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In recent times, the advancement of medical science has substantially contributed in comprehending the Alzheimer’s disease. Unfortunately, the number of individuals suffering from the disease is expected to rise in the next ten years which pose a threat to the allocation of health care resources and public health. Alzheimer’s disease is thought to be a complex disease which influences a person’s behavior as well as cognition through numerous mechanisms.
Can surgery be deemed as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease?
The surgery is a multicenter clinical trial which is making a new direction in clinical research. It is devised to halt or slow down the problems caused by the disease which gradually erases a lifetime of memories in elderly patients. Though there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, it has been found that low-voltage electric charges delivered right at the brain. Only the symptomatic therapies for Alzheimer’s disease are provided which do not have any effect on the evolution of the disease. The standard medical treatments for Alzheimer’s disease include cholinesterase inhibitors along with a partial N-methyl D-aspartate antagonist. In most cases of mild to moderate symptoms of this disease, a combination of treatments is used according to the clinical history, age and condition of the patient.
Mental activity supporting cognition
Many patients having normal cognition or mild impairment have a fear that they may develop AD. Many experts are of the opinion that mentally challenging activities including brain teasers and crossword puzzles can be helpful in reducing the risks in such patients. Clinical trials are under the way for determining whether or not these types of activities have any substantial effect on halting the progression of AD.
Treating AD in its moderate to the severe stage
Numerous studies have shown that blockade of NMDA receptors by memantine can be used safely in combination with ChEls. This combination has been shown to delay the institutionalization in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Treating secondary symptoms
A variety of behavioral as well as pharmacologic interventions can help in overcoming the clinical manifestations of the disease. These include anxiety, psychotic behavior, depression and agitation among others. The effectiveness of this disease can range from modest to excellent. No particular agent or dose of it can be unanimously accepted to be the sole treatment option for the wide range of clinical issues. Moreover, in the recent time, the FDA has not accepted any psychotropic agent for treating AD.
Along with these treatment options, there are behavioral interventions that can range from patient-centred approaches to caregiver training for helping manage the cognitive and behavioral manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease. Last but not the least, it is very crucial to point out the significance of treatment in the early stages of AD in order to cure it better. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The term neurovascular disease refers to any kind of abnormality that can be observed in the blood vessels or in the blood supply to the spine or brain. The narrowing or shrinking of the arteries due to the plaque buildup also falls under this particular disease, which intervenes the normal blood flow to the brains, and makes the risk of stroke a more prominent one. If not treated at the right time in the right way, neurovascular diseases can not only cause disabilities in the adults, but may also be fatal.
Below are some of the common types of neurovascular diseases.
- Aneurysms: Aneurysms are a particular type of neurovascular disease where a vascular lesion or a balloon shaped abnormality manifests in the artery walls due to the walls' weakness or swelling. Vomiting, nausea and sudden headache of a severe kind are a few common symptoms of it.
- Arteriovenous malformation: When a defect is formed in the circulatory system which reduces the oxygen supply to the spinal cord and the brain, AVM or arteriovenous malformation occurs. While severe pain in the back is the main symptom of arteriovenous malformation in the spinal, headaches and seizures are common symptoms of the malformation in the brain.
- Arteriovenous fistulas: AVF or arteriovenous fistulas are nothing but some unnatural passageways in the vein and the arteries, encompassing the spinal cord and the brain. Here, the blood flows directly into a vein from the arteries through the fistulas, which gives rise to the blood bypassing the capillaries continuously.
- Carotid artery stenosis: When the carotid arteries, situated on the both sides of the neck and leads to the brain, starts to become narrower due to the plaque formation or the compositions of fatty deposits, the normal blood flow gets interrupted severely. Sometimes, mini-strokes or transient ischemic attacks are its first signs.
- Moyamoya disease: It’s comparatively a very rare condition where some blood vessels in the brains close due to blood clots. Some of its early warning signs are speech problems, weakness, limp paralysis and headaches.
- Cavernous malformation: Cavernous malformation refers to a neurovascular disease where not only the malformation occurs in the blood vessels, but they bleed too. Blood leaking from the affected blood vessels makes signs like seizures, vision loss or difficulties in swallowing, visible.
- Stroke: A stroke is a neurological event that happens all of a sudden, without any warning. As a result of it, often a new onset of different neurological symptoms becomes visible. Hemorrhagic stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cerebral infarction or ischemic stroke are three common types of strokes.
Neurovascular diseases are one of the main illness conditions that affect a considerable number of the population worldwide. Therefore, having a proper idea about the types and consulting with a doctor in case one suspects having any of the neurovascular diseases, is of crucial importance for leading a safe and healthy life. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
A headache is the most common ailment to affect men and women. Did you know that there are over 150 different types of headaches? Each of these different types of headaches has its own symptoms, triggers and needs to be treated in a different way. In some cases, you may even require surgery. This is often recommended for severe migraines and cluster headaches.
The different types of surgeries that may be performed to treat such headaches include:
- Neurostimulation: For this procedure, a wire electrode is inserted through the skin at the back of the neck near the occipital nerve and used to provide electrical stimulation. This form of surgery is best suited to patients who have benefited positively from an occipital nerve block.
- Radiofrequency thermocoagulation: This is one the most common forms of surgical treatment for cluster headaches. For this procedure, a radiofrequency current is used to heat tissue of a certain area. By doing this, the passage for pain is obstructed and headaches are relieved. Some of the side effects of this surgery could include corneal sensory loss, severe facial dysesthesias and reactions to anesthesia. In rare cases, it could also cause a stroke, infections or motor weakness. Thankfully, these effects typically are resolved within 6 months.
- Microvascular decompression: This is an invasive procedure that is performed while the patient is under general anesthesia. It also involves a craniectomy. The aim of this procedure is to remove a vascular loop that compresses a nerve and thereby restore normal anatomy. Hospitalization is typically required for a few days after the procedure
- Gamma knife radiosurgery: This is the type of neurosurgery where the trigeminal nerve is hit by radiation. This procedure can be performed as an outpatient procedure and can be completed in a few hours. It has a very low rate of complications but the long term effects of this form of treatment are not yet clear. There may also be a high rate of relapses associated with this form of treatment.
- Septoplasty: In the case of migraines, a deviated septum may be contributing to your headache. In such cases, surgical correction of the septum can help relieve pressure on the nerves that pass through it and in turn reduce the frequency and intensity of your headaches. Septoplasty addresses common issues concerning the septum such as a bent cartilage or deviated cartilage. This procedure can be performed under local or general anesthesia. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.