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The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located on either side of a person’s spine, under the ribs and behind the stomach. The main function of kidneys is to filter the blood through renal arteries directly from the aorta and transfer blood back to the heart via the renal veins.
Interruptions in the functioning of kidneys may arise, when kidney failure takes places, which might occur from chronic problems which gradually lead the kidneys to stop functioning. Dialysis is a treatment procedure for kidney failure, through which excess water, soluble and toxins are removed from the blood. It is an artificial process followed, which would have been originally done by the kidneys. Before going into the details of dialysis, let’s take a look at some of the causes and symptoms of kidney failure.
Symptoms of Kidney Failure
Several symptoms can arise during kidney failure. Possible symptoms are as follows:
- Amount of urine is reduced
- Swelling on the ankles, legs and feet of a person, due to fluid retention occurring as a result of kidneys’ inability to remove waste.
- Suffering from nausea on a persistent basis is a common symptom.
Causes Behind Kidney Failure
There are a number of causes behind the occurrence of kidney failure. They include:
Treatment - Dialysis Requirement
Dialysis treatment is one of the primary procedures through which failed kidneys are treated. Dialysis, through the use of a machine, filters and purifies the blood, by taking the toxic substances and excess water out of it. There are two types of dialysis, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. We take a look at both the types through the descriptions below:
- Hemodialysis: In this type of dialysis, blood gets passed on to the machine, from the patient’s body, through a sterile tube and into a filter, known as a dialysis membrane. This procedure requires a patient to have a specialized vascular tube, which is placed between an artery and a vein in the arm or leg. This is known as Cimino fistula. Then, needles get placed in the fistula and blood passes through the filter, on to the dialysis machine and back to the patient. In case, a patient needs dialysis before a fistula is placed, a large diameter catheter is placed into a large vein in the neck or on the leg to get dialysis done.
- Peritoneal Dialysis: This type of dialysis uses the patients’ own body tissues inside the belly to act as the filter. The abdominal cavity is lined up with a special membrane known as the peritoneal membrane. Then a paeritoneal dialysis catheter gets placed through the abdominal wall into the abdominal cavity. After that, a special fluid called dialysate is then flushed into the abdominal cavity and help wash around the intestines. The membrane does the work of a filter between the fluid and blood stream. Through the use of different kinds of solutions, excess fluid and waste materials can get removed from the system through this process.
My Mother usg shows 4 mm renal calculus in right kidney. She is going through continuous pain and vomiting .her age is 47 years.
Hi doctor while in latrine due to hard scat my ass inside portion skin came out and that part pains when I touches even when sitting also pains please help me doctor to get out of this is there any problem occurs because of this.
I am having problem of anal fissure it hurts a lot what can I do to cure this any medicine or gel or cream easily available? Please help m appearing in Medicals does it is a type of piles coz this will reject me please help?
The nephrotic syndrome refers to a kidney disease. Nephrotic syndrome is triggered when the glomeruli (tiny structures in the kidneys) malfunction or are damaged and allow too much protein to enter into the kidneys. Nephrotic syndrome is a chronic ailment but not very prevalent. In India, fewer than 1 million cases are reported every year.
Who is susceptible to Nephrotic Syndrome?
Children, especially between the ages 2-6 are vulnerable to coming down with this ailment. It is prevalent more amongst male children than female. Around 3-4 children out of 100,000 are affected by it. Age of onset determines how severe the syndrome will be.
What are the symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome?
Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by swelling up of the face. The swelling spreads to other parts of the body. This is when most doctors will recommend a urine test to confirm if the child has contracted nephrotic syndrome.
Diagnosis of the disease-
Nephrotic syndrome can be diagnosed following procedures to test the presence of high cholesterol and low albumin levels in the blood. The doctor will also document the ratio of urinary protein to creatinine of more than 2 to confirm the diagnosis.
Nephrotic syndrome treatment-
The treatment options for the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome are as follows-
• If nephrotic syndrome is detected in children less than 3 months of age, they will only require albumin transfusion and diuretic medication. For older children, oral steroids are a trusted medication only after determining that there are no underlying diseases.
• Parental counseling is necessary so that they can understand the medicine dosage, duration and side effects of steroidal treatment. Parents need to purchase uristix that can reveal protein levels in urine. It is imperative that parents regularly monitor their child’s urine. This way, the syndrome does not become aggravated and the child does not need to be hospitalized.
Medication for nephrotic syndrome can be steroid sensitive or steroid insensitive.
• In the case of steroid-sensitive medicines, swelling keeps recurring frequently or infrequently. But it is not followed by an infection. These are called relapses that require other immunosuppressive drugs. Regular follow up is recommended.
• For steroid resistant medication, a kidney biopsy is mandated to understand the underlying cause of nephrotic syndrome. Based on the test results, the doctor initiates calcineurin inhibitor therapy. This procedure is performed by a pediatric nephrologist in children.
The dosage depends on the child’s weight. Inadequate or overdose can harm the child.
The side effects of steroids include-
Diet for nephrotic syndrome-
A proper diet can work wonders in controlling the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome. A doctor usually recommends cutting down on salt and advises minimum intake of fluids. Since cholesterol levels go up with this syndrome, a diet low in saturated fats is suggested. Even though nephrotic syndrome is accompanied by loss of proteins, a high protein diet is not recommended because proteins aggravate the syndrome.
When the underlying causes of nephrotic syndrome (other diseases that trigger it) are cured, the symptoms of nephrotic disorder dissipate. The proper diet and medication will ensure that a child outgrows the disease and lives a healthy life.