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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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My son is 23 months old, need to know about Meningococcal conjugate vaccine, doctor told it is optional, I am very confused whether we should give that vaccine to our son or simply avoid it?
Hi my sons age is 10 years and weight is 25 kg my problem is he is not interesting take right quantity of food ,and even not interested to take any vegetables and fruits have tried a lot but still he is not taking the right quantity lost week he had fever for 2 days since then it's more tough to give him food ,what is the cause? and pls suggest on this.
Skin Care Tips for Eczema Patients
As the ailment is chronic and of relapsing nature, persistence with proper skin care is a must. The patient and his care-takers should be educated about the disease triggers and measures to avoid them.
•Bathe less frequently: Patient should opt to bathe just two or three times a week with lukewarm water (avoid hot water) maximum for 5-10 minutes.
•Gently pat skin dry with a towel after bathing. Apply moisturizer immediately after bathing or swimming while the skin is still damp so as to seal in the moisture especially during winter.
•Avoid using soap. Restrict use of soap to genitals, axillae, hands and feet.
•Use of mild cleanser or moisturizing soap is recommended. Mild soaps clean without excessively removing natural oils.
•To retain the moisture after application of moisturizer patient could cover the area with a wrap or if hands are involved he can use gloves. This is not advised when steroidal applications are used as it increases the potential for developing their side-effects.
•Soaking the lesion in sodium bicarbonate or colloidal oatmeal to bath helps in reduce itching.
•By wearing gloves in the winter patient can prevent skin from being exposed to cold air with little humidity which can dry the skin.
•Regularly clip nails to prevent abrasion of skin while scratching. This reduces the chances of developing secondary infection.
•Avoid contact with allergens or irritants to the skin e.G. Wool, perfumes, detergents, etc.
•Children should be encouraged to drink plenty of water. Fluids help add moisture to the skin.
•Food substances that provoke allergies (allergens) should be avoided, e.G: Tomatoes which can be acidic.
•Tight-fitting, rough or scratchy clothing can irritate the skin. Wool and some synthetics are especially likely to irritate the skin. Wearing cotton and cotton blends are better choices.
•Scratching the skin rash: Patients often find it difficult to control this urge hence they should cover the affected area with a dressing or wear gloves at night to reduce damage to the skin caused by scratching accidentally during sleep.
•Avoid strenuous exercise during a flare-up as sweating can irritate the rash.
•Try and reduce mental and physical stress. Stress can trigger flare-ups. Older children and adults can learn breathing techniques and meditation to reduce stress.
My mri report shows 2 subserosa fibroids below 4 cms (both) are benign. What r the causes of fibroids and any medication for them not to grow further to avoid surgery in future? Upto which size are they harmless. No symptoms of discomfort like excess bleeding etc. Periods r regular. Do they shrink for me after menopause?
Q1. What exactly is Laparoscopy?
Laparoscopy is an alternative to 'Open' surgery wherein the abdomen is opened by tiny 'key hole' incisions and surgery is done. 'Scopy' means the use of an endoscope or telescope to see inside the abdomen. This is attached to a camera and a light source and the inside of the abdomen is projected on to a monitor. The surgeon performs surgery looking at this screen. The surgeon makes a total of 2-4 small cuts on the abdomen ranging from half to 1 cm through which the telescope and other thin surgical instruments are passed into the abdomen. When the uterus is removed , known as hysterectomy, there is also a cut at the top of the vagina where the uterus is attached.
Q2. What kind of gynaecological surgeries can be performed by Laparoscopy?
Most surgeries done in gynaecology can now be performed by Laparoscopy and do not require the large incision as for open surgery. Laparoscopy can be done sometimes only for diagnosis and is called Diagnostic Laparoscopy, as in checking whether the tubes are open or not and to look for any causes of infertility or pain outside the uterus. In women who are unable to conceive, Diagnostic Laparoscopy is often combined with Hysteroscopy (endoscope inside the uterus, inserted from below, via the vagina). When laparoscopy is done to perform some surgical procedure inside the abdomen it is called Operative Laparoscopy. This may be for simple procedures like sterilization, minor adhesions, drilling ovaries; or for intermediate or major reasons like fibroids, endometriosis, removal of ovaries or tubes or both or removal of uterus, for staging of cancers or radical surgeries for cancer. However, about 5% of all surgeries including those for cancer or very large tumours may benefit from open surgery.
Q3. Why does an expert surgeon recommend Laparoscopy over Open Surgery?
Laparoscopic surgery has many advantages above open surgery: the incisions are much smaller (open surgery incisions are 8-10 cms long), therefore pain is much less; requirement for pain killers (which can have side-effects like sleepiness, impaired judgement) is lesser; hospital stay is shorter; complications fewer; requirement for blood transfusions infrequent; recovery in terms of physical, emotional and mental state is much better and quicker; return to work is faster with consequent lesser loss of working and earning days. Surgery with laparoscope is more precise because it is magnified view. Further vision is much better because it's like having your eye behind the structure because you can see with the telescope at places where the surgeon's eye cannot reach.
Q4. If the cuts on the abdomen are so small in Laparoscopic surgery, how do you remove the uterus or a large tumour from inside the abdomen?
Quite often if the tumour is not malignant and contains fluid, it is punctured to collapse it into a smaller size. If it is solid, it can be cut into smaller pieces inside the abdomen using a special instrument. The collapsed or cut structures can be removed gently through the 1 cm cut on the abdomen which may be increased a bit if required. After hysterectomy, the uterus can be removed easily from below, through the vagina.
Q5. Will there be much pain or discomfort after Laparoscopic Surgery?
There may be some pain and discomfort in lower abdomen for one day to few days after Laparoscopic surgery but this is much less as compared to open surgery because the incisions on the abdomen are much smaller and there is much less tissue handling inside the abdomen by fine instruments instead of rough, big, gloved hands which can cause tissue injury in open surgery. There may be some pain in the shoulder following laparoscopy. This is not serious and is due to the gas used in the surgery to make space for instruments.
Q6. When can I be discharged from hospital?
Following Diagnostic Laparoscopy or with simple Operative Laparoscopy you can expect to be discharged from hospital latest by the morning after surgery. In most other cases of intermediate or even major surgery, discharge is generally 1-2 days following the surgery unless there is some health issues prior to the surgery or any complication during the surgery. The complication rates for Laparoscopic surgery are not more than for open surgery and depend upon patient factors like anaemia, diabetes, obesity and skill of the surgeon.
Q7. When can I perform routine household activities or return to work after Laparoscopic Surgery?
Recovery after surgery depends upon many factors: presence of health problems before surgery; why the surgery is required; what surgery is being done; problems or complications of surgery, anaesthesia or blood transfusions. If all is well, one can perform routine household activities by 1 week, provided one doesn't feel tired. Although there may not be any harm, it may be unwise to be normally active within 48 hours of procedure. Following Diagnostic Laparoscopy or Operative Laparoscopy for simple procedures, one can return to work in 1 week. For other procedures, a 2-3 week off from work is reasonable. It depends on the type of work you are returning to. Avoid too rapid return to work if it is manually hard or requires standing for long durations of time. Sometimes a surgical procedure brings on a well needed rest and break from a lifetime of work. Mostly, when you return to work depends upon your own body and its signals of tiredness. You need to listen to those signals.