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A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline mineral development, which forms within the kidney or the urinary tract. It is called nephrolithiasis in medical terms. Kidney stones occur due to the decrease in urine volume or due to an excess of substances in the urine which are stone-forming in nature. Dehydration is considered to be a primary risk factor for kidney stones too.
Causes of kidney stones:Kidney stones develop when the urine contains increased amounts of crystal forming substances. They include calcium, oxalate and uric acid in amounts which the fluid in the urine cannot dilute. Your urine may also lack the substances which help in prevention of crystals from sticking to each other, thereby enhancing the conditions for kidney stones to form.
The balance of your urine can change due to several factors:
- Not drinking sufficient amount of water makes the salts, minerals and other substances present in the urine to stick together, which may lead to the formation of a stone.
- The normal urine balance may get disrupted due to several health conditions, which lead to kidney stone formation. Diseases such as gout or certain inflammatory bowel diseases can also cause kidney stones.
- Many cases of kidney stones are hereditary and run in families, affecting family members over many generations.
- A rare cause of kidney stone formation is the overproduction of hormones by the parathyroid glands, which results in increased levels of calcium leading to calcium kidney stones.
Types of kidney stones
Kidney stones are of different types, which occur due to several, different causes. They are as follows:
- Calcium stones: Calcium stones account for being the most common form of kidney stones. They occur due to excessive calcium in the urine. This may happen due to an inherited condition known as hypercalciuria, the overreaction of the parathyroid gland, kidney diseases, several cancers or from a condition known as sarcoidosis. The stones may be large and smooth or rough and spiky.
- Struvite stones: These stones are caused due to infections. And they usually occur after a urinary tract infection. This form of kidney stone is more common in women though.
- Uric acid stones: These stones occur due to large amounts of uric acid in the urine. It may occur from having a high protein diet, from a health condition called gout or from a hereditary condition where the amount of uric acid in urine increases.
- Cystine stones: These are rare kidney stones and occur due to a hereditary health condition known as cystinuria.
Kidney stones occur due to the change in balance of water, salts and minerals, which are present in the urine. Insufficient water consumption is often the most common cause of kidney stones. So make sure you drink lots of water to keep stone formation at bay. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
I am physically handicapped with both lower legs. I have kidney stone making problem in 4 months. In march for left ureter stone size 10.
In most cases, a urinary tract infection affects only the urethra and bladder("Lower" UTI) but in some cases, it can affect the ureters and kidneys("Upper UTI) as well. This is known as Pyelonephritis or a kidney infection. If this infection spreads to the bloodstream, it could cause serious health problems. Since women have a shorter urethra than men, they are more susceptible to kidney infections. This is because the bacteria typically enter the body through the urethra.
The most common symptoms of this type of kidney infection are:
- Frequent urges to urinate
- Painful urination
- Fever or chills
- Nausea and vomiting
- Presence of blood in the urine
- Foul smell while urinating
- Cloudy urine
Pyelonephritis is caused by the same bacteria that cause lower urinary tract infections. In some cases, it may also be caused by E. coli or klebsiella bacteria found in stool. In rare instances, bacteria from the skin can also trigger this disease. The obstruction of urine flow or reduced urine flow can increase a person’s risk of suffering from this disease. Some of the causes for this obstruction include:
- Presence of stones in the bladder, ureters or kidney
- Tumours or cancerous masses in the abdominal or pelvic area
- Benign prostatic hypertrophy
Kidney stones can also increase the risk of this disease by proving the bacteria with a place to multiply. Lastly, people suffering from diabetes or other conditions that impair the immune system are more susceptible to kidney infections.
A thorough physical examination along with a urine analysis and urine culture are the first steps to confirming a diagnosis. Some doctors may also ask for a CT scan, blood cultures and an ultrasound of the kidneys. In an ultrasound, your doctor will also look for kidney stones or birth defects that could increase your risk of this disease.
A 7-day course of antibiotics is enough to cure this disease in most cases. As long as the patient can take oral medication hospitalisation is not required but if the patient is nauseous and constantly vomits, hospitalisation may be suggested as the medicine will need to be given intravenously. In rare, extreme cases, the infection may cause the development of an abscess.
Abscesses cannot be cured by antibiotics and must be drained. Hence, kidney infections can be serious and one needs to take proper care if the symptoms are present.
Doctor, I am having 4 kidney stones (size 9,7, 6 mm) in both kidneys. I am taking stone syrups (homeopath) for the last 15 days. Please advice is it ok for taking this medicine.
Hi, my father is diabetic and issues with heart /kidney his health is not improving HB level is 6% and blood creatinine level is 5. Already gone through angio and stunt is placed one year back. Again he is have problem with breathing and complain chest pain some time.
How can I stay longer on bed, and one more thing am worried about, actually after just having sex/ejaculation, I feel to urinate and and within 5 mins I bound to urinate because of pressure increases, so is it normal or I should consult.
Doctor. Me bahut Pareshan chal raha hu. Karib 8 se 9 mahine se mujhe urine m jalan ho rahi hai aur badly smell aati hai mere testis m bhi dard hota h kbhi kbhi lekin. Mere sab test ho chuke h, ultrasound, blood test, urine test sab normal h. But doctor me abhi tak thik nhi h.sir please meri madad karo m bahut pareshan hu apni life se.
I am 55 yrs, operate prostate june, 13 now every after 6 month infection attack with high fever and feeling uneasy time of urine.
I am 36 years old man. I want to donate kidney to my sister. But my wife is against it. Could it be possible that stitching marks after operation may be invisible by any laser or any other technique using for operation. Please advise.
In August I woke up with very sharp pain and I had to go Emergency Room. They did CT scan and said I've 5mm kidney stone. Followed up with urologist who said without examining me that I probably passed kidney stone. After 1 week I had another sharp pain which I ended up taking very strong pain killer.
I'm 23 years old and I have gas problem since ages. Never took this so seriously but these days I can't go through it. I get stomach pain sometimes and got belly fat which is making me look dirty. Due to belly fat I'm thinking of not having food even if am hungry. Which makes me fall due to low BP. Once I had stones in kidney, now they're gone (I suppose) Is that affecting?
I have stone in kidney right side 4 mm and left side 6 mm it is paining so much kindly suggest medicine.
I am 58 years old. I am deibietc patient. I got kidney problem. My blood urea is 49.3. Sr. Creatinineis1.42. Sr. Vldl. Cholesterol 53.9and sr. Tiglyceride 269.7. How to decrease the same.
Is there any treatment for kidney stone without operation and 100% effective result and what are the symptoms by which one can know that their is a stone in kidney.
Every second day I am having nightfall Not thinking anything having my dinner till 8. Use too go urine before sleep. And use too wash toes also. Why this is happening. M tensed not married.
- Kidney stones are known to the mankind since antiquity. Lot of innovations have been done in treating the kidney stones, but there is a very little knowledge regarding the stone formation and how it can be prevented. Daily water intake is one of the important factors in the prevention of kidney stones. Diet is another factor that can promote or inhibit kidney stone formation. Others include environment, body weight and heredity.
- The dietary advice will be based on the type of kidney stones, which will be recommended by the urologist. These recommendations mentioned below are general and for the most commonest kidney stone formers.