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Dr. Ramakanth Reddy - Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy

86 (24 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in Child Health

Pediatrician, Hyderabad

22 Years Experience  ·  300 at clinic  ·  ₹200 online
Dr. Ramakanth Reddy 86% (24 ratings) MBBS, Diploma in Child Health Pediatrician, Hyderabad
22 Years Experience  ·  300 at clinic  ·  ₹200 online
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Problems faced by Adolescents and their treatment

Problems faced by Adolescents and their treatment

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Personal Statement

To provide my patients with the highest quality healthcare, I'm dedicated to the newest advancements and keep up-to-date with the latest health care technologies....more
To provide my patients with the highest quality healthcare, I'm dedicated to the newest advancements and keep up-to-date with the latest health care technologies.
More about Dr. Ramakanth Reddy
Dr. Ramakanth Reddy is a Pediatrician with an experience of over 21 years. He completed his MBBS from Siddhartha Medical College in 1995 and Diploma in Child Health (DCH) from Gulbarga University in 1999. He is available for consultation in Sri Jaabilli Children?s Clinic, Hyderabad, Telengana. Dr. Reddy is a professional member of the Indian Medical Association (IMA), Indian Academy of Pediatrics, Fellow of the Royal Society of Health and NHCPS. Apart from being a pediatrician, Dr. Ramakanth Reddy also works as an Infectious Diseases Physician and Emergency Medicine related problems Some of the services provided by Dr. Reddy are Vaccinations, New Born Care, Thyroid Disease in children, Thyroid disorder treatment among others. He is completely dedicated to his profession and believes in providing optimal care to his patients as per their convenience. A well-revered name in his field, Dr. reddy worked as a chief administrator and director at Mayflower Hospital for women and children where he had many happily satisfied patients throughout his career.

Info

Education
MBBS - Siddhartha Medical College - 1995
Diploma in Child Health - Gulbarga University - 1999
Past Experience
Consultant Pediatrician at Sri Jaabilli Children's Clinic
Director at Mayflower Hospital For Women And Children
Chief Administrator at Mayflower Hospital for women and children
Languages spoken
English
Hindi
Telugu
Professional Memberships
Indian Medical Association (IMA)
Indian Academy of Paediatrics
Fellow of the Royal Society of Health (FRSH)
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NHCPS

Location

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Sri Jaabilli Children's Clinic

shop no.4Lorven house Apartments, Behind Radhika movieplex,ECIL,AnupuramHyderabad Get Directions
  4.3  (24 ratings)
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May Flower Hospital For Women And Children

Opposite Bharat Petrol Pump, SainikpuriHyderabad Get Directions
  4.3  (24 ratings)
300 at clinic
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Screening Tests for Common Diseases

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Screening Tests for Common Diseases

What is a screening test?

A screening test is done to detect potential health disorders or diseases in people who do not have any symptoms of disease. The goal is early detection and lifestyle changes or surveillance, to reduce the risk of disease, or to detect it early enough to treat it most effectively. Screening tests are not considered diagnostic, but are used to identify a subset of the population who should have additional testing to determine the presence or absence of disease.

When is a screening test helpful?

What makes a screening test valuable is its ability to detect potential problems, while minimizing unclear, ambiguous, or confusing results. While screening tests are not 100% accurate in all cases, it is generally more valuable to have the screening tests at the appropriate times, as recommended by your healthcare provider, than to not have them at all. However, some screening tests, when used in people not at high risk for disease, or when testing for very rare diseases, can cause more problems than they help.

Some common screening tests

Be sure to consult your healthcare provider regarding the appropriate timing and frequency of all screening tests based on your age, overall health, and medical history. The following are some examples of common screening tests:

Cholesterol measurements

Cholesterol is a waxy substance that can be found in all parts of the body. It aids in the production of cell membranes, some hormones, and vitamin D. The cholesterol in the blood comes from 2 sources: the food you eat and production in your liver. However, the liver produces all of the cholesterol the body needs.

Cholesterol and other fats are transported in the bloodstream in the form of spherical particles, called lipoproteins. The 2 most commonly known lipoproteins are low-density lipoproteins (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), or "good" cholesterol.

Cholesterol screening is performed by a blood test. People with high cholesterol measurements from a blood sample have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), than those with cholesterol in the normal range. Studies have shown that people with high cholesterol can reduce their risk for heart disease by lowering their cholesterol. It is important to understand, however, that people can still have heart disease even with cholesterol levels in the normal range.

Fecal occult blood test

Fecal occult blood is detected by microscopic analysis or by chemical tests for hemoglobin (blood) in the stool. People with blood in their stool may have a cancerous growth indicative of colorectal cancer. The test requires collection of 3 stool samples that are examined under the microscope for blood. It is important to understand that when blood is present in a stool sample, it can be due to other noncancerous factors, such as certain medications or foods, gastrointestinal bleeding, or hemorrhoids. Testing is recommended starting at age 50 by many organizations including the American Cancer Society.

Pap test (also called Pap smears)

Pap smears are samples of cells taken from the cervix in women to look for cellular changes indicative of cervical cancer. The Pap smear is an important screening test in sexually active women under the age of 65, to detect cancer at a stage when there are often no symptoms. It is important to understand that a Pap smear may be referred to as "abnormal," but may not mean that a person has cervical cancer. Some organizations also recommend HPV (human papilloma virus) screening in certain populations during the Pap smear.

Prostate specific antigen (PSA)

This blood test measures the prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels in the blood. Antigens are any substances that evoke responses from a person's immune system. The prostate specific antigen levels can be elevated in the presence of prostate cancer. However, it is important to understand that other benign prostate conditions may also elevate PSA, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is noncancerous swelling of the prostate. The PSA test is not recommended for all men, and there is considerable controversy over the role of PSA testing. Some organizations, such as the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), now recommend against PSA screening. The pros and cons of PSA screening should always be discussed with your healthcare provider before testing. Some of the cons include unnecessary testing and procedures, unnecessary costs, and significantly increased anxiety.

Mammography

Many organizations, including the USPSTF, recommend mammography screening for breast cancer every 1 year to 2 years after age 50. This test is done in conjunction with a clinical breast exam

Colonoscopy

Many organizations, including the USPSTF, recommend screening for colon cancer or colon polyps at age 50, earlier if you have a family history or other risk factors

Diabetes or prediabetes

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that all adults be screened for diabetes or prediabetes starting at age 45, regardless of weight. Additionally, individuals without symptoms of diabetes should be screened if they are overweight or obese and have one or more additional diabetes risk factors.

Consult your healthcare provider regarding all of these as well as other types of screening tests, based on your medical condition, as not all healthcare providers are in agreement in regard to which screening tests should be done and for which age groups.

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Nipple Problems and Discharge

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Nipple Problems and Discharge

What are some common nipple problems?


Nipple conditions are a common benign (noncancerous) breast condition affecting many women. Some problems are related to lactation. Others are not. Like all breast conditions, any nipple problems should be reported to your healthcare provider for a prompt diagnosis and treatment.

What is ectasia?

As a woman approaches menopause (around her late 40s, early 50s), the mammary ducts—located under the nipple—become dilated (widened). This normal process of dilation of the milk gland is called ectasia.

Ectasia is a benign (noncancerous) breast condition. In some cases, ectasia can lead to a blockage of the ducts. As a result, fluid may become pooled and leak into the surrounding tissue causing infection, chronic inflammation, or abscesses. If an infection (also referred to as periductal mastitis) happens, it may cause scar tissue to develop, thus drawing the nipple inward. In addition, this infection may cause breast pain and thick, sticky nipple discharge.

Treatment for ectasia

Specific treatment for ectasia will be determined by your healthcare provider based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the condition

  • Your tolerance for specific medicines, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the condition

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment for ectasia generally involves treating the symptoms. This may include warm compresses and/or antibiotics. In some cases, surgery is required to remove the affected breast duct(s).

What is intraductal papilloma?

An intraductal papilloma is a small, wart-like growth that projects into the breast ducts near the nipple. This causes a bloody or sticky discharge. In addition, any slight bump or bruise near the nipple can cause the papilloma to bleed. If the discharge becomes bothersome, the duct can be surgically removed. This can often be done without changing the appearance of the breast.

While single papillomas most often affect women nearing menopause, multiple intraductal papillomas are more common in younger women. They often happen in both breasts. Multiple intraductal papillomas are more likely to be associated with a lump than with nipple discharge. Any papilloma associated with a lump is surgically removed.

What about other types of nipple discharge?

  • While nipple discharge can be alarming to many women, discharge that appears only when the nipple and breast are squeezed may not be a cause for concern. The risk of cancer when nipple discharge is the only symptom is relatively low.
  • If there is a lump with the discharge, this will be of primary concern to your healthcare provider. Keep in mind, however, that in breastfeeding women, lactational mastitis complicated by an abscess can often cause a lump beneath the areola, as well as a discharge.
  • A milky discharge from both nipples, when it is not related to breastfeeding, is called galactorrhea. This is usually due to an increase in the hormone prolactin, which produces milk. Galactorrhea may be caused by tranquilizers, marijuana, or high doses of estrogen. It is often accompanied by an absence of menstrual periods.
  • Nipple discharges that are a result of a benign breast condition may be treated by keeping the nipple clean, among other treatments. Nipple discharges that are a result of infections may require hospitalization.

How is nipple discharge diagnosed?

  • Your healthcare provider will, most likely, want to determine if the discharge is coming from 1 duct or several. Multiple duct discharge is nearly always benign and is likely due to changes like ectasia. When the discharge is coming from a single duct, this may be more significant. However, if mammography shows no abnormality, surgery may not be necessary.
  • Nipple discharge may be a variety of colors and textures. Your healthcare provider may take a sample of the discharge and have it analyzed in a lab to confirm a diagnosis.

Know About Birthmarks

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Know About Birthmarks

What are birthmarks?

Birthmarks are areas of discolored and/or raised skin that are apparent at birth or within a few weeks of birth. Birthmarks are made up of malformed pigment cells or blood vessels.

Although the cause of birthmarks is not known, most of them are benign (noncancerous) and do not require treatment. Babies with birthmarks should be examined and diagnosed by a health care provider.

What are the most common types of vascular birthmarks?

The following are the most common types of vascular birthmarks:

  • Macular stains or salmon patches. These are characterized by pink to red marks that may appear anywhere on the body. Angel kisses and stork bites are the most common type of vascular birthmark:

    • Angel's kisses. Marks located on the forehead, nose, upper lip, and eyelids that usually disappear with age.

    • Stork bites. Marks on the back of the neck that usually disappear with age.

  • Hemangioma. A common vascular birthmark. Hemangiomas become visible within the first few weeks or months of life and continue to grow rapidly for about 6 to 9 months. Then, they gradually lose this red color and also shrink. They are called strawberry patch hemangiomas. By age 5, 50% resolve and 90% resolve by age 9 without any treatment. Hemangiomas that grow into other organs or structures or become ulcerated should be evaluated by your health care provider.

  • Port-wine stain (also called nevus flammeus). A port-wine stain is a flat, pink, red, or purple mark that appears at birth, often on the face, arms, and legs, and continues to grow as the child grows. Port-wine stains do not go away and often need treatment if located on the eyelid or forehead. Port-wine stains involving the face may cause eye problems and be associated with other developmental disorders.

What are the most common types of pigmented birthmarks?

The following are the most common types of pigmented birthmarks:

  • Moles (also known as congenital nevi). These can be skin-colored, brown, or black, flat or raised and small or large. They can happen anywhere on the body. Moles can also happen in adulthood, but only moles that are present at birth are considered birthmarks. Other nevi that behave like congenital nevi can appear within the first 2 years of life. Congenital nevi can develop into cancer later in life, with larger nevi having a higher risk of becoming cancerous.

  • Cafe-au-lait spots. This is French for coffee with milk. These are usually oval-shaped and light brown or black. Typically these fade with age and are not a problem. However, many of them grouped together can be a sign of other health issues and should be examined by a health care provider. 

  • Mongolian spots. These are blue or blue-gray spots on the lower back or buttocks. They are most common in babies with darker skin, like African-American or Asian babies. They can be mistaken for bruises and they usually fade with age.  

Know More About Measles

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a viral illness. It has a distinct rash and a fever. Measles is very contagious. It is usually spread through direct contact with droplets from coughs or sneezes from a person with measles. Although not as common, it can be spread by droplets in the air. The symptoms of measles happen about 8 to 12 days after coming in contact with a person with the virus.

What are the symptoms of measles?

Measles usually begin with cold like symptoms. Symptoms may include:

  • Fever

  • Runny nose

  • Inflammation and redness of covering of the eye (conjunctivitis)

  • Cough

  • Tiny white spots inside the mouth (Koplik spots)

Within another few days, a red rash appears. It usually starts on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body. Once the rash appears, the fever may get much higher. This rash fades after 4 to 7 days as symptoms subside.

The symptoms of measles may look like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

What is the treatment for measles?

Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.

A child who doesn't have enough vitamin A may need to take extra doses of this vitamin. Vitamin A does not treat measles by itself, but it prevents the bad outcomes tied to vitamin A deficiency. It lessens the chance of serious complications and death. Since most people don't know if they are lacking in vitamin A, your child's healthcare provider will probably give your child extra vitamin A if he or she has measles. Other treatment includes:

  • Staying away from other people

  • Medicine for fever

  • Antibiotic medicine for bacterial infections that may develop. Antibiotics don't treat viral infections like measles. But they can treat a complication such as a bacterial infection

What are the complications of measles?

Most children recover with no lasting effects. But measles can lead to serious complications or even death. Complications of measles include:

How can measles be prevented?

The measles vaccine is part of the routine vaccines recommended for children. Children should be vaccinated for measles with 2 doses:

  • First dose at 12 to 15 months of age

  • Second dose at 4 to 6 years of age

For people who have not been vaccinated, getting the vaccine up to 3 days after exposure to measles may prevent the disease.

People who have had measles are immune for life. But if you work in education or health care, or are planning international travel, you may want to be vaccinated to boost your immunity.

When to call the healthcare provider

Call your child's healthcare provider right away if you suspect measles. Get emergency care if your child has:

  • A fever higher than 105°F (40.5°C)

  • Trouble breathing

  • A severe headache

  • Confusion or clumsiness 

Vitamin D and Calcium

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Vitamin D and Calcium

What are Vitamin D and Calcium?

Vitamin D (a hormone) and calcium (a mineral) are nutrients that sustain healthy bones. They are also needed for:

  • Muscle movement

  • Nerve communication

  • Absorption of calcium and phosphorous (vitamin D)

  • Immune system responses (vitamin D)

  • Signaling between cells (calcium)

  • Hormonal secretion (calcium)

  • Blood vessel flow (calcium)

Without enough vitamin D or calcium, your parathyroid glands compensate by producing too much of their hormone, a condition called hyperparathyroidism. That can lead to bone weakening (osteoporosis) and increased fracture risk. 
Other problems from calcium and vitamin D deficiencies include:

  • Skeletal deformities (rickets) in children ages 6-24 months

  • Muscle weakness in children and the elderly (vitamin D only)

Given the crucial role of both nutrients in bone health, The Endocrine Society and the Institute of Medicine recommend certain consumption levels based on age and health. They have not yet found, however, that taking vitamin D provides cardiovascular protection.

 

How Does Vitamin D Affect Women’s Health

 

How Much Vitamin D and Calcium Do You Need?

The Endocrine Society and The Institute of Medicine have suggested recommended daily allowances (RDA) for vitamin D and calcium, as well as maximum daily consumption amounts that you should not exceed for your safety:

 

Population

Calcium RDA (mg)

Calcium Max (mg)

Vitamin D RDA (IU)

Vitamin D Max (IU)

0-6 months

200

1,000

400

1,000

6-12 months

260

1,500

400

1,500

1-3 years

700

2,500

600

2,500

4-8 years

1,000

2,500

600

3,000

9-13 years

1,300

3,000

600

4,000

14-18 years

1,300

3,000

600

4,000

19-30 years

1,000

2,500

600

4,000

31-50 years

1,000

2,500

600

4,000

51-70 years male

1,000

2,000

600

4,000

51-70 years female

1,200

2,000

600

4,000

70+ years

1,200

2,000

800

4,000

14-18 pregnant/lactating

1,300

3,000

600

4,000

19-50 pregnant/lactating

1,000

2,500

600

4,000



The recommendations come with two precautions:

  • Some people may need more than the RDA (after talking with their doctor) if they are:

    • Obese

    • Taking anticonvulsant medications, glucocorticoids, antifungals such as ketoconazole or medications for AIDS

  • Taking too much of either nutrient appears to be harmful, with:

    • Kidney stones associated with too much calcium from supplements

    • Very high levels of vitamin D (above 10,000 IUs per day) potentially causing kidney and tissue damage

How Do You Get Vitamin D and Calcium?

Your body makes Vitamin D when your skin is exposed to sun, but several factors limit its creation:

  • Living anywhere in the country above latitude 33 degrees (the top of Louisiana)

  • Wearing sunscreen to protect against melanoma

  • Aging, which changes absorption ability

  • The amount of sun you would need to achieve normal blood vitamin D levels is probably more than is safe for your skin, so most people may need supplements to achieve a normal vitamin D level.

Either form of vitamin D (D2 or D3) benefits the body, but very few foods naturally contain the nutrient or are fortified with it. That’s why doctors recommend supplements to make up the difference. Foods containing vitamin D include:

  • Cod liver oil: 400-1,000 IU per teaspoon

  • Wild caught salmon: 600-1,000 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Farmed salmon: 100-250 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Canned salmon: 300-600 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Canned sardines: 300 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Canned mackerel: 250 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Canned tuna: 236 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Fresh shitake mushrooms: 100 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Sundried shitake mushrooms: 1,600 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Egg yolk: 20 IU per yolk

Milk, orange juice, infant formula, yogurt, margarine, butter, cheese and breakfast cereals are often fortified with vitamin D.


Calcium is found in:

  • Dairy products

  • Chinese cabbage

  • Kale

  • Broccoli

  • Fortified fruit juices, drinks, tofu and cereals

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Overview of Kidney Disorders!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

How do the kidneys work?

Illustration of the anatomy of the kidney

  • The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has used all the food components that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood.
  • The kidneys and urinary system help to excrete the waste products and also keep chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance. Kidneys filter and remove several toxic materials from the body that are the products of food metabolism. These waste materials can cause several problems to the body if they build up. The kidneys also control the fluid and acid-base balance in the body
  • Two kidneys, a pair of purplish-brown organs, are located below the ribs toward the middle of the back. Their function is to
  • Remove liquid waste from the blood in the form of urine
  • Keep a stable balance of salts and other substances in the blood
  • The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. There are about one million nephrons in each kidney, located in the medulla and the cortex. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule.
  • Once the urine is formed, it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney. Urine collects in the calyces and renal pelvis and moves into the ureter, where it flows down into the bladder.
  • In addition to filtering waste from the blood and assisting in the balance of fluids and other substances in the body, the kidneys perform other vital functions. The kidneys:
  • Release hormones, such as renin, that help to regulate blood pressure and heart function
  • Produce erythropoietin, a hormone that aids formation of red blood cells
  • Convert vitamin D into a form that can be used by the body's tissues
  • Interact with corticosteroids (produced by the adrenal glands that sit on top of the kidney) that help to regulate kidney function and the body’s inflammatory response system

What is nephrology?

Nephrology is the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the kidneys, and doctors who specialize in kidney disease are called nephrologists. Other health professionals who treat kidney problems include primary care doctors, pediatricians, transplant specialists, and urologists.

What causes problems with the kidneys?

Problems with the kidneys may include conditions, such as kidney failure, kidney stones, and kidney cancer. These problems with the kidneys may be caused by the following:

  • Aging. As we age, changes in the structure of the kidneys can cause them to lose some ability to remove wastes from the blood, and the muscles in the ureters, bladder, and urethra tend to lose some of their strength. However, this alone does not cause chronic kidney diseases.
  • Illness or injury. Damage to the kidneys caused by illness or an injury can also prevent them from filtering the blood completely or block the passage of urine.
  • Toxicity. The kidneys may be damaged by substances, such as certain medications, a buildup of some substances in the body, or toxic substances such as poisons.

About kidney and urogenital diseases

Diseases of the kidney and urinary tract remain a major cause of illness and death in the United States. The National Kidney Foundation states that more than 26 million Americans are affected by kidney and urologic diseases, and millions more are at risk.

What are the symptoms of kidney disease?

The following are the most common symptoms of kidney disease. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

The symptoms of a kidney disease may look like other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your health care provider for a diagnosis.

2 people found this helpful

Depression in Children!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Depression in Children!

What is Depression?

Depression can strike a child at any age. A mood disorder, depression is characterized by a persistent sad or empty feeling, irritability, and a loss of interest in everyday activities. Unlike normal sadness or grieving, most bouts of depression last for weeks, months, or even years. A smaller number of children and adolescent suffer from biploar disorder-bouts of depression interspersed with periods of elevated (manic) mood (bipolar disorder).

Although depression is usually not considered life-threatening, it can lead to thoughts of and attempts at suicide.

Symptoms

  • Persistent feelings of sadness, apathy, or hopelessness lasting more than two weeks.

  • Diminished interest in most daily activities, particularly pleasurable ones.

  • Decreased appetite and subsequent weight loss; increased appetite and weight gain.

  • Lack of sleep (insomnia), frequent awakening throughout the night, or conversely, an increased need for sleep.

  • Anxiety; diminished ability to think or concentrate.

Diagnosis

Because there are no reliable laboratory tests to diagnose depression, physical examination and psychological evaluation are essential.

  • Expression of either of the first two symptoms of depression (see Symptoms box), in conjunction with other symptoms, for a period of two or more consecutive weeks.

  • A positive family history of depression or a prior depressive episode helps establish the diagnosis.

Treatment

  • Psychotherapy is as effective as drug treatment in mild cases. Psychotherapy may also be used in conjunction with drug therapy.

  • Antidepressant medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are mainstays of treatment.

  • Exposure to bright light, known as light therapy, may be effective, particularly when depression is related to seasonal changes (seasonal affective disorder).

  • In secondary depression, the underlying cause is addressed, although antidepressant therapy may also be prescribed.

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Age-Appropriate Speech and Language Milestones!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

 

The ability to hear is essential for proper speech and language development. Hearing problems may be suspected in children who are not responding to sounds or who are not developing their language skills appropriately. The following are some age-related guidelines that may help to decide if your child is experiencing hearing problems.

It is important to remember that not every child is the same. Children reach milestones at different ages. Talk your child's healthcare provider if you are suspicious that your child is not developing speech and language skills correctly. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders and other experts list the following age-appropriate speech and language milestones for babies and young children.

Milestones related to speech and language

Birth to 5 months

  • Coos

  • Vocalizes pleasure and displeasure sounds differently (laughs, giggles, cries, or fusses)

  • Makes noise when talked to

6 to 11 months

  • Understands "no-no"

  • Babbles (says "ba-ba-ba")

  • Says "ma-ma" or "da-da" without meaning

  • Tries to communicate by actions or gestures

  • Tries to repeat your sounds

  • Says first word

12 to 17 months

  • Answers simple questions nonverbally

  • Says 2 to 3 words to label a person or object (pronunciation may not be clear)

  • Tries to imitate simple words

  • Vocabulary of four to 6 words

18 to 23 months

  • Vocabulary of 50 words, pronunciation is often unclear

  • Asks for common foods by name

  • Makes animal sounds, such as "moo"

  • Starting to combine words, such as "more milk"

  • Begins to use pronouns, such as "mine"

  • Uses 2-word phrases

2 to 3 years

  • Knows some spatial concepts, such as "in" or "on"

  • Knows pronouns, such as "you," "me" or "her"

  • Knows descriptive words, such as "big" or "happy"

  • Uses 3-word sentences

  • Speech is becoming more accurate, but may still leave off ending sounds. Strangers may not be able to understand much of what is said.

  • Answers simple questions

  • Begins to use more pronouns, such as "you" or "I"

  • Uses question inflection to ask for something, such as "my ball?"

  • Begins to use plurals, such as "shoes" or "socks" and regular past tense verbs, such as "jumped"

3 to 4 years

  • Groups objects, such as foods or clothes

  • Identifies colors

  • Uses most speech sounds, but may distort some of the more difficult sounds, such as l, r, s, sh, ch, y, v, z, th. These sounds may not be fully mastered until age 7 or 8.

  • Uses consonants in the beginning, middle, and ends of words. Some of the more difficult consonants may be distorted, but attempts to say them

  • Strangers are able to understand much of what is said

  • Able to describe the use of objects, such as "fork" or "car"

  • Has fun with language; enjoys poems and recognizes language absurdities, such as, "Is that an elephant on your head?"

  • Expresses ideas and feelings rather than just talking about the world around him or her

  • Uses verbs that end in "ing," such as "walking" or "talking"

  • Answers simple questions, such as "What do you do when you are hungry?"

  • Repeats sentences

4 to 5 years

  • Understands spatial concepts, such as "behind" or "next to"

  • Understands complex questions

  • Speech is understandable, but makes mistakes pronouncing long, difficult, or complex words, such as "hippopotamus"

  • Uses some irregular past tense verbs, such as "ran" or "fell"

  • Describes how to do things, such as painting a picture

  • Lists items that belong in a category, such as animals or vehicles

  • Answers "why" questions

5 years

  • Understands time sequences (for example, what happened first, second, or third)

  • Carries out a series of 3 directions

  • Understands rhyming

  • Engages in conversation

  • Sentences can be 8 or more words in length

  • Uses compound and complex sentences

  • Describes objects

  • Uses imagination to create stories

Know More About Gout!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Know More About Gout!

What is gout?

Gout is characterized by inflamed, painful joints due to the formation of crystal deposits at the joints. It also known as the disease of kings and the king of diseases because it was associated with overindulgence of rich foods and wine. In truth, anyone can get gout. Gout affects more men than women and is often associated with obesity, hypertension (high blood pressure), hyperlipidemia (high levels of lipids in the blood), and diabetes.

This condition is a form of inflammatory arthritis that results in painful attacks in the joints. It can cause swelling and redness, and in some cases, it can lead to lumpy deposits that can be seen under the skin. It can also lead to the development of kidney stones.

What causes gout?

Gout is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposits in the joints, due to an excess of uric acid in the body. The excess of uric acid may be caused by an increase in production by the body, underelimination of the uric acid by the kidneys, or increased intake of certain foods that metabolize into uric acid in the body. Foods that are high in purines (the component of the food that metabolizes into uric acid) include certain meats, such as game meats, kidney, brains, and liver; seafood, such as anchovies, herring, scallops, sardines, and mackerel; dried beans, and dried peas. Alcoholic beverages and sugary drinks high in fructose may also increase levels of uric acid in the body. Gout attacks may be triggered by any or all of the following:

  • Consumption of alcohol

  • Consumption of protein-rich foods

  • Fatigue

  • Emotional stress

  • Minor surgery

  • Illness

What are the symptoms of gout?

 

Anatomy of the foot

 

 

Gout is characterized by sudden, recurrent attacks that often occur without warning. Severe, chronic gout may lead to deformity. The following are the most common symptoms of gout. However each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Severe, sudden pain in one or more joints (most often the joint in the big toe)

  • Swollen joint(s)

  • Red or purplish, tight, shiny skin over joint

  • Warmth in joint area

  • Fever

  • Chills

  • General feeling of illness

  • Hard lumps of urate crystal deposits under the skin (called tophi)

The symptoms of gout may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.

How is gout diagnosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and a physical examination, a diagnosis of gout may be confirmed with the examination of a fluid sample from the joint for the presence of urate crystals.

Treatment for gout

Specific treatment for gout will be determined by your doctor based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the condition

  • Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, and therapies

  • Expectation for the course of the condition

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications to relieve pain and inflammation

  • Colchicine, an oral or intravenous medication to relieve pain and inflammation; may cause diarrhea and other side effects

  • Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation

  • Increasing fluid intake while avoiding alcoholic beverages

  • Reducing the intake of protein-rich foods

  • Reducing weight (if obesity is a factor)

  • Medication to lower the uric acid level in the blood

  • Medication to block production of uric acid in the body

  • Surgery to remove extremely large tophi

2 people found this helpful

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Gout

 

 

What is gout?

Gout is characterized by inflamed, painful joints due to the formation of crystal deposits at the joints. It also known as the disease of kings and the king of diseases because it was associated with overindulgence of rich foods and wine. In truth, anyone can get gout. Gout affects more men than women and is often associated with obesity, hypertension (high blood pressure), hyperlipidemia (high levels of lipids in the blood), and diabetes.

 

This condition is a form of inflammatory arthritis that results in painful attacks in the joints. It can cause swelling and redness, and in some cases, it can lead to lumpy deposits that can be seen under the skin. It can also lead to the development of kidney stones.

What causes gout?

Gout is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposits in the joints, due to an excess of uric acid in the body. The excess of uric acid may be caused by an increase in production by the body, underelimination of the uric acid by the kidneys, or increased intake of certain foods that metabolize into uric acid in the body. Foods that are high in purines (the component of the food that metabolizes into uric acid) include certain meats, such as game meats, kidney, brains, and liver; seafood, such as anchovies, herring, scallops, sardines, and mackerel; dried beans, and dried peas. Alcoholic beverages and sugary drinks high in fructose may also increase levels of uric acid in the body. Gout attacks may be triggered by any or all of the following:

What are the symptoms of gout?

 


Gout is characterized by sudden, recurrent attacks that often occur without warning. Severe, chronic gout may lead to deformity. The following are the most common symptoms of gout. However each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Severe, sudden pain in one or more joints (most often the joint in the big toe)

  • Swollen joint(s)

  • Red or purplish, tight, shiny skin over joint

  • Warmth in joint area

  • Fever

  • Chills

  • General feeling of illness

  • Hard lumps of urate crystal deposits under the skin (called tophi)

The symptoms of gout may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.

How is gout diagnosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and a physical examination, a diagnosis of gout may be confirmed with the examination of a fluid sample from the joint for the presence of urate crystals.

Treatment for gout

Specific treatment for gout will be determined by your doctor based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the condition

  • Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, and therapies

  • Expectation for the course of the condition

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications to relieve pain and inflammation

  • Colchicine, an oral or intravenous medication to relieve pain and inflammation; may cause diarrhea and other side effects

  • Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation

  • Increasing fluid intake while avoiding alcoholic beverages

  • Reducing the intake of protein-rich foods

  • Reducing weight (if obesity is a factor)

  • Medication to lower the uric acid level in the blood

  • Medication to block production of uric acid in the body

  • Surgery to remove extremely large tophi

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