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Our medical care facility offers treatments from the best doctors in the field of Emergency Medicine, Infectious Diseases Physician, Pediatrician.It is important to us that you feel comfo......more
Our medical care facility offers treatments from the best doctors in the field of Emergency Medicine, Infectious Diseases Physician, Pediatrician.It is important to us that you feel comfortable while visiting our office. To achieve this goal, we have staffed our office with caring people who will answer your questions and help you understand your treatments.

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10:00 AM - 12:00 PM 06:30 PM - 09:00 PM

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Shop No - 4, Lorven House Apartments, Behind Radhika Movieplex, Anupuram, Ecil
ECIL Hyderabad, Telangana - 500062
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Problems faced by Adolescents and their treatment
Adolescent Behaviour Problems

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Dr. Ramakanth Reddy

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician
84%  (10 ratings)
22 Years experience
300 at clinic
₹200 online
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Aim to offer the best form of childcare to infants and children up to 18 years
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Bulimia Nervosa in Adolescents!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Bulimia Nervosa in Adolescents!

What is bulimia nervosa?

Bulimia nervosa, usually referred to as bulimia, is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing). This overeating is usually followed by self-induced vomiting (purging), misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medicines that increase the amount of urine, fasting, or overdoing exercise to control weight. Bingeing, in this situation, is defined as eating much larger amounts of food than would normally be eaten within a short period of time (usually less than 2 hours). Eating binges happen at least twice a week for 3 months. They may happen as often as several times a day.

What causes bulimia?

The cause of bulimia is not known. Cultural ideals and social attitudes toward body appearance are some of the factors that are thought to lead to bulimia. Also, self-evaluation based on body weight and shape, and family problems.

Who is affected by bulimia?

The majority of bulimics are female, adolescent, and from a high socioeconomic group. All westernized industrial countries have reported cases of bulimia. Adolescents who develop bulimia are more likely to come from families with a history of eating disorders, physical illness, and other mental health problems, like mood disorders or substance abuse. Other mental health problems, like anxiety disorders, or mood disorders, are commonly found in teens with bulimia.

What are the different types of bulimia?

There are 2 types of bulimia aimed at reducing how many calories a person consumes, including the following:

  • Purging type. This type regularly engages in self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or other medicines that increase the clearing of the intestines.

  • Nonpurging type. This type uses other inappropriate behaviors, like fasting or overdoing exercise, rather than regularly engaging in purging.

What are the symptoms of bulimia?

The following are the most common symptoms of bulimia. However, each adolescent may experience signs differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Usually a normal or low body weight (sees self as overweight)

  • Repeated episodes of binge eating (quickly eating extra amounts of food in a relatively short period of time; often done secretly), together with fear of not being able to stop eating during the bingeing episodes

  • Self-induced vomiting (usually in secret)

  • Excessive exercise or fasting

  • Strange eating habits or rituals

  • Inappropriate use of laxatives, diuretics, or other agents to clear the bowels

  • Irregular or absence of menstruation

  • Anxiety

  • Discouragement related to dissatisfaction with themselves and their bodily appearance

  • Depression

  • Preoccupation with food, weight, and body shape

  • Scarring on the back of the fingers from the process of self-induced vomiting

  • Overachieving behaviors

The symptoms of bulimia may resemble other medical problems or psychiatric conditions. Always talk with your adolescent's health care provider for a diagnosis.

How is bulimia diagnosed?

Parents, teachers, coaches, or instructors may be able to identify the child or adolescent with bulimia. Many people with the disorder initially keep their illness hidden. However, a child psychiatrist or a qualified mental health professional usually diagnoses bulimia in children and adolescents. A detailed history of the adolescent's behavior from parents and teachers, clinical observations of the adolescent's behavior, and, sometimes, psychological testing contribute to the diagnosis. Parents who note symptoms of bulimia in their child or teen can help by seeking an evaluation and treatment early. Early treatment can often prevent future problems.

Bulimia, and the malnutrition that results, can harm nearly every organ system in the body. This is why early diagnosis and treatment is important. Talk with your adolescent's health care provider for more information.

Treatment for bulimia

Specific treatment for bulimia will be decided by your adolescent's health care provider based on:

  • Your adolescent's age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of your adolescent's symptoms

  • Your adolescent's tolerance for specific medicines or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the condition

  • Your opinion or preference

Bulimia, in adolescents, is usually treated with a combination of individual therapy, family therapy, behavior modification, and nutritional rehabilitation. Among adults, cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressant medicines have both been shown to be effective. Treatment should always be based on a total evaluation of the adolescent and family. Individual therapy usually includes both cognitive and behavioral techniques. Medicine (usually antidepressants or antianxiety medicines) may be helpful if the adolescent with bulimia is also anxious or depressed. Since medical complications often happen during the course of rehabilitative treatment, both your adolescent's health care provider and a nutritionist need to be active members of the management team. Parents play an important supportive role in any treatment process.

Prevention of bulimia

Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of bulimia are not known at this time. However, early discovery and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, enhance the process of normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by adolescents with bulimia. Encouraging healthy eating habits and realistic attitudes toward weight and diet may also be helpful.

Fetal Ultrasound!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Fetal Ultrasound!

Fetal Ultrasound

What is fetal ultrasound?

Fetal ultrasound is a test used during pregnancy. It creates an image of the baby in the mother's womb (uterus). It’s a safe way to check the health of an unborn baby. During a fetal ultrasound, the baby’s heart, head, and spine are evaluated, along with other parts of the baby. The test may be done either on the mother’s abdomen (transabdominal) or in the vagina (transvaginal).

There are several types of fetal ultrasound:

  • Standard ultrasound. The test uses sound waves to create two-dimensional images on a computer screen.
  • Doppler ultrasound. This test shows the movement of blood through the umbilical cord, in the baby’s heart, or between the baby and the placenta.
  • 3-D ultrasound. This test shows a lifelike image of an unborn baby.

Ultrasound uses an electronic wand called a transducer to send and receive sound waves. No radiation is used during the procedure. The transducer is moved over the abdomen, and sound waves move through the skin, muscle, bone, and fluids at different speeds. The sound waves bounce off the baby like an echo and return to the transducer. The transducer converts the sound waves into an electronic image on a computer screen.

Why might I need fetal ultrasound?

Fetal ultrasound is a routine part of prenatal care in the U.S. This is because it’s a low risk procedure that gives important information. A routine prenatal ultrasound can check for defects or other problems in the fetus. The following can be examined:

  • Abdomen and stomach
  • Arms, legs, and other body parts
  • Back of the neck
  • Head and brain
  • Heart chambers and valves
  • Kidneys
  • Placenta placement
  • Spine
  • Umbilical cord
  • Urinary bladder

A fetal ultrasound can also show:

  • If a woman is pregnant with multiple babies
  • The gestational age of a baby
  • Where to place the needle during removal of amniotic fluid (amniocentesis)
  • Whether a feus is growing properly

Your healthcare provider may have other reasons to request a fetal ultrasound.

What are the risks of fetal ultrasound?

All procedures have some risks. The risks of this procedure include:

  • Mild discomfort from the transducer on the abdomen or in the vagina
  • Reaction to a latex covering for the transducer, if you have a latex allergy

In some cases, an ultrasound may appear to show a problem that is not there called false-positive. The test can also miss a problem that is there called false-negative. In some cases, additional testing may be needed after a fetal ultrasound.

Fetal ultrasound is sometimes offered in nonmedical settings. This is done as a way to give keepsake images or videos for parents. In these cases, it’s possible for untrained staff to misread the images and give parents incorrect information. Make sure to have fetal ultrasound done by trained medical staff. Talk with your healthcare provider if you have questions.

Your risks may vary depending on your general health and other factors. Ask your healthcare provider which risks apply most to you. Discuss any concerns you may have.

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Women's Healthcare Guidelines!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Women's Healthcare Guidelines!

The National Women's Health Information Center offers the following 10 things you can do to help live longer, live better, and live happier:

  1. Be informed. Learn about health promotion and disease prevention and ask your healthcare provider for specific information regarding your needs.

  2. Be good to your bones. For healthy bones, be sure to replenish your stock of calcium every day with plenty of foods such as milk and other dairy products, tofu, leafy green vegetables, canned salmon or sardines, and calcium-fortified juices or breads. Speak with your healthcare provider about calcium supplements.

  3. Avoid illegal drugs and alcohol. For women, the definition of moderate drinking stops at one drink a day. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism defines a drink as one 5-ounce glass of wine, one 12-ounce bottle of beer or wine cooler, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits. Remember that the alcohol content of each type of drink can vary widely. Where illicit drugs are concerned, there is no such thing as "moderate" use.

  4. Take medicine wisely. Read the labels, follow the instructions carefully, and remind your healthcare provider or pharmacist about any other medicines or supplements you might be taking that could interact with your medicines. For your safety – to lower your risk for adverse side effects or medicine interactions, for instance – you should also let your healthcare provider know if you use any illicit or "recreational" drugs. If you have any questions about possible side effects, call your healthcare provider or pharmacist.

  5. Play it safe. Avoid injuries. Buckle up. Wear a bike helmet. Use smoke and carbon monoxide detectors. Wear sunscreen and UV protected sunglasses. Use street smarts and common sense. Practice safe sex by using condoms to protect against sexually transmitted diseases.

  6. Get checked. Get regular checkups, preventive exam, and immunizations. Do not forget self-exams, too.

  7. Don't smoke. Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in our country.

  8. Eat smart. It is the secret to good health. Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Enjoy a variety of foods, balance foods from each food group, and exercise in moderation.

  9. Get moving. The other secret to good health: just 30 minutes of physical activity, accumulated over the course of each day, can radically improve the way you look and feel, both physically and mentally.

  10. Be happy. Take time for yourself. Get connected with family, friends, and community. Do things you enjoy!

Routine activities for women to ensure good health

This chart provides general healthcare guidelines for women, but is not meant to replace any advice and guidance given by your healthcare provider. Please use it as a reminder to take care of your personal healthcare needs, and also as a list of topics you may want to discuss with your healthcare provider.

Each day

Each month

Each year

Other

Exercise 30 minutes a day.

Perform an oral cavity self-exam, gums, teeth, lips, tongue

Have a dental checkup once or twice a year. Have vision and hearing checked annually.

Discuss with your healthcare provider whether you need an annual exam.

Protect yourself from the sun - use sunscreen and dress appropriately.

Perform a full-body self-exam for unusual moles or other skin conditions. Have your healthcare provider examine moles annually, or immediately for suspicious growths.

Have a pelvic exam and Pap test beginning at age 21.Talk with your healthcare provider about his or her recommendations for further testing and screening for the human papillomavirus, or HPV.*

After age 50:

  • Have a fecal occult blood test every year, or have a flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years, OR

  • Have a double contrast barium enema every 5 years, OR

  • Have a colonoscopy every 10 years

 Begin screening with a colonoscopy at age 45 in African Americans

Watch your fat intake - no more than 25 % to 35% of your calorie intake. Most fats should come from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.

Be aware of your weight, check your BMI (body mass index)

 Have your blood pressure and cholesterol levels checked

Starting at age 45: every 5 years have a full lipid profile test for cholesterol and triglycerides.

Earlier screening is recommended if you have risk factors for coronary artery disease.

Eat sources of protein such as lean or low-fat meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts.

Eat 5 to 9 services of fruits and vegetables daily.

At least half of all of the grains eaten should be whole-grains.

Consume 3 cups of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products per day.

 

Talk with your doctor about when you should have a mammogram.

Get pneumococcal vaccines.

After age 65:  get the pneumococcal vaccines; also recommended for those younger than 65 who have medical problems that increase the risk for serious complications and death

Be aware of your alcohol intake and stress level.

 

Get a flu shot.

 Get a tetanus/diphtheria (td) booster every 10 years

* The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women have their first Pap test at age 21. Women ages 21 to 29 should have a Pap test every 3 years. Women 30 and older are recommended to have co-testing every 5 years, and cytology and HPV every 3 years. It's reasonable to discontinue screening for cervical cancer in women age 65 and over after receiving negative prior screening tests if there  is no history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+ within the last 20 years. After screening has been discontinued, it should not be resumed, even if a woman has multiple sexual partners.

1 person found this helpful

Cat Scratch Disease!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Cat Scratch Disease!

What is cat scratch disease?

Cat scratches and bites can cause cat scratch disease, a bacterial infection carried in cat saliva. Research suggests a cat may get these bacteria from fleas. The bacteria are passed from an infected cat to a human after the cat licks an open wound or bites or scratches human skin hard enough to break the surface of the skin. Kittens younger than one year of age are more likely to scratch, increasing the likelihood of infection.

What causes cat scratch disease?

Cat scratch disease is caused by a bacterium carried in the cat saliva. The bacteria are passed from an infected cat to a human after the cat licks an open wound or bites or scratches human skin hard enough to break the surface of the skin.

Who is at risk for cat scratch disease?

Factors that can increase your risk for getting cat scratch disease include:

  • Being around cats on a routine basis, especially kittens that are more playful and apt to accidentally scratch you
  • Not cleaning scratches or bites from a cat as soon as you get them
  • Allowing a cat to lick any open wounds that you have
  • Being around a flea infestation

What are the symptoms of cat scratch disease?

These are the most common symptoms of cat scratch disease:

  • A cat bite or scratch that becomes reddened or swollen within a few days and does not heal or worsens over time
  • Painful or swollen glands, especially under the arms (if scratched on the arm or hand), or in the groin (if scratched on the foot or leg)
  • Flu-like symptoms including headache, decreased appetite, fatigue, joint pain, or fever
  • Body rash

The symptoms of cat scratch disease may look like other conditions or medical problems. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is cat scratch disease diagnosed?

Diagnosis is based on a complete history, including a history of being scratched by a cat or kitten, a physical exam, and sometimes blood tests.

How is cat scratch disease treated?

Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment based on:

  • How old you are
  • Your overall health and medical history
  • How sick you are
  • How well you can handle specific medicines, procedures, or therapies
  • How long the condition is expected to last
  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include:

  • Antibiotics (to treat the infection)
  • Caring for the symptoms that result from the infection. In most cases, no antibiotics are needed, and the infection will clear on its own.

What are the complications of cat scratch fever?

Most healthy people don’t have complications from cat scratch fever. However, people whose immune systems are weak (such as those who have HIV/AIDS, are receiving chemotherapy, or have diabetes) can have complications such as:

  • Bacillary angiomatosis. A skin disorder characterized by red, elevated lesions surrounded by a scaly ring. This condition may become a more widespread disorder that involves internal organs. 
  • Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome. A condition that involves a red, irritated and painful eye similar to conjunctivitis (pink eye), fever, and swollen lymph nodes in front of the ear on the same side

Can cat scratch disease be prevented?

Avoid being scratched or bitten by cats or kittens. If scratched or bitten, wash the area right away with soap and water. Do not allow cats to lick wounds you may have.

When should I call my healthcare provider?

If a cat scratch or bite becomes red or swollen and you develop flu-like symptoms, including headache, decreased appetite, fatigue, joint pain, or fever, contact your healthcare provider.

Key points about cat scratch fever

  • Cat scratch disease is an infection caused by a bacterium in cat saliva.

  • The disease causes redness and swelling at the site of a cat scratch or bite, and flu-like symptoms.
  • If you are scratched or bitten by a cat or kitten, it is important to promptly wash the area with soap and water.
  • Cat scratch disease can be treated by antibiotics.

Warts In Children!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Warts In Children!

What are warts?

Warts are noncancerous skin growths caused by the human papillomavirus. Warts are more common in children than adults, although they can develop at any age. Warts can spread to other parts of the body and to other people. There are many different types of warts, due to many different papillomavirus types (more than 100). Warts aren't painful, except when located on the feet. Most warts go away, without treatment, over an extended period of time.

Common types of warts:

The following are the more common types of warts:

 

  • Common warts. Growths around nails and the back of hands. These usually have a rough surface and are grayish-yellow or brown in color.
  • Hand and foot warts. Located on the soles of feet (plantar warts) or the palms of the hand (palmar warts) with black dots (clotted blood vessels that once fed them). These clusters of plantar warts are called mosaic. These warts may be painful.
  • Flat warts. Small, smooth growths that grow in groups up to 100 at a time. Most often appear on children's faces.
  • Genital warts. These warts grow on the genitals. They are occasionally sexually transmitted. Unlike other common warts, they are soft and don't have a rough surface.
  • Filiform warts. Small, long, narrow growths that usually appear on eyelids, face, or neck.
  • Plantar Warts - This condition occurs when a virus enters the body through cuts or breaks in the skin and causes non-cancerous growths to build up on the soles of the feet. Plantar warts are not dangerous, but they can be painful and resistant to treatment.

 

Treatment for warts:

Specific treatment for warts will be decided by your child's health care provider based on:

  • Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
  • Extent of the growths
  • Your child's tolerance for specific medicines, procedures, or therapies
  • Expectations for the course of the growths
  • Your opinion or preference

Warts in children often disappear without treatment. Treatment of warts depends on several factors, including:

  • Length of time on the skin
  • Location
  • Type
  • Severity

Treatment may include:

  • Application of salicylic and lactic acid (to soften the infected area). It is available over-the-counter.
  • Freezing with liquid nitrogen
  • Electrodesiccation (using an electrical current to destroy the wart)
  • Immunotherapy
  • Laser surgery
  • Cantharadin by itself or in combination with salicylic acid and podophylin
  • Imiquimod
  • Intralesional injection of candida
  • Surgery

Weight Gain During Pregnancy!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Weight Gain During Pregnancy!

Weight Gain During Pregnancy

 

Weight gain during pregnancy varies from woman to woman and depends on body type. Each woman should talk with her healthcare provider about the appropriate amount of weight gain, as well as diet and exercise. 

2009 recommendations for pregnancy weight gain by BMI (Body Mass Index) from the Institute of Medicine.

 

 

Prepregnancy

BMI

 BMI  

Total gain   

range

Rate of gain in 2nd and 3rd      

trimester

Underweight

 less than 18.5

 28-40 lbs

 1 (1-1.3) lbs/week

Normal Weight

 18.5-24.9 

 25-35 lbs

 1 (0.8-1) lbs/week

Overweight

 25.0-29.9

 15-25 lbs

 0.6 (0.5-0.7) lbs/week

Obese

 greater than 30.0 

 11-20 lbs

 0.5 (0.4-0.6) lbs/week

 

Total weight gain at the end of pregnancy is, in most instances, approximated as follows, according to the March of Dimes:

Baby

7.5 pounds

Maternal energy stores
(fat, protein, and other nutrients)

7 pounds

Fluid volume

4 pounds

Breast enlargement

2 pounds

Uterus

2 pounds

Amniotic fluid

2 pounds

Placenta

1.5 pounds

Blood

3 pounds

What Is Hearing Loss?

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
What Is Hearing Loss?

What is hearing loss?

Hearing loss in children can be present at birth (congenital) or develop later in childhood (acquired). Congenital hearing loss can be hereditary (genetic) or caused by infections during pregnancy, including infection with cytomegalovirus or rubella. Hearing loss is more common in babies who are in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Hearing loss can be an isolated condition or a feature of a syndrome that causes additional symptoms. Genetic testing can help determine the cause of hearing loss in some cases. Acquired hearing loss can be caused by infectious diseases, such as meningitis or recurrent ear infections, as well as trauma and certain medications.

Depending on its cause and origin, the hearing loss can be:

  • Sensorineural, a permanent type of hearing loss which occurs when the inner ear (cochlea) or the auditory nerve is damaged or malformed
  • Conductive, which occurs when the sound can’t travel through the ear because of earwax build-up, a foreign body lodged somewhere in the ear, build-up of fluid or a punctured eardrum (Conductive hearing losses may be treated in some cases with medicine or surgery.)

Hearing loss is categorized as mild, moderate, severe or profound depending on its severity.

Symptoms

  • Reduced hearing, such as inability to hear faint sounds
  • Failure to respond to sound
  • Delay of language and speech development in young children
  • Unclear speech

Diagnosis

A hearing test is the best way to diagnose hearing loss and its severity. More tests may be needed to identify the cause. No child is too young to have a hearing test!

Treatment

Newborns should be tested for hearing loss and deafness shortly after birth in order to start receiving therapy promptly, since intervention within the first six months can prevent developmental and social problems.

When to Call for Help

If you see any of the symptoms listed above in your child, talk to your pediatrician.

Ear Infections!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Ear Infections!

Ear Infections

Middle-ear infections (otitis media) are inflammation or infections located in the middle ear space. Ear infections can occur as a result of a cold or upper respiratory infection, or may occur in isolation in the presence of chronic middle ear fluid.

Risks

While children or adults may develop an ear infection, the following are some of the factors that may increase a person’s risk of developing ear infections:

  • Being around someone who smokes

  • Family history of ear infections

  • A weak immune system

  • Spending time in a day care setting

  • Having a cold or upper respiratory infection

  • Being bottle-fed while lying on his or her back

  • Chronic fluid within the middle ear

Causes

Middle-ear infections are usually a result of dysfunction of the eustachian tube, a canal that links the middle ear with the throat area. The eustachian tube helps to equalize the pressure between the outer ear and the middle ear.

When this tube is not working properly, it prevents normal pressure equalization, causing a buildup of fluid behind the eardrum. Additionally, it can be a source of bacteria to enter the middle ear. When this fluid cannot drain, it allows for the growth of bacteria and viruses in the ear that can lead to an ear infection. The following are some of the reasons that the eustachian tube may not work properly:

  • A cold or allergy, which can lead to swelling and congestion of the lining of the nose, throat and eustachian tube (this swelling prevents the normal drainage of fluids from the ear)

  • Smoke exposure

  • Young age (the eustachian tube of young children is underdeveloped and does not work as efficiently as adults’)

  • A malformation of the eustachian tube

  • Enlarged and chronically inflamed adenoids

Types of Middle-Ear Infections

Different types of otitis media include the following:

  • Acute otitis media. This middle-ear infection occurs abruptly, causing swelling and redness. Fluid and mucus become trapped inside the ear, causing the child to have a fever and ear pain.

  • Otitis media with effusion. Fluid (effusion) and mucus continue to accumulate in the middle ear after an initial infection subsides. The child may experience a feeling of fullness in the ear, and it may affect his or her hearing, or cause no symptoms.

  • Chronic otitis media with effusion. Fluid remains in the middle ear for a prolonged period or returns again and again, even though there is no infection. May result in difficulty fighting new infection and may affect a person’s hearing.

Symptoms

The following are the most common symptoms of an ear infection. However, each child may experience symptoms differently.

  • Fever, especially in infants and younger children

  • Fluid draining from ear canals

  • Loss of balance

  • Hearing difficulties

  • Ear pain

It may be more difficult to detect an ear infection in young children who have not learned to speak yet. Symptoms in children and nonverbal individuals may include:

  • Unusual irritability

  • Difficulty sleeping or staying asleep

  • Tugging or pulling at one or both ears

The symptoms of ear infections may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your child's health care provider for a diagnosis.

Diagnosing Ear Infections

In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, your child's health care provider will inspect the outer ear(s) and eardrum(s) using an otoscope. The otoscope is a lighted instrument that allows the health care provider to see inside the ear. A pneumatic otoscope blows a puff of air into the ear to test eardrum movement.

Tympanometry is a test that can be performed in most health care providers’ offices to help determine how the middle ear is functioning. It does not test hearing, but it helps to detect any changes in pressure in the middle ear. This is a difficult test to perform in younger children because the child needs to remain still and not cry, talk or move.

A hearing test may be performed for children who have frequent ear infections.

Treatment

Specific treatment for ear infections will be determined by your health care provider based on the following:

  • Age, overall health and medical history

  • Extent of the condition

  • Tolerance for specific medications, procedures or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the condition

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include:

  • Antibiotics by mouth or eardrops

  • Medication for pain and fever

  • Observation

  • A combination of the above

If fluid remains in the ear(s) for longer than three months and the infection continues to reoccur even with the use of antibiotics, your health care provider may suggest that small tubes be placed in the ear(s). This surgical procedure, called myringotomy and tympanostomy tube placement, involves making a small opening in the eardrum to drain the fluid and relieve the pressure from the middle ear. A small tube is placed in the opening of the eardrum to ventilate the middle ear and prevent fluid from accumulating. The child's hearing is restored after the fluid is drained. The tubes usually fall out on their own after six to 12 months.

Your surgeon may also recommend the removal of the adenoids (lymph tissue located in the space above the soft roof of the mouth, also called the nasopharynx) if they are infected or enlarged. Removal of the adenoids has shown to help some people with chronic ear infections.

Treatment will depend on the type of ear infection. Consult your health care provider regarding treatment options.

Effects of an Ear Infection

In addition to the symptoms of ear infections listed above, untreated ear infections can result in any or all of the following:

  • Infection in other parts of the head

  • Scarring or perforation of the eardrum

  • Permanent hearing loss

  • Problems with speech and language development (children)

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Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis!

What is juvenile idiopathic arthritis?

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a form of arthritis in children. Arthritis causes joint swelling (inflammation) and joint stiffness. JIA is arthritis that affects 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks in a child age 16 or younger.

Unlike adult rheumatoid arthritis, which is ongoing (chronic) and lasts a lifetime, children often outgrow JIA. But the disease can affect bone development in a growing child.

What causes juvenile idiopathic arthritis?

Like adult rheumatoid arthritis, JIA is an autoimmune disease. This means the body's immune system attacks its own healthy cells and tissues. JIA is caused by several factors. These include genes and environmental factors. This means the disease can run in families, but can also be triggered by exposure to certain things. JIA is linked to part of a gene called HLA antigen DR4. A person with this antigen may be more likely to have the disease.

What are the symptoms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis?

Symptoms may appear during episodes (flare-ups). Or they may be ongoing (chronic). Each child’s symptoms can vary. Symptoms may include:

  • Swollen, stiff, and painful joints in the knees, hands, feet, ankles, shoulders, elbows, or other joints, often in the morning or after a nap
  • Eye inflammation
  • Warmth and redness in a joint
  • Less ability to use one or more joints
  • Fatigue
  • Decreased appetite, poor weight gain, and slow growth
  • High fever and rash (in systemic JIA)
  • Swollen lymph nodes (in systemic JIA)

These symptoms can seem like other health conditions. Make sure to see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is juvenile idiopathic arthritis diagnosed?

Diagnosing JIA may be difficult. There is no single test to confirm the disease. Your child’s healthcare provider will take your child’s medical history and do a physical exam. Your child's provider will ask about your child's symptoms, and any recent illness. JIA is based on symptoms of inflammation that have occurred for 6 weeks or more.

How is juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated?

The goal of treatment is to reduce pain and stiffness, and help your child keep as normal a lifestyle as possible. Your child's healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment plan for your child based on:

  • How old your child is
  • Your child’s overall health and medical history
  • How sick your child is
  • How well your child handles certain medicines, treatments, or therapies
  • If your child’s condition is expected to get worse
  • The opinion of the healthcare providers involved in your child's care
  • Your opinion and preference

Treatment may include medicines such as:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs), to reduce pain and inflammation
  • Disease-modifying antirheumatic medicines (DMARDs), such as methotrexate, to decrease inflammation and control JIA
  • Corticosteroid medicines, to reduce inflammation and severe symptoms
  • Medicines called biologics that interfere with the body's inflammatory response. They are used if other treatment isn’t working.

Talk with your child’s healthcare provider about the risks, benefits, and possible side effects of all medicines.

Other treatments and lifestyle changes may include:

  • Physical therapy, to improve and maintain muscle and joint function
  • Occupational therapy, to improve ability to do activities of daily living
  • Nutrition counseling
  • Regular eye exams to find early eye changes from inflammation
  • Regular exercise and weight control
  • Getting enough rest
  • Learning to use large joints instead of small joints to move or carry things

What are the complications of juvenile idiopathic arthritis?

Nearly 50% of all children with JIA recover fully. Others may have symptoms for years. Some will have rashes and fever, while others may have arthritis that gets worse. Problems may include slow growth and thinning bones (osteoporosis). In rare cases, there may be problems with the kidneys, heart, or endocrine system.

Helping your child live with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Help your child manage his or her symptoms by sticking to the treatment plan. This includes getting enough sleep. Encourage exercise and physical therapy and find ways to make it fun. Work with your child's school to make sure your child has help as needed. Work with other caregivers to help your child take part as much possible in school, social, and physical activities. Your child may also qualify for special help under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. You can also help your child find a support group to be around with other children with JIA.

When should I call my child’s healthcare provider?

Tell the provider if your child's symptoms get worse or there are new symptoms.

Key points about juvenile idiopathic arthritis

  • JIA is a form of arthritis in children ages 16 or younger. It causes joint inflammation and stiffness for more than 6 weeks.

  • The disease may affect a few joints or many joints. It may cause symptoms all over the body.
  • The most common symptoms include swollen, stiff, warm, red, and painful joints.
  • Treatment options include medicines, physical therapy, healthy eating and exercise, eye exams, and rest.

 

Your Baby and Breastfeeding!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Your Baby and Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding well:

A baby who breastfeeds well cues (shows readiness) for feedings, is in a good feeding position, latches-on (attaches) deeply at the breast, and moves milk forward from the breast and into his or her mouth. It is also comfortable for the mother.

Feeding cues

A baby has to wake up and let his or her mother know that he or she wants to eat. This is called showing feeding cues. A baby should show he or she is hungry 8 to 12 times in a 24-hour period. Watch your baby and begin breastfeeding when you see your baby:

  • Licking
  • Making sucking movements
  • Rooting
  • Bobbing the head against the mattress or your neck or shoulder
  • Bringing hands to face or mouth
  • Squawking

Crying is a late feeding cue. Many babies have difficulty latching once they become frustrated and begin to cry. Try to feed your baby before he or she cries. If your baby does cry and cannot latch on, calm your baby before trying again. Put your baby skin-to-skin away from the breast, let him or her suck on your finger, or have someone else hold the baby for a while so your baby can calm down. Then offer to nurse again.

Feeding positions

It will be easier for your baby to latch-on if he or she is snugly in a good position for feeding. The most common feeding positions include the following:

Cradle. The baby is held in the crook or elbow area of the arm on same side as breast to be used for feeding. The mother supports breast with opposite hand. The baby's body is rolled in toward mother's body so they are belly-to-belly. You should not be able to see the baby's arm closest to your body.

Cross-cradle. The baby's head is supported by the hand opposite the breast to be used for feeding. The mother supports breast with hand. The baby is rolled in toward mother's body belly-to-belly. As in the cradle hold, you should not be able to see the baby's arm closest to your body.

Football or clutch. Baby's head is supported by the hand on the same side as breast to be used for feeding. The baby's body is supported on a pillow and tucked under the arm on the same side as breast to be used for feeding. Many women who have had a cesarean delivery prefer this position as it keeps pressure off a mother's belly.

Side-lying using modified cradle. In this position, the baby lies next to the mother with mother's and baby's bodies facing each other. If a pillow under your arm is uncomfortable, try placing your baby in the crook of your arm. This way, you will not be likely to roll over on the baby should you doze off. This position also keeps the baby's head at a good angle to bring baby and breast together, with the baby's head higher than his or her tummy, which can be helpful for babies who are more likely to spit up.

Laid-back breastfeeding. In this position, you are leaning back in a recliner or reclining in bed. Your baby is lying on his or her stomach on top of you. You can support the side of your baby's head if your baby cannot hold it him- or herself. In this position, both you and your baby can relax. You can allow your baby to explore your breast and latch on at his or her leisure.

Illustration of breastfeeding, side-lying using modified cradle position

For all positions, bring your baby to the breast—not the breast to the baby—by getting in a good position before you try to latch. It can help to sit in a roomy and comfortable chair or sofa. Some women find it comfortable to use a pillow on their lap to raise the baby to the breast. Your baby must be held in good alignment if he or she is to suck, swallow, and breathe during feedings. When in good alignment, you should be able to draw a straight line down your baby's body from earlobe to hip no matter which feeding position you use. For you, being in a comfortable position means that your feet are supported, your back is supported, you are sitting up straight and not leaning over your baby, and your shoulders are relaxed.

Deep latch-on

To help your baby achieve a deep latch, support your breast from underneath with your hand. A C-hold, with your thumb on top and your fingers underneath your breast—at least 1 1/2 to 2 inches behind the nipple—gives good support for the cradle or cross-cradle positions. A U-hold, in which you slide your hand so your thumb is on one side of the breast and your fingers on the other, is a variation of the C-hold often used when a baby is placed in the football (clutch) position for feeding. You may not have to continue to use a C or U hold if your breasts are smaller, but mothers with larger breasts often maintain the hold throughout the feeding.

Once you are both comfortable and your breast is supported, you are ready to help your baby latch. To help your baby latch-on correctly, use your nipple to stroke the baby from the nose to the lower lip in a downward motion and wait for him or her to open wide. Then bring the baby and your breast together in one swift motion. The baby should have a big mouthful of your breast, and his or her chin and nose should be touching your breast. Your baby's lips should be flanged outward like a trumpet or fish lips. The lips should not be pursed or rolled in. If you were to roll down your baby's lower lip, you should see baby's tongue gliding in front of the lower gum. The tongue should also "cup" your nipple and areola.

Do not press down near the areola with your thumb thinking this will help your baby breathe. This will pull your nipple from the back of your baby's mouth, where it needs to be. Babies' noses are designed to "smush" against their mother's breast as they feed. That is why their noses are flat—so they can latch-on deeply to the breast yet still be able to breathe. If you are concerned about your baby's ability to breathe, pull your baby's lower body in closer to you or lift your breast rather than pressing down on your breast.

It is called breastfeeding, not nipple-feeding, for a reason. If your baby's latch is shallow—not deep onto the areola, he or she may appear to be "hanging" on the nipple tip. When this happens, the baby will not be able to remove milk from your breast very well. This would decrease the amount of milk your baby drinks, so feedings may take over 45 minutes and your baby may not gain weight as he or she should. Also, your nipples are more likely to become very sore or cracked. If you are worried your baby does not have a deep latch, or you have sore or cracked nipples, try the different positions outlined above. If this doesn't work, promptly contact your healthcare provider or lactation consultant for help.

Toe Walking!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Toe Walking!

Toe Walking: What You Need to Know

  • Some children walk on their toes rather than their feet. This looks similar to standing on your “tiptoes.”

  • Toe walking is common among infants first learning to walk.
  • A majority of children will stop toe walking on their own without intervention.
  • Physical therapy, bracing and casting are used to treat toe walking, with surgical procedures available if these methods are unsuccessful.

What is toe walking?

Toe walking is when a child walks on the toes or ball of the foot without the heel or other parts of the foot coming in contact with the floor. Sometimes there is an underlying condition that can cause a child to walk on the toes, but other times there is not.

What are the symptoms of toe walking?

Children who persistently toe walk may develop tightness in their ankles and benefit from treatments that stretch the calf muscle.

Toe Walking Diagnosis

A physical exam is usually all that is needed to diagnose toe walking, but during the exam, the provider will also assess the child’s gait, range of motion and muscle tone.

Children should also be assessed for any neurologic abnormalities that could be contributing to the toe walking. Sometimes a child can be found to have a muscle tone imbalance or neurological finding that prompts further evaluation for an underlying cause of the toe walking. But if there are no abnormal findings, the child likely has idiopathic toe walking, meaning there is no found reason for the toe walking other than that he or she has a preference to do so.

Toe Walking Treatment

1. Physical Therapy

Several sessions to work on stretching the tight muscles may be beneficial to decrease the amount of toe walking. Children will also benefit from completing stretching exercises at home.

2. Bracing

Some children may benefit from an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) to help encourage a flat foot with walking. The AFO is a custom brace used during the daytime to help stretch and encourage a flat foot position. If worn at night, the AFO can help stretch the tight muscles while a child is sleeping.

3. Serial Casting

Short leg casts can be applied for one- to two-week intervals to progressively work on stretching the tight muscles and improving the position of the foot and ankle. Children are able to walk in these casts. The addition of Botox injections to help stretch the tight muscles in casts may be more effective in some children.

4. Achilles Tendon or Gastrocnemius Lengthening

When physical therapy and serial casting are ineffective in correcting the tight ankle, a surgery may be necessary to achieve a flat foot position with walking. A lengthening is a surgical procedure in which the tight Achilles tendon or gastrocnemius muscle is lengthened to allow greater range of motion and function of the foot and ankle. The lengthening also allows children to better tolerate AFOs and achieve a flat foot position with walking.

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Peanut Allergy Diet!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Peanut Allergy Diet!

General guidelines for peanut allergy

The key to an allergy-free diet is to avoid all foods or products containing the food to which you are allergic. If you are allergic to peanuts, you will need to avoid peanuts and foods that contain peanuts. It is necessary to read all food labels.

How to read a label for a peanut-free diet:

In addition to peanuts, avoid foods that contain any of the following ingredients:

  • Artificial nuts (Nu-Nuts)

  • Beer nuts

  • Ground nuts

  • Mixed nuts

  • Monkey nuts

  • Peanut butter

  • Peanut flour

  • Peanut oil

Foods that may contain peanuts

These foods may also contain peanuts:

  • African, Chinese, Mexican, Thai, and other ethnic dishes

  • Baked goods

  • Candy

  • Cereals

  • Chili, spaghetti sauce

  • Crackers

  • Egg rolls

  • Enchilada sauce

  • Flavoring (natural and artificial) 

  • Hydrolyzed plant protein

  • Hydrolyzed vegetable protein

  • Ice creams, frozen yogurts, Tofutti

  • Marzipan

  • Nougat

Other sources of peanuts

These food sources may also contain peanuts:

  • Studies show that most people with allergies can safely eat foods containing peanut oil—except peanut oil that is cold-pressed, expressed, or expelled.

  • Ethnic foods, commercially prepared baked goods, and candy can be cross-contaminated with peanuts since peanuts are often used in these types of foods.

  • Peanut butter and/or peanut flour have been used in homemade chili and spaghetti sauce as thickeners.

  • Hydrolyzed plant and vegetable protein may be from peanuts in imported foods.

Failure To Thrive!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Failure To Thrive!

What is failure to thrive?

Children are diagnosed with failure to thrive when their weight or rate of weight gain is significantly below that of other children of similar age and sex. Infants or children that fail to thrive seem to be dramatically smaller or shorter than other children the same age. Teenagers may have short stature or appear to lack the usual changes that occur at puberty. However, there is a wide variation in what is considered normal growth and development.

Symptoms

In general, the rate of change in weight and height may be more important than the actual measurements.

Infants or children who fail to thrive have a height, weight and head circumference that do not match standard growth charts. The person's weight falls lower than the third percentile (as outlined in standard growth charts) or 20 percent below the ideal weight for their height. Growing may have slowed or stopped after a previously established growth curve.

The following are delayed or slow to develop:

  1. Physical skills, such as rolling over, sitting, standing and walking
  2. Mental and social skills
  3. Secondary sexual characteristics (delayed in adolescents)

Diagnosis

It is important to determine whether failure to thrive results from medical problems or factors in the environment, such as abuse or neglect.

There are multiple medical causes of failure to thrive. These include:

 

  • Chromosome abnormalities, such as Down syndrome and Turner syndrome
  • Defects in major organ systems
  • Problems with the endocrine system, such as thyroid hormone deficiency, growth hormone deficiency or other hormone deficiencies
  • Damage to the brain or central nervous system, which may cause feeding difficulties in an infant
  • Heart or lung problems, which can affect how oxygen and nutrients move through the body
  • Anemia or other blood disorders
  • Gastrointestinal problems that result in malabsorption or a lack of digestive enzymes
  • Long-term gastroenteritis and gastroesophageal reflux (usually temporary)

Cerebral palsy

Long-term (chronic) infections

Metabolic disorders

Complications of pregnancy and low birth weight

Other factors that may lead to failure to thrive:

  • Emotional deprivation as a result of parental withdrawal, rejection or hostility
  • Economic problems that affect nutrition, living conditions and parental attitudes
  • Exposure to infections, parasites or toxins
  • Poor eating habits, such as eating in front of the television and not having formal meal times
  • Many times the cause cannot be determined.

Treatment

The treatment depends on the cause of the delayed growth and development. Delayed growth due to nutritional factors can be resolved by educating the parents to provide a well-balanced diet.

If psychosocial factors are involved, treatment should include improving the family dynamics and living conditions. Parental attitudes and behavior may contribute to a child's problems and need to be examined. In many cases, a child may need to be hospitalized initially to focus on implementation of a comprehensive medical, behavioral and psychosocial treatment plan.

Do not give your child dietary supplements without consulting your physician first.

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How To Avoid Eyestrain?

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
How To Avoid Eyestrain?

Eye Safety at the Computer:

Eye strain and computer use:

The following are the most common symptoms of eye strain. These may be attributed to prolonged computer screen viewing. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Red, watery, irritated eyes

  • Tired, aching, or heavy eyelids

  • Problems with focusing

  • Muscle spasms of the eye or eyelid

  • Headache

  • Backache

Symptoms of eye strain are often relieved by resting the eyes, changing the work environment, and/or wearing the proper glasses. The symptoms of eye strain may resemble other eye conditions. Talk with your healthcare provider for diagnosis.

How is eyestrain avoided?

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has provided the following helpful suggestions for making the appropriate workstation changes to help avoid eye strain:

  • Position the video display terminal (VDT) slightly further away than where you normally hold reading material.

  • Position the top of the VDT screen at or slightly below eye level.

  • Place all reference material as close to the screen as possible. This will minimize head and eye movements and focusing changes.

  • Minimize lighting reflections and glare.

  • Keep the VDT screen clean and dust-free.

  • Schedule periodic rest breaks to avoid eye fatigue.

  • Keep the eyes moist (by blinking or using moisturizing eye drops) to prevent them from drying out.

  • Keep the VDT screen in proper focus.

  • Talk with your ophthalmologist or optometrist, as some individuals who normally do not need glasses may need corrective lenses for computer work.

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Zippr is the easiest way to find me! Click http://zip.pr/IN/KIDS1000 to reach Sree jaabilli childrens clinic at Ayyappa Swamy Temple Road, Moula Ali, .

Egg Allergy Diet

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Egg Allergy Diet

Egg Allergy Diet

General guidelines for egg allergy

The key to an allergy-free diet is to avoid foods or products containing the food to which you are allergic.

Eggs are a commonly used food that may cause food sensitivity reactions. It isn't difficult to eliminate eggs, but may be challenging to avoid food products that contain eggs. To avoid these foods, it is necessary to read food labels.

Foods

Allowed

Not allowed

Breads & starches

Plain enriched white, whole wheat, rye bread, or buns without egg products or brushing with egg for glazing

Biscuits made from egg-free baking powder

Crackers and homemade breads made with allowed ingredients

All cereals and grains, such as rice

Any bread or bread product with eggs products or glazed with egg

Commercially prepared pancakes, waffles, donuts, and muffins

Zwieback, soda crackers, bread crumbs, and pretzels

Egg noodles or pasta

Baking mixes, fritter batter or batter-fried foods, French toast

Fried rice containing eggs

Vegetables

All fresh, frozen, dried, or canned

Any vegetables prepared in a casserole or with sauces or breading that contain eggs in any form (such as hollandaise sauce, vegetable soufflé or batter-fried vegetables)

Fruit

All fresh, frozen, dried, or canned fruits and juices

Any fruit served with a sauce containing egg, such as custard sauce

Fruit whips

Meat, meat substitutes, & eggs

Any baked, broiled, boiled, or roasted beef, veal, pork, bacon, ham, chicken, turkey, lamb, fish, or organ meats

Meats breaded and fried with egg-free breading

All eggs, including egg powders, or commercial egg substitutes

Soufflés

Commercially-breaded meats, fish, or poultry

Meatballs, meat loaf, croquettes, or some sausages

Milk & milk products

Whole, low-fat or skim milk, or buttermilk

Cheese, cottage cheese, or yogurt

Cocomalt, eggnog, malted beverages, boiled custard, Ovaltine, protein drinks containing egg, egg products or egg protein

Pudding, custard, or ice cream

Soups & combination foods

Any soup or broth prepared with allowed ingredients

Any stock cleared with egg (consommé, broth, or bouillon)

Turtle or mock turtle soup, egg drop soup, any soup with egg noodles or macaroni

Prepared entrees or combination foods that contain eggs in any form

Desserts & sweets

Gelatin, fruit crisp, popsicles, fruit ice

Homemade desserts prepared with allowed ingredients

Hard candy

Cakes, cookies, cream-filled pies, meringues, whips, custard, pudding, ice cream, sherbet

Chocolate candy made with cream or fondant fillings, marshmallow candy, divinity, fudge, jelly beans

Icing or frostings, chocolate sauce

Dessert powders

Pie crust brushed with egg whites

Fats & oils

Butter, margarine, vegetable oil, shortening, cream gravy, oil & vinegar dressing, eggless mayonnaise

Salad dressings and mayonnaise (unless egg-free)

Tartar sauce

Beverages

Water, fruit juice, fruit drinks

Tea

Carbonated beverages

Root beer, wine, or coffee if clarified with egg

Condiments & miscellaneous

Sugar, honey, jam, jelly

Salt, spices

Cream sauces made with eggs

Hollandaise sauce, tartar sauce, marshmallow sauce

Baking powder containing egg white or egg albumin

Any product made with Simplesse

How to read a label for an egg-free diet

Be sure to avoid foods that contain any of the following ingredients:

  • Albumin

  • Egg white

  • Egg yolk

  • Dried egg

  • Egg powder

  • Egg solids

  • Egg substitutes

  • Globulin

  • Livetin

  • Lysozyme (used in Europe)

  • Mayonnaise

  • Meringue

  • Ovalbumin

  • Ovomucin

  • Ovomucoid

  • Ovovitellin

  • Simplesse

Other possible sources of eggs or egg products

  • A shiny glaze or yellow-colored baked goods may indicate the presence of egg.

  • Egg white and shells may be used as clarifying agents in soup stocks, consommes, bouillons, and coffees.

Substitutes for eggs in recipes

For each egg, substitute one of the following combinations:

  • 1 tsp baking powder, 1 Tbsp water, 1 Tbsp vinegar

  • 1 tsp yeast dissolved in ¼ cup warm water

  • 1 Tbsp apricot puree

  • 1½ Tbsp water, 1½ Tbsp oil, 1 tsp baking powder

  • 1 packet gelatin, 2 Tbsp warm water (do not mix until ready to use)

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All About Dry Skin!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
All About Dry Skin!

Dry skin is a very common skin condition. It can make your skin feel irritated and itchy. Dry skin often worsens in the winter when the air is cold and dry. Frequent bathing also makes it worse. With no treatment, dry skin may become flaky or scaly.

What causes dry skin?

Dry skin occurs when skin loses too much moisture. Skin thins with age. So, older adults often have dry skin. Other causes of dry skin include:

  1. Living in a dry, desert climates
  2. Swimming
  3. Jobs that require frequent hand washing
  4. Frequent bathing
  5. Skin conditions, such as eczema and psoriasis
  6. Cold air
  7. Hot water

What are the symptoms of dry skin?

Dry skin can affect people differently. Dry skin may present like:

 

  1. Rough skin that is scaly or flaky
  2. Mild to moderate itching
  3. Cracking skin that may bleed
  4. Chapped or cracked lips
  5. How is dry skin diagnosed?

Your doctor can usually diagnose dry skin my examining your skin. He or she may also ask about your medical history and your daily habits. If your doctor thinks your dry skin may be due to an underlying health problem, he or she may do other tests.

How is dry skin treated?

  1. Bathing less often can help improve dry skin. And when you do bathe or shower, don’t use hot water. Using ointments, lotions, or creams that keep the moisture in also help.
  2. Apply moisturizers right away after bathing or showering. The American Academy of Dermatology recommends using a product that contains petrolatum or lanolin.
  3. Avoid harsh soaps, detergents, and perfumes, which tend to dry the skin
  4. Avoid rubbing or scratching the skin, which can aggravate the symptoms and cause infection
  5. Apply a salicylic acid solution or creams for scaly skin (this removes the top layer of skin)
  6. Consider using a humidifier in your home. If dry skin isn’t helped with these treatments, your doctor may prescribe a prescription medicine to apply to your skin.

When to seek medical care

Call your health care provider if:

  1. You have itching without a visible rash
  2. The itching and dryness are so bad you can't sleep
  3. You have scratched so hard that you have open cuts or sores
  4. Home remedies have not relieved the dryness and itching

Skin cancer accounts for nearly half of all cancer cases. Protecting your skin from the sun is vital. It’s also important to examine your skin on a regular basis. Become familiar with moles or other skin conditions in order to better identify changes. If you or your family has a history of skin cancer, visit a dermatologist regularly for routine skin checkups.

Key points:

  1. Dry skin is a very common skin condition. It can make your skin feel irritated and itchy.
  2. Keep moisture in skin by taking fewer baths and applying ointments or creams.
  3. If dry skin does not improve with home remedies, or appears to be infected, consult with your health care provider.
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Know Everything About Dengue Fever!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Know Everything About Dengue Fever!

What is dengue fever?

Dengue (pronounced DEN-gee) fever is a viral disease. It is transmitted by mosquitoes mainly in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The disease is most common in:

  • South Pacific
  • South Central Asia 
  • Caribbean
  • Central and South America 
  • Africa

Dengue fever happens most often in urban areas. But it may be found in rural areas. The mosquitoes that carry the virus usually pass it on during and shortly after the rainy season. The mosquitoes are most active during the day. They are found near human dwellings, often indoors. About half of the world's population is now at risk for this disease.

What causes dengue fever?

Dengue fever is caused by a virus. A certain type of mosquito (Aedes) passes the virus to people through its bites.

What are the symptoms of dengue fever?

Dengue fever causes a severe flu-like illness. It may be look like other diseases such as the flu or malaria. The illness usually lasts 3 to 7 days. Symptoms may include:

  • Sudden high fever
  • Severe headaches
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Swollen glands
  • Rash that appears 3 to 4 days after the fever starts

A very small portion of people with dengue fever get a severe case. It’s called dengue hemorrhagic fever. Symptoms show up as the fever begins to ease. These may include vomiting that does not go away, rapid breathing, blood in vomit, and bleeding gums.

How is dengue fever diagnosed?

A special blood test can diagnose dengue fever. It can find the virus or antibodies made in response to the virus. See your healthcare provider if you get sick within a month of returning from travel in a tropical area. Your provider will ask you for your complete travel history. He or she can then figure out if your symptoms may be a dengue infection.

How is dengue fever treated?

Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment for you based on:

  • How old you are
  • Your overall health and past health
  • How sick you are
  • How well you can handle specific medicines, procedures, or therapies
  • How long the condition is expected to last
  • Your opinion or preference

Dengue fever is generally treated with supportive care such as pain relievers, bed rest and fluids. You may take acetaminophen to lower the fever. But you should not take aspirin, ibuprofen, or any NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug). In severe cases, you may need medical care right away from healthcare providers familiar with the disease. This can greatly cut the risk of death.

What are the complications of dengue fever?

Severe dengue fever can be fatal if not treated right away. Other effects of severe dengue are:

How can dengue fever be prevented?

There is no widely used or FDA-approved vaccine for dengue fever. Travelers should avoid mosquito bites by:

  • Using DEET based insect repellents on the skin and clothing
  • Using permethrin sprayed or soaked clothing as the Aedes mosquitoes bite during the daytime hours
  • Staying in well-screened or air conditioned areas

When should I call my healthcare provider?

Call your healthcare provider if you have fever within 3 weeks of travelling to an area affected by the disease. Also call your healthcare provider right away if your symptoms get worse or you have new ones.

Key points

  • Dengue fever is caused by a virus passed on by the bite of a daytime biting mosquito.

  • Dengue fever occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world.

  • The disease causes a severe flu-like illness. It is generally treated with bed rest and fluids.
  • When traveling to areas that have dengue fever, avoid mosquito bites. Use insect repellents on skin and clothing.
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Know More About Delayed Puberty!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Know More About Delayed Puberty!

What is Delayed Puberty?

Delayed puberty is a condition where the sexual development starts later than usual, typically later than 14 years of age. Medical conditions, including diabetescystic fibrosis or kidney disease, can cause delayed puberty, but sometimes no cause can be identified. Disorders of the thyroid or pituitary glands may cause delayed puberty. Malnutrition can also delay puberty. 

Symptoms

  • No breast development in girls by age 13 

  • No menstruation for five or more years after the first appearance of breast tissue 

  • No testicles development by age 14 in boys 

  • Incompletely developed male organs by five years after the first start to develop 

Diagnosis

  • Complete physical exam and medical history 

  • Blood tests to determine hormone levels 

  • X-rays of the hand to determine bone age 

When to Call for Help

If your child exhibits no signs or few signs of sexual development by age 13 for girls, or by age 14 for boys, see a doctor. 

Treatment

Treatment depends on the individual case and the specific cause. For example, if insufficient hormones are the cause, delayed puberty can be treated by the use of supplemental hormones.

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What You Need to Know About Clubfoot?

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
What You Need to Know About Clubfoot?

What You Need to Know About Clubfoot?

clubfoot is a common condition where an infant is born with a foot that turns in

  • Clubfoot most often presents at birth.

  • Clubfoot is caused by a shortened Achilles tendon, which causes the foot to turn in and under.

  • Clubfoot is twice as common in boys.

  • Treatment is necessary to correct clubfoot and is usually done in two phases — casting and bracing.

  • Children with clubfoot should be able to take part in regular daily activities once the condition is treated.

What is clubfoot?

Clubfoot is a foot deformity classified into three different types: idiopathic (unknown cause), neurogenic (caused by condition of the nervous system) and syndromic (related to an underlying syndrome).

Idiopathic Clubfoot

Also known as talipes equinovarus, idiopathic clubfoot is the most common type of clubfoot and is present at birth. This congenital anomaly is seen in one out of every 1,000 babies, with half of the cases of club foot involving only one foot. There is currently no known cause of idiopathic clubfoot, but baby boys are twice as likely to have clubfoot compared to baby girls.

Neurogenic Clubfoot

Neurogenic clubfoot is caused by an underlying neurologic condition. For instance, a child born with spina bifida A clubfoot may also develop later in childhood due to cerebral palsy or a spinal cord compression.

Syndromic Clubfoot

Syndromic clubfoot is found along with a number of other clinical conditions, which relate to an underlying syndrome. Examples of syndromes where a clubfoot can occur include arthrogryposis, constriction band syndrome, tibial hemimelia and diastrophic dwarfism.

What are the signs and symptoms of clubfoot?

In a clubfoot, the Achilles tendon is too short, causing the foot to stay pointed — also known as “fixing the foot in equinus.” The foot is also turned in and under. The bones of the foot and ankle are all present but are misaligned due to differences in the muscles and tendons acting on the foot.

What are the risk factors of clubfoot?

  • Having a parent or sibling with clubfoot

  • Maternal smoking during pregnancy

  • Male

Clubfoot Diagnosis

Foot imbalance due to clubfoot may be noticed during a fetal screening ultrasound as early as 12 weeks gestation, but the diagnosis of clubfoot is confirmed by physical exam at birth.

Clubfoot Treatment

The treatment for clubfoot consists of two phases: Ponseti serial casting and bracing. Treatment is always necessary, because the condition does not get better with growth.

Ponseti Serial Casting

A supramalleolar orthosis with bar is used for bracing after an infant has completed casting treatment for clubfoot

The Ponseti technique of serial casting is a treatment method that involves careful stretching and manipulation of the foot and holding with a cast. The first cast is applied one to two weeks after the baby is born. The cast is then changed in the office every seven to 10 days. With the fourth or fifth cast, a small in-office procedure is also needed to lengthen the Achilles tendon. This is done using a local numbing medicine and small blade. Afterward, the baby is placed into one last cast, which remains on for two to three weeks.

Bracing for Clubfoot

While the casting corrects the foot deformity, bracing maintains the correction. Without bracing, the clubfoot would redevelop. The day the last cast is removed, the baby is fit in a supramalleolar orthosis with a bar. These braces are worn 23 hours a day for two months, then 12 hours a day (naps plus nighttime) until kindergarten age.

Life after Treatment of Clubfoot

A well-corrected clubfoot looks no different than a normal foot. Sports, dance and normal daytime footwear are the expectations for a child born with a clubfoot. This condition will not hold a child back from normal activities. 

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