybrate.com/doctor/dr-kaushal-kadam-gynaecologistIn case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4028 people found this helpful

How Homeopathy Helps Manage Heart Disorders?

BHMS, OCRT KOLKATA
Homeopath, Asansol
How Homeopathy Helps Manage Heart Disorders?

 Heart failure, sometimes known as congestive heart failure, occurs when your heart muscle doesn't pump blood as well as it should. Certain conditions, such as narrowed arteries in your heart (coronary artery disease) or high blood pressure, gradually leave your heart too weak or stiff to fill and pump efficiently.

Not all conditions that lead to heart failure can be reversed, but treatments can improve the signs and symptoms of heart failure and help you live longer. Lifestyle changes — such as exercising, reducing salt in your diet, managing stress and losing weight — can improve your quality of life.

One way to prevent heart failure is to control conditions that cause heart failure, such as coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes or obesity

Causes-- heart failure often develops after other conditions have damaged or weakened your heart. However, the heart doesn't need to be weakened to cause heart failure. It can also occur if the heart becomes too stiff.

  • In heart failure, the main pumping chambers of your heart (the ventricles) may become stiff and not fill properly between beats. In some cases of heart failure, your heart muscle may become damaged and weakened, and the ventricles stretch (dilate) to the point that the heart can't pump blood efficiently throughout your body. Over time, the heart can no longer keep up with the normal demands placed on it to pump blood to the rest of your body
  • An ejection fraction is an important measurement of how well your heart is pumping and is used to help classify heart failure and guide treatment. In a healthy heart, the ejection fraction is 50 percent or higher — meaning that more than half of the blood that fills the ventricle is pumped out with each beat. But heart failure can occur even with a normal ejection fraction. This happens if the heart muscle becomes stiff from conditions such as high blood pressure.
  • The term" congestive heart failure" comes from blood backing up into — or congesting — the liver, abdomen, lower extremities and lungs. However, not all heart failure is congestive. You might have shortness of breath or weakness due to heart failure and not have any fluid building up.
  • Heart failure can involve the left side (left ventricle), right side (right ventricle) or both sides of your heart. Generally, heart failure begins with the left side, specifically the left ventricle — your heart's main pumping chamber.

Type of heart failure

1. Left-sided heart failure

Fluid may back up in your lungs, causing shortness of breath.

2. Right-sided heart failure

Fluid may back up into your abdomen, legs and feet, causing swelling.

3. Systolic heart failure

The left ventricle can't contract vigorously, indicating a pumping problem.

4. nbDiastolic heart failure

(also called heart failure with preserved ejection fraction)

The left ventricle can't relax or fill fully, indicating a filling problem.

Any of the following conditions can damage or weaken your heart and can cause heart failure. Some of these can be present without your knowing it:

  • Coronary artery disease and heart attack. Coronary artery disease is the most common form of heart disease and the most common cause of heart failure. Over time, arteries that supply blood to your heart muscle narrow from a buildup of fatty deposits — a process called atherosclerosis. The buildup of plaques can cause reduced blood flow to your heart.
  • A heart attack occurs if plaques formed by the fatty deposits in your arteries rupture. This causes a blood clot to form, which may block blood flow to an area of the heart muscle, weakening the heart's pumping ability and often leaving permanent damage. If the damage is significant, it can lead to a weakened heart muscle.
  • High blood pressure (hypertension). Blood pressure is the force of blood pumped by your heart through your arteries. If your blood pressure is high, your heart has to work harder than it should to circulate blood throughout your body.
  • Over time, the heart muscle may become thicker to compensate for the extra work it must perform. Eventually, your heart muscle may become either too stiff or too weak to effectively pump blood.
  • Faulty heart valves. The valves of your heart keep blood flowing in the proper direction through the heart. A damaged valve — due to a heart defect, coronary artery disease or heart infection — forces your heart to work harder to keep blood flowing as it should.
  • Over time, this extra work can weaken your heart. Faulty heart valves, however, can be fixed or replaced if found in time.
  • Damage to the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy). Heart muscle damage (cardiomyopathy) can have many causes, including several diseases, infections, alcohol abuse and the toxic effect of drugs, such as cocaine or some drugs used for chemotherapy.
  • Myocarditis. Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle. It's most commonly caused by a virus and can lead to left-sided heart failure.
  • Heart defects you're born with (congenital heart defects. If your heart and its chambers or valves haven't formed correctly, the healthy parts of your heart have to work harder to pump blood through your heart, which, in turn, may lead to heart failure.
  • Abnormal heart rhythms (heart arrhythmias). Abnormal heart rhythms may cause your heart to beat too fast, which creates extra work for your heart. Over time, your heart may weaken, leading to heart failure. A slow heartbeat may prevent your heart from getting enough blood out to the body and may also lead to heart failure.
  • Other diseases. Chronic diseases — such as diabetes, hiv, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or a buildup of iron (hemochromatosis) or protein (amyloidosis) —also may contribute to heart failure.

Causes of acute heart failure include viruses that attack the heart muscle, severe infections, allergic reactions, blood clots in the lungs, the use of certain medications or any illness that affects the whole body.

Symptoms

Heart failure can be ongoing (chronic), or your condition may start suddenly (acute).

Heart failure signs and symptoms may include:

  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea) when you exert yourself or when you lie down
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Swelling (edema) in your legs, ankles and feet
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Reduced ability to exercise
  • Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged phlegm
  • Increased need to urinate at night
  • Swelling of your abdomen (ascites)
  • Sudden weight gain from fluid retention
  • Lack of appetite and nausea
  • Difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness
  • Sudden, severe shortness of breath and coughing up pink, foamy mucus
  • Chest pain if your heart failure is caused by a heart attack


Risk factors--- a single risk factor may be enough to cause heart failure, but a combination of factors also increases your risk.

Risk factors include:

  • High blood pressure. Your heart works harder than it has to if your blood pressure is high.
  • Coronary artery disease. Narrowed arteries may limit your heart's supply of oxygen-rich blood, resulting in weakened heart muscle.
  • Heart attack. Damage to your heart muscle from a heart attack may mean your heart can no longer pump as well as it should.
  • Diabetes. Having diabetes increases your risk of high blood pressure and coronary artery disease.
  • Some diabetes medications. The diabetes drugs rosiglitazone (avandia) and pioglitazone (actos) have been found to increase the risk of heart failure in some people. Don't stop taking these medications on your own, though. If you're taking them, discuss with your doctor whether you need to make any changes
  • Certain medications. Some medications may lead to heart failure or heart problems. Medications that may increase the risk of heart problems include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids); certain anesthesia medications; some antiarrhythmic medications; certain medications used to treat high blood pressure, cancer, blood conditions, neurological conditions, psychiatric conditions, lung conditions, urological conditions, inflammatory conditions and infections; and other prescription and over-the-counter medications.
  • Don't stop taking any medications on your own. If you have questions about medications you're taking, discuss with your doctor whether he or she recommends any changes.
  • Sleep apnea. The inability to breathe properly while you sleep at night results in low blood oxygen levels and increased risk of abnormal heart rhythms. Both of these problems can weaken the heart.
  • Congenital heart defects. Some people who develop heart failure were born with structural heart defects.
  • Valvular heart disease. People with valvular heart disease have a higher risk of heart failure.
  • Viruses. A viral infection may have damaged your heart muscle.
  • Alcohol use. Drinking too much alcohol can weaken heart muscle and lead to heart failure.
  • Tobacco use. Using tobacco can increase your risk of heart failure.
  • Obesity. People who are obese have a higher risk of developing heart failure.
  • Irregular heartbeats. These abnormal rhythms, especially if they are very frequent and fast, can weaken the heart muscle and cause heart failure.


Complications-- if you have heart failure, your outlook depends on the cause and the severity, your overall health, and other factors such as your age. Complications can include:

  • Kidney damage or failure. Heart failure can reduce the blood flow to your kidneys, which can eventually cause kidney failure if left untreated. Kidney damage from heart failure can require dialysis for treatment.
  • Heart valve problems. The valves of your heart, which keep blood flowing in the proper direction through your heart, may not function properly if your heart is enlarged or if the pressure in your heart is very high due to heart failure.
  • Heart rhythm problems. Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) can be a potential complication of heart failure.
  • Liver damage. Heart failure can lead to a buildup of fluid that puts too much pressure on the liver. This fluid backup can lead to scarring, which makes it more difficult for your liver to function properly.

Homoeopathic remedies

Homoeopathy today is a rapidly growing system and is being practiced all over the world. Its strength lies in its evident effectiveness as it takes a holistic approach towards the sick individual through promotion of inner balance at mental, emotional, spiritual and physical levels. When heart failure is concerned there are many effective medicines are available in homoeopathy, but the selection depends upon the individuality of the patient, considering the mental and physical symptoms.

  • Aurum metallicum 30---heart failure after valvular lesions. Hear feels loose on walking. Sensations as if heart stopped beating for two or three seconds, immediately followed by tumultuous rebound with sinking at the epigastrium. Oppression at the heart. Pulse rapid, feeble and irregular. Blood pressure high.
  • Digitalis purpurea 3x—digitalis is an excellent remedy for heart failure with irregular heart beat. Sensation as if heart would stop beating if moved, must hold the breath and keep still. Pulse full, irregular, very slow and weak, intermitting every third, fifth, or seventh beat. Weak heart. The least movement causes violent palpitations. Frequent stitches in heart.
  • Strophanthus his. Q----strophanthus is best for heart failure with edema of legs. Heart’s action weak, rapid, irregular, due to muscular debility and insufficiency. Pulse rapid, alternating with slow, weak, small irregular.
  • Laurocerasus 30—laurocerasus is best for heart failure with pain in the region of heart. There is clutching at heart and palpitations. Pulse weak, variable, slow or irregular. Urine, retained, suppressed involuntary with palpitations and suffocations and fainting.
  • Crataegus oxy. Q---crataegus is considered a heart tonic. Heart muscles seem flabby, worn out. Heart weakness with oppression, stitches and insomnia. Extreme dyspnea on least exertion without much increase of pulse. Heart dilated, first sound weak. Incompetent valves, valvular murmurs.
  • Cardus marianus q---cardus marianus is effective for heart failure with liver complaints. Pain pressure and stitches in the region of the heart, oppression on deep breathing.
  • Naja tripudians 30—naja is best for heart failure with weakness and valvular disorders. Visible palpitations. Damaged heart after infectious diseases.
  • Nux vomica 30—nux vomica is an excellent remedy for heart failure seen in alcoholics. Hear feels tired, palpitation on lying down. Usually constipated with ineffectual desire. 
7 people found this helpful

Excessive Hair Growth - Is Hirsutism The Cause?

DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Excessive Hair Growth - Is Hirsutism The Cause?

There are women who feel their looks are spoilt because of the presence of excessive body hair. While hair on women's body is common, excessive body hair isn't a normal condition and must be taken seriously. Women are generally unaware that the condition is known as Hirsutism.

What is Hirsutism?
Hirsutism can be defined as growth of excessive facial and body hair in women. With the world obsessed with flawless skin, such changes from feminine hair pattern (soft, fine, vellus hair) to masculine hair pattern (hard, dark, terminal hair) in a woman is generally unwelcoming and, hence, very distressing for the woman.

Why do some women develop Hirsutism?
In order to understand the reasons for such excessive growth in some women, it is important to understand the differences in the physiology of men and women. The male or female appearance of one's body is dependent on a delicate balance between male and female sex hormones. There is a predominance of the hormone estrogen in a woman's body, whereas androgens (testosterone) are the predominant sex hormones among men. However, some amount of androgens is secreted by the ovaries and adrenal glands (located next to kidneys) in women also. But, an excessive production of these hormones results in Hirsutism. Hormonal imbalance is by far the most common cause of Hirsutism.

Causes of Hirsutism:
1. Endocrine causes

  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) - PCOS is a condition of hormonal imbalance in the body, which can result in an irregular menstrual cycle, enlarged ovaries with a cystic appearance on USG, infertility, obesity and hirsutism. For more information on the causes and management of PCOS.
  • Cushing's syndrome - Excessive production of hormone Cortisol by the adrenal glands can lead to symptoms such as high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, skin discoloration, muscle weakness, irregular menstruation, and hirsutism etc. This syndrome is known as Cushing's syndrome.
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) - CAH is a condition of excessive production of hormones Androgens and Cortisol by the adrenal glands and generally manifests in childhood in the form of virilization. In such cases, CAH can present with symptoms such as ambiguous genitals, obesity, hypertension etc. However, sometimes the manifestation of CAH is deferred to early adulthood and results in milder symptoms, hirsutism being one of them.

2. Tumors - Tumors in ovary or adrenal glands can again cause hirsutism due to excessive production of androgens

3. Medications

4. Idiopathic - The woman may be having hirsutism despite normal hormone levels


Treatments:
There are essentially two lines of treatment for hirsutism - one is medical management and the other is a cosmetic treatment.

Medical treatments for Hirsutism -
A. Birth control pills - It's possible to reduce the severity and intensity of hair growth using birth control pills- the most commonly prescribed medical intervention! The birth control pills help by decreasing the production of androgens by ovaries. Besides this, estrogen present in the pills also helps the liver to produce more of sex hormone binding protein- these proteins bind to circulating androgens, thereby reducing their action on the body. Both these actions help in reducing the growth of hair on the body.

B. Anti-androgen medications - There are three categories of anti-androgen medications, which are commonly used for the treatment of hirsutism.

  • I. Spironolactone - Spironolactone is a diuretic medicine, which blocks the effects of androgens on the hair follicles, thus controlling hair growth.
  • II. Finasteride - Finasteride works by blocking the conversion of body testosterone into its more potent chemical entity, thereby limiting the effect of testosterone on hair growth.
  • III. Flutamide - Flutamide is a potent anti-androgen, which blocks the actions of androgens and helps in controlling the hair growth.

However, we have to ensure that the woman is not pregnant when taking any of these three medications. These medicines are often combined with oral contraceptives, which also have a synergistic effect in reducing the severity of hirsutism. One should also seek an expert opinion before starting these medications as there can be serious side effects, especially on liver.

C. Steroids - Low dose dexamethasone can be used to control the overactive adrenal glands when used carefully. However, long-term steroid therapy has got its own side effects and this therapy should only be considered under expert care and guidance.

D. Insulin sensitizing medicines - Medicines such as Metformin and Pioglitazone (Basically these are anti-diabetic medications) help in reducing insulin resistance in the body, which, in turn, helps in controlling the effects of excessive circulating androgens.

Cosmetic treatment for Hirsutism -
One very important aspect of cosmetic management of hirsutism is self-care. This can include shaving, waxing, use of depilators and bleaching creams. All these measures help to reduce the amount of visible hair in undesired parts of the body. But, this needs to be done very frequently for a sustained visible effect.

Permanent hair removal is also possible using electrolysis or LASER treatment. In electrolysis treatment, electric current is passed into the hair follicle using a needle, which damages the root of the hair permanently. Similarly, LASER treatment uses LASER to destroy the hair follicle. Both these are effective methods to get rid of the undesired hair. However, we do not yet know if there are any long-term complications or side effects of these methods and these methods are not yet approved by the US FDA. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

2278 people found this helpful

Hirsutism - 4 Ways it Can be Treated!

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Hyderabad
Hirsutism - 4 Ways it Can be Treated!

There are women who feel their looks are spoilt because of the presence of excessive body hair. While hair on women's body is common, excessive body hair isn't a normal condition and must be taken seriously. Women are generally unaware that the condition is known as Hirsutism.

What is Hirsutism?

Hirsutism can be defined as growth of excessive facial and body hair in women. With the world obsessed with flawless skin, such changes from feminine hair pattern (soft, fine, vellus hair) to masculine hair pattern (hard, dark, terminal hair) in a woman is generally unwelcoming and, hence, very distressing for the woman.

Why do some women develop Hirsutism?

In order to understand the reasons for such excessive growth in some women, it is important to understand the differences in the physiology of men and women. The male or female appearance of one's body is dependent on a delicate balance between male and female sex hormones. There is a predominance of the hormone estrogen in a woman's body, whereas androgens (testosterone) are the predominant sex hormones among men. However, some amount of androgens is secreted by the ovaries and adrenal glands (located next to kidneys) in women also. But, an excessive production of these hormones results in Hirsutism. Hormonal imbalance is by far the most common cause of Hirsutism.

Causes of Hirsutism

The common causes of hirsutism include:

1. Endocrine causes

  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) - PCOS is a condition of hormonal imbalance in the body, which can result in an irregular menstrual cycle, enlarged ovaries with a cystic appearance on USG, infertility, obesity and hirsutism. For more information on the causes and management of PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome).
  • Cushing's syndrome - Excessive production of hormone Cortisol by the adrenal glands can lead to symptoms such as high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, skin discoloration, muscle weakness, irregular menstruation, and hirsutism etc. This syndrome is known as Cushing's syndrome.
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) - CAH is a condition of excessive production of hormones Androgens and Cortisol by the adrenal glands and generally manifests in childhood in the form of virilization. In such cases, CAH can present with symptoms such as ambiguous genitals, obesity, hypertension etc. However, sometimes the manifestation of CAH is deferred to early adulthood and results in milder symptoms, hirsutism being one of them.

2. Tumors - Tumors in ovary or adrenal glands can again cause hirsutism due to excessive production of androgens

3. Medications

4. Idiopathic - The woman may be having hirsutism despite normal hormone levels


Treatments

There are essentially two lines of treatment for hirsutism - one is medical management and the other is a cosmetic treatment.

Medical treatments for hirsutism -

1. Birth control pills - It's possible to reduce the severity and intensity of hair growth using birth control pills- the most commonly prescribed medical intervention! The birth control pills help by decreasing the production of androgens by ovaries. Besides this, estrogen present in the pills also helps the liver to produce more of sex hormone binding protein- these proteins bind to circulating androgens, thereby reducing their action on the body. Both these actions help in reducing the growth of hair on the body.

2. Anti-androgen medications - There are three categories of anti-androgen medications, which are commonly used for the treatment of hirsutism.

- Spironolactone - Spironolactone is a diuretic medicine, which blocks the effects of androgens on the hair follicles, thus controlling hair growth.

- Finasteride - Finasteride works by blocking the conversion of body testosterone into its more potent chemical entity, thereby limiting the effect of testosterone on hair growth.

- Flutamide - Flutamide is a potent anti-androgen, which blocks the actions of androgens and helps in controlling the hair growth.

However, we have to ensure that the woman is not pregnant when taking any of these three medications. These medicines are often combined with oral contraceptives, which also have a synergistic effect in reducing the severity of hirsutism. One should also seek an expert opinion before starting these medications as there can be serious side effects, especially on liver.

3. Steroids - Low dose dexamethasone can be used to control the overactive adrenal glands when used carefully. However, long-term steroid therapy has got its own side effects and this therapy should only be considered under expert care and guidance.

4. Insulin sensitizing medicines - Medicines such as Metformin and Pioglitazone (Basically these are anti-diabetic medications) help in reducing insulin resistance in the body, which, in turn, helps in controlling the effects of excessive circulating androgens.

Cosmetic treatment for hirsutism -

One very important aspect of cosmetic management of hirsutism is self-care. This can include shaving, waxing, use of depilators and bleaching creams. All these measures help to reduce the amount of visible hair in undesired parts of the body. But, this needs to be done very frequently for a sustained visible effect.

Permanent hair removal is also possible using electrolysis or LASER treatment. In electrolysis treatment, electric current is passed into the hair follicle using a needle, which damages the root of the hair permanently. Similarly, LASER treatment uses LASER to destroy the hair follicle. Both these are effective methods to get rid of the undesired hair. However, we do not yet know if there are any long-term complications or side effects of these methods and these methods are not yet approved by the US FDA. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.

4029 people found this helpful

Do You Know Excessive Hair Growth in Women is Hirsutism

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Do You Know Excessive Hair Growth in Women is Hirsutism

There are women who feel their looks are spoilt because of the presence of excessive body hair. While hair on women's body is common, excessive body hair isn't a normal condition and must be taken seriously. Women are generally unaware that the condition is known as Hirsutism.

What is Hirsutism?

Hirsutism can be defined as growth of excessive facial and body hair in women. With the world obsessed with flawless skin, such changes from feminine hair pattern (soft, fine, vellus hair) to masculine hair pattern (hard, dark, terminal hair) in a woman is generally unwelcoming and, hence, very distressing for the woman.

Why do some women develop Hirsutism?

In order to understand the reasons for such excessive growth in some women, it is important to understand the differences in the physiology of men and women. The male or female appearance of one's body is dependent on a delicate balance between male and female sex hormones. There is a predominance of the hormone estrogen in a woman's body, whereas androgens (testosterone) are the predominant sex hormones among men. However, some amount of androgens is secreted by the ovaries and adrenal glands (located next to kidneys) in women also. But, an excessive production of these hormones results in Hirsutism. Hormonal imbalance is by far the most common cause of Hirsutism.

Causes of Hirsutism

The common causes of hirsutism include:

1. Endocrine causes

  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) - PCOS is a condition of hormonal imbalance in the body, which can result in an irregular menstrual cycle, enlarged ovaries with a cystic appearance on USG, infertility, obesity and hirsutism. For more information on the causes and management of PCOS.
  • Cushing's syndrome - Excessive production of hormone Cortisol by the adrenal glands can lead to symptoms such as high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, skin discoloration, muscle weakness, irregular menstruation, and hirsutism etc. This syndrome is known as Cushing's syndrome.
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) - CAH is a condition of excessive production of hormones Androgens and Cortisol by the adrenal glands and generally manifests in childhood in the form of virilization. In such cases, CAH can present with symptoms such as ambiguous genitals, obesity, hypertension etc. However, sometimes the manifestation of CAH is deferred to early adulthood and results in milder symptoms, hirsutism being one of them.

2. Tumors - Tumors in ovary or adrenal glands can again cause hirsutism due to excessive production of androgens

3. Medications

4. Idiopathic - the woman may be having hirsutism despite normal hormone levels

Treatments

There are essentially two lines of treatment for hirsutism - one is medical management and the other is a cosmetic treatment.


Medical treatments for hirsutism -

A. Birth control pills - It's possible to reduce the severity and intensity of hair growth using birth control pills- the most commonly prescribed medical intervention! The birth control pills help by decreasing the production of androgens by ovaries. Besides this, estrogen present in the pills also helps the liver to produce more of sex hormone binding protein- these proteins bind to circulating androgens, thereby reducing their action on the body. Both these actions help in reducing the growth of hair on the body.

B. Anti-androgen medications - There are three categories of anti-androgen medications, which are commonly used for the treatment of hirsutism.

  • I. Spironolactone - Spironolactone is a diuretic medicine, which blocks the effects of androgens on the hair follicles, thus controlling hair growth.
  • II. Finasteride - Finasteride works by blocking the conversion of body testosterone into its more potent chemical entity, thereby limiting the effect of testosterone on hair growth.
  • III. Flutamide - Flutamide is a potent anti-androgen, which blocks the actions of androgens and helps in controlling the hair growth.

However, we have to ensure that the woman is not pregnant when taking any of these three medications. These medicines are often combined with oral contraceptives, which also have a synergistic effect in reducing the severity of hirsutism. One should also seek an expert opinion before starting these medications as there can be serious side effects, especially on liver.

C. Steroids - Low dose dexamethasone can be used to control the overactive adrenal glands when used carefully. However, long-term steroid therapy has got its own side effects and this therapy should only be considered under expert care and guidance.

D. Insulin sensitizing medicines - Medicines such as Metformin and Pioglitazone (Basically these are anti-diabetic medications) help in reducing insulin resistance in the body, which, in turn, helps in controlling the effects of excessive circulating androgens.

Cosmetic treatment for hirsutism -

One very important aspect of cosmetic management of hirsutism is self-care. This can include shaving, waxing, use of depilators and bleaching creams. All these measures help to reduce the amount of visible hair in undesired parts of the body. But, this needs to be done very frequently for a sustained visible effect.

Permanent hair removal is also possible using electrolysis or LASER treatment. In electrolysis treatment, electric current is passed into the hair follicle using a needle, which damages the root of the hair permanently. Similarly, LASER treatment uses LASER to destroy the hair follicle. Both these are effective methods to get rid of the undesired hair. However, we do not yet know if there are any long-term complications or side effects of these methods and these methods are not yet approved by the US FDA.

Related Tip: How Safe is Laser Surgery for Facial Hair Removal??

4808 people found this helpful

Table of Content

About Pioglitazone
When is Pioglitazone prescribed?
What are the contraindications of Pioglitazone ?
What are the side effects of Pioglitazone ?
Key highlights of Pioglitazone
What are the dosage instructions?
Where is the Pioglitazone approved?
Medicines containing Pioglitazone
What are the interactions for Pioglitazone ?