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I have hair fall problem. I have taken many treatments with injection if vitamin b. But it does not work properly. Suggest me about my hair fall problem.
I want to loss my tummy only belly I m not fat from back n thighs only I have a fat tummy I want to make it flat plzz help me out I m only 18 yrs old n I dnt eat even fast food.
I have been passing hard stool since last 3-4 days that is causing stretching n pain in anus. I had c section delivery a month ago. please suggest any medicine.
Hi, i'm 19 years old. My height is 149 CM and my weight is 39 Kg's only. I'm eating 5 times per day, but still i'm looking like younger only (means i'm not getting fat) And i'm eating protein items and fruits. But i'm not getting. Can you pls share the advice to get fat immediately?
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex is a genetic disorder that results in the skin turning fragile and blister prone. Any small injury or friction created due to rubbing of the skin might lead to blister formation. In some cases, blisters may occur inside the mouth and on the cheeks. Normally, the cause of the disease is linked to defective genes.The condition is usually inherited and the symptoms start flaring in childhood. In some cases, the symptoms start during the early twenties.
The symptoms of this disease are:
- Deformities in the nails of the toes and fingers.
- Blisters in the internal organs such as esophagus and vocal chords.
- Formation of blisters on the skin of the feet and the hands.
- Hair loss and scarring of the scalp.
- Thickening of the skin on the palms and soles of the feet.
- Formation of white skin bumps on the skin.
- You may experience various dental problems such as tooth decay.
- You may have problems in swallowing food.
Epidermolysis bullosa can be classified into:
- Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa: This is a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa that usually develops during birth. The condition is characterized by hoarse and unusual crying sounds and scarring in the vocal chords. The genes that attach the epidermis to the basement become defective and thus, cause blister formation.
- Kindler Syndrome: This type is characterized by blister formation across all layers of the skin, but its symptoms tend to disappear with time. This condition is known to cause discoloration of the skin when exposed to the sun.
- Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa: This is caused by a defect in the gene that causes problems in collagen formation. This results in complications as the skin doesn't join properly.
This disease may cause various complications such as sepsis, skin infection, anemia, constipation and dehydration. An infant, who has a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa, may not be able to survive due to widespread blistering and infections that may drain all the body fluids out drastically. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dermatologist.
A stroke may be called a brain attack. It may happen to any person at any time. A stroke occurs when there is a vascular event in the brain causing a blockage of blood vessels or a rupture of vessels causing hemorrhage. The brain cells are starved of food and oxygen or are assaulted by a barrage of harmful agents released as a result of hemorrhage, suffering reversible or irreversible damage. Dead or disabled brain cells result in brain dysfunction due to which patients may lose control over parts of the body or lose the capacity to speak, think or remember.
Strokes can be mild to severe and require immediate medical attention. Stroke requires advanced care and a stroke patient is ideally treated by a multidisciplinary team of experts. At various stages of treatment, the attention of doctors specializing in Neurology, Neurosurgery, Critical Care, Medicine, Radiology and Physical Medicine may be required. Besides, good nursing care and physiotherapy are essential for better recovery from stroke.
Types of Stroke-
- Ischemic Stroke: This kind of stroke occurs when there is a blockage in a blood vessel, which supplies blood to the brain. The commonly seen underlying causes are atherosclerosis (which is a condition where fatty deposits occur in the walls of the blood vessels) or embolism (blood clot formed elsewhere reaches the brain circulation and blocks a smaller blood vessel). Other rarer causes of ischemic stroke are trauma, hypotension, vasospasm, etc..
- Hemorrhagic Stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel ruptures into the brain. This can be caused by high blood pressure, weakened vessel wall due to atherosclerosis, or vascular malformations like aneurysms, AVM, or cavernomas.
- Transient Ischemic Attack: This type of stroke is also known as a mini-stroke. The blockage caused is temporary or transient in nature, and may happen repeatedly.
Treatment of Stroke:
A. General Treatment: Most cases require supportive management to prevent the secondary complications of stroke, so that the patient gets adequate time for the brain tissue to recover functions. Medicines are administered to control brain pressure, prevent convulsions and aid brain tissue recovery. Paralysis of muscles, difficulty in eating, drinking, breathing, controlling urine etc. make the patient highly dependent. Physiotherapy is essential for good recovery of impaired functions. It is essential for family and friends to encourage the patient and involve themselves in supportive care to prevent depression from setting in and for robust rehabilitation.
B. Specific Treatment of Ischemic Stroke
- Tissue Plasminogen Activator: This is one of the best ways to treat ischemic strokes presenting early. This medicine is given to the patient intravenously. It dissolves the blood clot and improves blood flow to the area of the brain which is affected. The medicine should be given within three to four hours after stroke symptoms appear.
- Endovascular procedure: This is again useful only if the patient reaches early. This is a process by which the blood clot is removed using a catheter, which gets inserted into the area of the blocked blood vessel. It helps in restoring blood flow to that area.
- Decompressive craniectomy: Large ischemic strokes cause a rise of brain pressure which may cause death. To reduce brain pressure, decompressive craniectomy surgery may be required if medicines alone are not effective.
In this, a large part of the skull on one side or in the front may be removed to allow space for a swelling brain and relieve intracranial pressure.
C. Specific Treatment of Hemorrhagic stroke
- Surgical treatment: Different modes of neurosurgery may be undertaken to remove blood clots, repair vascular malformations and for relieving pressure within the skull. The need for surgery depends on the cause, location and volume of hemorrhage besides other factors. It is an important decision, and the family needs to consult with the neurosurgeon and understand the implications thoroughly before agreeing or disagreeing for treatment.
- Endovascular coiling or embolisation: Act as standalone treatment or as an additional aid to surgery especially in vascular malformations like aneurysms or AVMs.
I am 28 years male. Feeling tired body from last 1 week and full body ache from last 4 days. Body temp. Constants at 98.6 through out the day. please suggest something. Plz.
I am 44 years old and my weight is about 73 kg. I want good an healthy weight under BMI. My height is 5'5.
What ever I eat, I do not gain weight. These days I'm getting thinner and thinner. So please give a nutritive plan so that I can gain weight.
Pregnancy can be a tricky time for most women, although it is not a pathological condition. One must be prepared for pregnancy with the best of health in the pre pregnancy period. This also includes women who are suffering from diabetes. The complications during pregnancy and delivery increase manifold if one has not controlled the glucose and blood sugar levels before getting pregnant. So read on to know more about coping with pregnancy if you happen to have diabetes.
Complications: Pregnancy with diabetes can cause severe complications if the blood sugar levels are not controlled properly before pregnancy. This can cause the diabetes to become even worse in the long run, with the onset of various other related ailments like kidney disease, heart disease, eye problems and more. It can also increase the risk of premature delivery, and too much birth weight of the baby as well as low glucose levels right after the baby’s birth. Further, one can also lose the baby to a miscarriage due to excessively high blood sugar levels. This can also affect the glucose and blood sugar level of the baby as the glucose passes through the body.
Related conditions: If you happen to have high blood sugar levels, then you and your baby can get affected in an adverse way. To begin with, you may come down with severe depression regarding how you will be able to manage your diabetes and pregnancy together, and also due to the implications of the condition after the birth of the baby. It can also cause a condition called Preeclampsia in which the pregnant woman’s blood pressure becomes high and too much protein starts to pass from the urine, which can also result in frequent urination and life threatening defects and problems for you and the baby. In such cases, you will have to be hospitalised and the baby will need to be delivered via a C section or a Caesarean Section.
Planning ahead: If you know that you are trying to conceive, the best way is to be fully prepared well in advance. This includes planning ahead for managing the blood sugar levels and keeping the risk of other ailments at bay. You can start by losing excessive weight and seek treatment to bring down the blood sugar levels. Exercising and watching your diet are also some good ways to ensure that your Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes is in control.
Medical Team: It is pertinent to be in touch with your medical team on a constant basis. This team should include the obstetrician and gynaecologist as well as your regular doctor to whom you can report any changes.
Keep health close to your heart when you are pregnant by taking care of all existing ailments.
I am overweight and work in IT company. I hardly get time for workout. What are the ways through which I can reduce weight?
I am 23 years old, 5'7" tall having weight around 50 Kgs. I am having good food but nothing works as I want to gain weight.
The biological basis of mental illness
Mental illness is, in part, an illness of the brain. Learning about the brain can:
? give information from a biological and medical perspective (and some idea of its complexity)
? help you understand and support treatment
? assist you in dealing with the stigmas of mental illness
? support the realisation that no one is to blame for the onset of mental illness.
About brain research
A lot of what the community commonly thinks and knows about mental illness is based on previous experience and social stigma. It is often information that is out of date and leaves us with an impression of hopelessness. In fact:
? Over half of what we know about the brain in relation to mental illness we have learnt in the last 10 years. As a consequence, medications and treatments have improved significantly and people who are now being diagnosed with mental illness have a better prognosis than people diagnosed before that time.
? New imaging technology allows the brain to be examined while the person is experiencing mental illness, whereas before we relied on autopsy information.
? Research indicates that physical changes commonly occur within the brain in
? The brain pathways responsible for ?higher? mental functioning (feeling emotions, interpreting information) are affected.
? The linking of an illness to particular changes in the brain is extremely difficult. (Brain scanning techniques are used alongside assessment of behaviour and symptoms.)
? Brain research has already achieved much, and has further capacity to improve medications and other physical treatments.
What changes in the brain when mental illness is present?
Like other body parts, the brain is susceptible to injury and change.
Both the chemical messaging system and the physical structures of the brain can be
altered in mental illness.
The chemical, or neurotransmission system in the brain Neurons.The brain is made up of billions of cells called neurons. Each neuron is a link in a chain and can have thousands of connections to other neurons. These connections of neurons form chains through which messages are relayed in the brain.
The synapse is the meeting point of two neurons. A signal must be transmitted from one neuron across the synapse to the other neuron. These events occur within
? Neurotransmitters are the chemicals that conduct the messages across the
? When a signal arrives at the end of a neuron, the neurotransmitter spills into the gap and crosses the gap.
? Scientists have identified over 50 neurotransmitters that are messengers communicating information from one part of the brain to another, and to all
parts of the body.
? From this simple system, complicated brains are built. And this system seems
affected in many mental illnesses.
Neurotransmitter malfunctions can occur because there is:
? not enough neurotransmitter
? too much neurotransmitter
? malabsorption of the neurotransmitter.
Some important neurotransmitters and their roles are:
? dopamine: activation level, mood, movement Understanding the Brain and
Mental Illness continued.
? norepinephrine: mood, activation level
? serotonin: mood, sleep, appetite, aggression
? acetylcholine: mood, autonomic nervous system.
Malfunction in these neurotransmitters is found in many forms of mental illness. It is possible that, in biologically vulnerable individuals, high stress levels ?trigger? malfunctioning in neurotransmitters (e.G. Production of neurotransmitters cannot
keep up with the body?s demands or the neurotransmitters are
not effectively removed from the system).
There is evidence to strongly suggest that some brain structures are altered or damaged in mental illness. It is clear, however, that many parts of the brain are affected by mental illness, including the following:
The main purpose of the frontal lobe is control of movement
It is also thought to be responsible for behaviour, character, emotional state, short-term memory and planning.
Think of the behaviours that are often displayed when someone is psychotic. They often have poor concentration, they can be emotional or lack emotion and display odd behaviours.
Movement can also be random and disjointed.
The parietal lobe is involved in:
? long-term memory
? obtaining and retaining accurate knowledge of objects
? sensory speech (responsible for perceiving the spoken word).
When a person develops certain mental illnesses, these pathways/speech may be affected. Hence someone with schizophrenia, when psychotic, may develop a language of their own or words of their own, called neologisms. Often people?s
ability to retain information is limited.
Roles of the temporal lobe include:
? auditory (hearing), the area that receives and interprets
impulses from the inner ear
? olfactory (smell), the area that receives and interprets
impulses from the nose
? taste, the area that interprets nerve impulses from the tongue.
The cells in this area receive and interpret impulses from the various parts of the body, i.E. Nose, taste buds and ear. When someone is psychotic they may be hearing voices, but the parts of the ear usually involved in hearing (the anvil hammer, etc.)
are not physically moving from sound waves. However, the impulses in the brain are working and sending messages, as if the person is hearing. This also occurs in relation to smell and taste ? people may think the food is being poisoned because it
Message Occipital lobe
The occipital lobe receives impulses from the eye and interprets them as visual impressions. The eyes do not actually do the seeing ? it is the brain that receives the impulses from the eyes and interprets them. When someone experiences visual
hallucinations, the occipital lobe is seen to be very active ? impulses are interpreted and processed ? thus the person sees objects that may not be present.
Thought to influence muscle tone ? if control is inadequate, movements are uncoordinated.
Receives impulses from the body?s sensory nerves associated with pain, temperature, pressure and touch. Here crude, uncritical sensations reach consciousness (e.G. Awareness of pain but not the ability to identify the body part involved). People with schizophrenia may wear lots of clothes on hot days because
this part of their brain is affected by the illness.
Involved in the pituitary gland?s orchestration of hormone release and in the autonomic nervous system (hunger, thirst, body temperature, heart and blood vessels, and defensive reactions such as fear and rage).
? Controls and co-ordinates the movements of various muscle groups to ensure smooth, even and precise actions.
? Maintains balance and equilibrium of the body.
? Jerky, unco-ordinated movements indicate the involvement of the cerebellum in mental illness.
The limbic system
? Is more a functional than an anatomical entity.
? Involves parts of the brain essential for organising emotional responses and processing information.
? Is involved in schizophrenia, which affects the emotions of the person and their ability to process information.
Applying the knowledge ? theories about what happens in the brain relating to
schizophrenia, depression and obsessive compulsive disorder
Current research indicates the following theories about what is happening in the brain in relation to schizophrenia:
There is an excess of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine is involved in regulating thoughts and feelings, both of which are disturbed in schizophrenia. It is also thought that high dopamine levels make someone more sensitive to stress.
Research indicates that some people with schizophrenia appear to have larger ventricles. Research also indicates that some people experiencing schizophrenia seem to have a loss of tissue in the anterior hippocampus, which may account for memory problems and irrationality. Recent research carried out in Melbourne seems
to indicate some people have this tissue reduction before the onset of psychosis, which leads to the hope that results of
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used as a predictor
In depression, not enough neurotransmitter appears to be released into the gap between neurons, or too much of it is removed before it has completed its function.
When antidepressants are used, there is more neurotransmitter is available in the gap between neurons, which eases a depressed mood.
Obsessive compulsive disorder
Researchers think obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) may be linked to parts of the basal ganglia involved in fixed patterns of behaviour resulting in an imbalance among a variety of neurotransmitters.
One hypothesis is that the brain signals for a contaminant (like dirty hands) cause the cortex to send signals to preprogrammed cells in an area of the basal ganglia that produce the neurotransmitter serotonin, with other neurotransmitters also involved.
In short, we provide this basic information about the brain and mental illness for the following reasons:
To increase your familiarity with the terms so that when they are described by people in the treating profession, you might recognise them and be able to engage in a discussion that is fruitful for you.
For you to understand more about some of the behaviours associated with mental illness and their origins.
Because our experience is that many families when they first come into contact with mental illness believe that it is due solely to a negative psychological experience early in life (that the family may have caused). More information about the biological origins of mental illness gives you an opportunity to revisit these ideas. Mental Illness Fellowship Victoria - for people with mental illness, their families and friends