Doctor in Composite Hospital CRPF Langjing
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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It is gastrointestinal bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, commonly defined as bleeding arising from the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum. Blood is often observed in vomit (hematemesis) or in stool (melena). Upper gastrointestinal bleeding denotes a medical emergency and typically requires hospital care for primary diagnosis and treatment. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is 50-150 individuals per 100,000 annually. Depending on its severity, it carries an estimated mortality risk of 11%.
The causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are as follows:
Esophageal causes (gastrorrhagia):
- Esophageal varices
- Esophageal cancer
- Esophageal ulcers
- Mallory-Weiss tear
- Duodenal causes
- Duodenal ulcer
- Vascular malformation, including aorto-enteric fistulae
- Hematobilia or bleeding from the biliary tree
- Hemosuccus pancreaticus or bleeding from the pancreatic duct
- Severe superior mesenteric artery syndrome
The signs and symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are as follows:
- Hematemesis - Vomiting of blood
- Melena - Blood in the stool
- Hematochezia - Passage of fresh blood through the anus, usually in or with stools
- Syncope - Loss of consciousness (fainting)
- Presyncope - State of lightheadedness, muscular weakness, blurred vision, and feeling faint
- Dyspepsia – IndigestionEpigastric painHeartburnDiffuse abdominal pain
- Dysphagia - Difficulty in swallowing. Weight lossJaundice - Yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera
The diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is made when hematemesis is present. In the absence of hematemesis, an upper source of GI bleeding is likely in the presence of at least two factors among - Black stool, age < 50 years or blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio 30 or more
If these findings are absent, consider a nasogastric aspirate to determine the source of bleeding. If the aspirate is positive, an upper GI bleed is greater than 50%, but not high enough to be certain. If the aspirate is negative, the source of a GI bleed is likely lower. The accuracy of the aspirate is improved by using the Gastroccult test. Also, the following diagnostic tests are done:
- Orthostatic blood pressure
- Complete blood count with differential counts
- Hemoglobin level
- Type and crossmatch blood
- Basic metabolic profile, BUN,
- Coagulation profile
- Serum calcium
- Serum gastrin
- Chest radiography
- Nasogastric lavageAngiography (if bleeding persists and endoscopy fails to identify a bleeding site)
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be managed in the following ways:
- Airway management and fluid resuscitation using either intravenous fluids and or blood
- Medications to stop the bleeding (Proton-pump inhibitors are often given in the emergency)
- Surgical intervention
- Treating the consequences (like anemia) that the bleeding may have caused
- Precautions are taken to prevent rebleeding
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome or Disease (PCOS) is a very common condition, wherein there are multiple cysts in the ovaries. As a result, there are many changes which the body undergoes and it is not limited to the gynecologic system. A woman with PCOS may also find it difficult to conceive, and so, once she is pregnant, precautions are essential to ensure there are no complications.
- Preeclampsia: When the blood pressure readings are high during pregnancy, it is known as preeclampsia. It brings with it a whole lot of complications including the need to cesarean section, premature birth, etc. So, it is best avoided, and diet can help to some extent.
- Diabetes: Gestational diabetes which manifests as higher sugar levels only during the pregnancy is very common in women with PCOS. The increased hormone levels in PCOS increase insulin resistance, thereby increasing sugar levels. This needs to be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes.
- Preterm labor: Women with PCOS are at a slightly higher risk of premature labor.
- Weight-related issues: PCOS leads to weight gain, and this could be a problem during pregnancy. It is essential to discuss with the doctor as to what would be a good weight range and stay within that range throughout pregnancy. Weight gain brings with it a host of complications and so best avoided.
With PCOS, during pregnancy, strict cautious diet planning can help in avoiding complications and allow for an easier pregnancy. Though they may not solve every problem associated with PCOS, dietary modifications can have a significant effect on the overall health and well-being. Listed below are some easy-to-make changes:
- Increase consumption of fibres like greens, nuts, pumpkin, berries, whole grains, almonds, etc. are included. This ensures that digestion is a prolonged and gradual spike in blood sugar levels.
- Increase protein-rich foods like soya, tofu, eggs, and chicken, which help in avoiding binging. They are light on the stomach and help in weight management.
- Foods which are generally anti-inflammatory including tomatoes, olive oil, spinach, fresh fruits, and omega-3 fatty acids help in controlling blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
- Supplements to include omega-3 fatty acids, prenatal vitamins, vitamin D, and calcium if required ensure that the baby gets the required nutrients for optimal growth.
What to avoid:
Anything that can spike up calories and is of low nutritional value should be avoided.
- Avoid whites – pasta, rice, and bread
- Baked and processed foods
- Candies, chocolates, snacks
- Salty and spicy fried snacks
- Aerated drinks and soda
PCOS in pregnancy presents a combination risk, and dietary changes and weight management are essential for a safe pregnancy.
I recently did VDRL Test which results Non Reactive (-) Ve result Is VDRL test for both syphilis, gonorrhea?
In 2 month of pregnancy .How much intake of folic acid in a day, gynecologist advised only 2 mcg daily. And HB 11gm. Please advised me for folic acid and iron daily dose.
Doctor, After how many missed days of period should I check the pregnancy tests? Urine or blood test is better? Which test is better to do? Please guide me!
How to Avoid Problems While Doing Natural Penis Enlargement Exercises?
Ever since the dawn of time, one of the questions that men have been asking is how they can increase their penis size with ease and speed. With so many advancements in technology, science and medicine since the dawn of time, the good news is that there are actually various ways on how to do so now, such as through natural penis enlargement exercises.
Before starting any natural penis enlargement exercises, though, you should measure your penis properly first before jumping to conclusions. To get the most precise measurement possible, measure your penis when you have an erection. Basically, just measure your penis from its base to its tip. The majority of experts out there agree that normal erect penises should be between 5 and 6 inches long.
Normally, natural penis enlargement exercises are only advisable for men who have abnormal conditions called micro-penises that are less than 3 inches long when erect. Only six out of a thousand men in the world actually suffer from this condition, though, so chances are you don't actually need penis enlargement.
Still, if you want to get a bigger penis, then the best thing to do would be to follow safe methods like natural penis enlargement exercises to get the job done. Any other method tends to come with fake testimonials, skewed data and unreliable information on their procedures or contents.
Of course, it would also be important to know all of the necessary details before embarking on natural penis enlargement exercises, as well. This way, it will be easier for you to avoid unwanted problems in the long run.
It would be very important to do warm-ups before the actual exercises, for example. To warm up your penis, just wrap it in a warm washcloth for five minutes or so before starting your exercises. If you fail to do this, you could end up suffering from unwanted blisters and red sores. Fortunately, these blisters and red sores will disappear if you hold off on the exercises for a few days, though.
It would also be important not to use too much weight for too long or too often because this could result in tissue atrophy in the end. Tissue atrophy basically refers to a condition, wherein the penile nerves begin to swell and then continues for a prolonged amount of time. When this happens, you could end up having trouble getting an erection.
If at any point at all, you start to feel like there is something wrong or a problem is starting to pop up, stop following your exercises for several days first. During this time, take a lot of warm baths and then things should go back to normal before you know it. If the problem seems to be much bigger or if you are significantly bothered by something, however, simply ask your doctor for help.
Do not let this article scare you. Natural penis enlargement exercises are generally very safe methods for you to use to enlarge your manhood. Plus, when followed correctly, they can even make you much healthier overall. In fact, a ton of men follow these exercises on a daily basis without experiencing any trouble whatsoever.
Generally speaking, serious problems are actually very rare when it comes to these exercises, if not unheard of. You just need to make sure that you follow the instructions to a tee at all times. Also, if necessary, take things slow at first and work your way up as time goes by. This would hold especially true for beginners. Plus, this way, you can encourage your penis to grow as time goes by instead of forcing it into things too quickly.
PGAD Can Lead to a Sore Penis
Many men dream of sporting a constant erection as proof of their virility, but as men who have experienced priapism know, an erection that goes on for too long results in a sore penis -and can be dangerous to penis health as well. Similarly, men who experience the condition known as PGAD know that a sore penis - and many other issues - can result from being in too heightened a state of arousal too frequently.
What is PGAD?
PGAD is short for persistent genital arousal disorder and is also sometimes known as RGS (for restless genital syndrome). It's a relatively new condition (or, to be more accurate, it has only in recent years been given an official name) and there are some who dispute whether it is an actual medical condition.
So what is it? Basically, it's exactly what the name suggests: a feeling of sexual excitement in the genitals that is long-lasting and recurrent. In other words, in a man it means he has long stretches during which he is in a heightened state of arousal even in the absence of sexual thoughts or desires. Most often in men, it includes the presence of an intense erection, often painfully erect. In cases in which the erection wanes, the penis still feels a sense of throbbing or sensitivity.
PGAD was described in women before men, possibly due to the societal view of men as being "always ready" for sex.
Is it hypersexuality?
Some think PGAD is simply another way of describing hypersexuality, an overactive sex drive. But the key difference is that PGAD often occurs when there is no active interest in sex on the part of the affected individual. For example, a man may be working feverishly to finish a deadline project, but experience an intense arousal which creates a sore penis that keeps him from working. This is different from a case of hypersexuality, where thoughts of sexual activity are the reason for the state of arousal which gets in the way of his work.
Men with PGAD often find themselves masturbating or engaging in sex, not because they feel driven to by their desires, but because achieving release may be the only thing that grants relief - although that relief is often only temporary. Thus a man with PGAD may end up masturbating several times a day in order to relieve the discomfort. And often the frequent masturbating can make the sore penis feel worse.
Very little is known at this time about PGAD, and so doctors don't really know what might be causing it. It seems, however, that it is a neurosensory issue; something makes the nerves in the penis even more heightened and sensitive than they are normally.
Other than engaging in sex (alone or with a partner) frequently, is there anything a man with PGAD can do? Again, because the condition is so poorly understood, treatment options are still being determined. Among the common medications used are certain antidepressants, anti-seizure medications, and drugs that increase the hormone prolactin. Relaxation therapies sometimes provide relief, as does applying ice packs to the sore penis.
PGAD is fortunately a rare disorder, but a sore penis can occur in any man for a number of reasons. That is one reason why having on hand and regularly using a top flight penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin) is so valuable. Often that soreness relates to raw, dry penis skin, so a crème that contains both a high-end emollient (such as Shea butter) and a natural hydrator (such as vitamin E) can help moisturize and soothe that skin. Penis skin is also strengthened if the crème contains alpha lipoic acid, a powerful antioxidant that is superb at fighting the free radicals that cause oxidative stress and damage sensitive penis skin.