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Nicotine stains and other discolorations on teeth and dentures, lips, and tongue are obvious but relatively harmless effects of every kind of tobacco use, as is halitosis, or bad breath. Less objectively obvious but more harmful effects of tobacco use are the loss or diminishing of the senses of taste and smell, smoker's palate (a reaction of the mucosal lining of the palate to elevated temperatures), contribution to the formation and advancement of cavities, sinusitis (which can cause pain similar to that of a toothache), and damage to dental implants. Tobacco use can also reduce the success of dental procedures, and contribute to delays in the healing of oral wounds.
The gums suffer more severe direct damage than the teeth in tobacco users. Periodontitis, a group of diseases that affect the tissues that support the teeth, is more prevalent and more severe among tobacco users than among those that have never used tobacco, and the majority of periodontitis patients that do not respond well to common treatment are users, particularly smokers. Smokers experience significantly greater bone loss; also tooth loss is two to three times higher in smokers than in non-smokers. Users of smokeless tobacco will often experience gingival recession (receding gums), and mucosal lesions.
All tobacco users are at elevated risk of developing oral cancers and pre-cancers. The lungs are considered to be the highest risk site for cancer in smokers, with the larynx and mouth being the next-highest risk site. Oral cancer is the eighth-most common cancer type in men, and can rise as high as the third-most common cancer in some parts of the world.
Nicotine use can suppress the immune and cardiovascular systems, and along with other compounds in tobacco, can lead to chronic inflammation, which can contribute to the risk of cancer. Tobacco use negatively affects the efficacy of drugs and other treatments, and can delay and complicate recovery.
I am 19 years old and I have been asked to get the vaccination against cervical cancer. One requirement of this vaccination is that one shouldn't have had sexual contact to get this vaccination but if I have kissed and made out is that okay?
My friend is suffering from severe leg pain n left breast pain. why is it so. Is there any tablet to cure the pain?
Cancer can affect even small glands like the adrenal glands. Adrenal glands are responsible for the production of hormones like cortisol and aldosterone. These glands are located above the kidneys and have two parts; the cortex and the medulla. Adrenal cancer generally affects the cortex of the adrenal glands. This type of cancerous tumour is rare and can be difficult to diagnose.
Most adrenal cancer symptoms are triggered by an excessive production of estrogen and androgen. Symptoms can also be caused by the pressure put on other organs by the tumour. Adrenal cancer symptoms are most easily noticeable in children as this is the stage where the body is changing and developing. Some of these symptoms are:
- Facial hair growth
- Excessive pubic and underarm hair
- An enlarged penis or clitoris
- Early onset of puberty in girls
- Development of enlarged breasts in boys
Symptoms of adrenal cancer in adults includes:
- Excessive weight gain in the abdomen and above the collar bone
- High blood pressure
- Irregular menstruation
- Easy bruising
- Frequent urge to urinate
- Muscle cramps
Additionally, men with adrenal cancer that causes excessive estrogen production may notice an enlargement of breast tissue and tenderness in the area. Women suffering from excessive androgen production triggered by adrenal cancer may notice their voice deepening and facial hair growth. In most cases, adrenal cancer symptoms in women do not appear until the tumour presses on other organs. This includes symptoms like pain around the tumor, a feeling of fullness in the abdomen and difficulty eating because of this feeling.
The cause of adrenal cancer has not yet been determined, but conditions such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis and multiple endocrine neoplasia can increase a person’s risk of suffering from this disease. A thorough physical examination and a detailed medical history is required to diagnose this disease. The doctor will also need a blood test and urine test. Additional tests that may be required include:
Adrenal cancer can be cured if diagnosed in its early stages. There are three types of treatment for adrenal cancer; surgery to remove the adrenal gland, chemotherapy and radiation. However, adrenal cancer can recur and hence it is important to schedule and maintain regular check-ups with your doctor.