Dr. Revathi - Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Fees, Contact Number, Feedbacks | Gastroenterologist in Chennai

Dr. Revathi

1 Recommendation
300 Consultation Fee
Personal Statement
My favorite part of being a doctor is the opportunity to directly improve the health and wellbeing of my patients and to develop professional and personal relationships with them.

More about Dr. Revathi

Dr. Revathi is a renowned Gastroenterologist in Chintadripet, Chennai. Doctor is currently practising at Shyamala Nursing Home in Chintadripet, Chennai. Don’t wait in a queue, book an instant appointment online with Dr. Revathi on Lybrate.com.

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  • FICS - RPSLH - RPSLH, Fellow HPB Surgery & Liver Transplant (Singapore) , DNB (General Surgery), MNAMS (Membership of the National Academy), MS - General Surgery , MBBS

    Bloating isn't a medical condition. It doesn't necessarily mean that a person has eaten too much. It can be a case of eating wrong food which has not been digested by the body. Bloating occurs when air and water get trapped inside the stomach or intestine. As a result, the stomach gets swollen well past its normal level.

    Culprits of bloating:Bloating can result from a number of cases. Fatty or junk foods are one of the biggest culprits of bloating. It hinders the digestion process and doesn't let the stomach empty on time. Carbohydrates too can cause bloating. Even carbonated drinks can play spoilsport. It creates bubbles in the stomach leading to indigestion and bloating. Some food items related to gas include cauliflower, lettuce, hard candy, beans, Brussels sprouts, broccoli etc. Apart from this, consumption of excessive junk food and soft drinks can lead to bloating.

    Steps to avoid bloating: The best way to avoid bloating is to refrain from bloat causing foods as mentioned earlier. If you wear dentures, it should be ensured that it fits properly. There are instances when excess air gets inside the stomach due to an improper fixture of denture leading to bloating. Eating or drinking slowly is another good way of staying away from bloating. When you eat slowly, there are fewer chances of extra air getting inside the stomach. In the case of beverage consumption, avoiding the straw is a good idea. This way the unwanted air cannot make their way inside the tummy and play foul.

    Taking a small walk after every meal is another good way of staying away from bloating. This way the gas inside the tummy cannot rise above the surface. The practice of calming technique such as yoga, deep breathing and meditation also goes a long way in giving relief from bloating.

    Some home remedies to get rid of bloating include:

    • A cup of ginger, lemon and honey in a cup of hot water once everyday
    • 1 cup of herbal peppermint tea freshly prepared in boiled water
    • In the case of regular stomach bloating, intake of one caraway seed on a daily basis fetches immediate results
    • Consumption of a cup of baked pumpkin twice a week
    • Consumption of warm lemon water before you start your day is another good way of keeping bloating at bay.

    Bloating can also be a symptom of other intestinal related problems as well. If the general method of control and measured diet doesn't suffice, it is time to visit a doctor to find the underlying cause of your problem. Doctors perform a series of tests to understand the problem and prescribe the required medicine to control or cure the problem.

  • FICS - RPSLH - RPSLH, Fellow HPB Surgery & Liver Transplant (Singapore) , DNB (General Surgery), MNAMS (Membership of the National Academy), MS - General Surgery , MBBS

    Dyspepsia is an uncommon word, but a very common problem. This medical condition is more commonly known as indigestion of the stomach and small intestine. The symptoms of this condition include abdominal pain, bloating, belching, nausea and a loss of appetite. They come and go varying terms of frequency and intensity. 

    Some of the common causes of dyspepsia are lactose intolerance, anxiety, regurgitated stomach juices, stomach ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome and excessive caffeine or alcohol intake. In most cases dyspepsia can be easily treated with home remedies. 

    Here are the 5 best ways to treat it:

    1. Lemon juice: Lemon juice cleanses the digestive system by flushing out waste material and undigested food. It also inhibits the formation of acids in the stomach and boosts appetite. Dilute the juice of 1 lemon in a glass of water to avail its benefits. You could also add half a teaspoon of fresh ginger juice to this. Ginger also aids in digestion and prevents flatulence.
    2. Buttermilk: Buttermilk has cooling properties and helps calm the stomach and intestines. It is also suitable for people who are lactose intolerant. Drink a glass of buttermilk immediately after a meal to improve your digestion. You could also flavor it with roasted cumin powder or mint. Mint also helps in relieving indigestion and prevents buildup of gases in the stomach while cumin stimulates the secretion of pancreatic enzymes.
    3. Yogurt: Yogurt is the best remedy for any stomach bug. It is rich in probiotics that help restore balance healthy gut bacteria and stabilize digestion. Yogurt can be had as an accompaniment to your meals or mixed with steamed rice to make it a meal in itself.
    4. Fenugreek: Fenugreek boosts appetite and helps relieve indigestion. This herb is known for its soothing properties that cleanse the digestive system. Fenugreek leaves can be bitter and unpalatable. Hence, to benefit from this, boil the leaves and then lightly fry them in butter before eating them.
    5. Pomegranate juice: Pomegranate juice is an excellent way to treat indigestion and diarrhea. Its antioxidant properties also make it a good remedy for heartburn. To benefit from pomegranate juice, dilute the juice of a pomegranate in a glass of water along with a tablespoon of honey.

    Along with this, also take a look at your eating habits. Avoid eating on the move and chew your food properly. Eat only when you are hungry and control your portion sizes. Lastly, make the time to exercise for half an hour or so every day.

  • B.Sc. Food & Nutrition, M.Sc. Food & Nutrition

    A lot of people believe in hitting the gym during the day and then a bar at night. One feels there's no harm in drinking a little amount of alcohol now and then. Don't drink and drive isn't only for behind the wheels, it's also on the field (and the gym).

    First, let's give you a list of how alcohol can affect your body, and then we can get down to details! keep in mind these effects are within 48 hours of alcohol consumption, that too just after 2-3 standard drinks.

    Decrease strength
    Impair hand-eye coordination
    Increase fatigue (by impacting liver function)
    Mineral and vitamin depletion
    Disturbed sleep
    Impact cellular repair (since protein is affected negatively)
    Dehydration thus affecting the kidneys
    Loss of endurance
    Unwanted weight gain

    Do you really need me to go on alcohol isn't something that recommended for most people; for athlete's it just makes matters worse. While you're training or competing, it's best to stay away from alcohol! though, the best solution is to give it up completely to live a healthy lifestyle. Now let's get down to some technical details of how it impacts your organs (just so you don't think I'm talking in air.)

    So first things first. Alcohol cannot be stored as energy. This means all the alcohol in your body is converted into fat hence the term beer belly.
    Alcohol's effect on the liver can cause a problem in the production of oxygen which then interferes with the production of atp ie a direct source of energy for the muscles.
    Sadly drinking alcohol before your workout hinders the circulation of glucose which is essential for energy. It has also been scientifically proven that alcohol diminishes protein synthesis which in turn stops muscle growth by preventing the repair of damaged muscles.
    Another thing alcohol does is increase the urge to urinate which leads to loss of electrolytes. No no, I'm not done yet. I've got so much more fun facts related to alcohol.

    Since alcohol is a toxin it disrupts the normal cell function.
    Alcohol also inhibits the absorption of essential minerals like zinc, folic acid, vitamin b12 etc which are needed for metabolism and new cell growth (muscle cell included). 
    The consumption of alcohol provides only empty calories which in turn displace valuable nutrients. That's just a loss of essentials and an increase of fat!
    Do note, heavy drinking for a night can negatively affect the brain and bodily activities for 3 whole days whereas 2 nights of consecutive heavy drinking leave an impact for 5 days! evidently dehydration, fatigue, and headaches  commonly known as hangovers really don't mix well with the physical demands of our body.
    Alcohol disrupts your sleep cycle which in turn leads a reduction in the ability to learn and retain new information. This could range from new skills to studying games or even applying strategies in a game.
    Excessive alcohol can prevent the secretion of human growth hormone which is essential for muscle growth as well as recovery. For an athlete, that's bad. Bad

    It's always better to prioritize a good day's workout over a night of heavy drinking. At least the workout leaves you worn out and exhausted craving for more! alcohol just leaves you with a bad hangover which leads to false swears of never drinking again.

    Eat clean, drink healthy and stay fit!

    In case of any query or to book an appointment with dt. Silky mahajan please send us a mail at info@foodsandnutrition. In or call on 08067417780 (dial extension:778)

  • FICS - RPSLH - RPSLH, Fellow HPB Surgery & Liver Transplant (Singapore) , DNB (General Surgery), MNAMS (Membership of the National Academy), MS - General Surgery , MBBS

    Screening for cancer of the colon or large intestine and rectum is a proven way of saving a person from the impact of colorectal diseases. This is partly because colon cancer is something that can be prevented if detected at an early stage and the polyps which may advance to cancer are removed properly. Thus if you are turning 50 soon, be prepared to present yourself for a screening colonoscopy that will help you ensure good health and well-being. It may sound uncanny, but do you know that 50,000 people across the world die from colorectal cancer every year, and it is ranked second in terms of cancer-centric deaths.

    Understanding the importance of having colonoscopy: You may wonder how a painful, invasive, embarrassing, uncomfortable and time consuming a health test may be today. A screening colonoscopy is able to expose a cancerous tumour that's presently under way and cast light on chances and risk factors that may precede it. When you choose to intervene early, you have the power to nip those risks at their budding stage, much before those malicious cells become malignant.

    Spreading of the colorectal cancer: Your large intestine is really a big and last organ of the gastrointestinal system where the small intestine discontinues. Its primary function is to remove the water out of the leftover solids of digestion and get rid of them in the form of stool. Cancer may start to develop anywhere within the tube that expands 5 feet long and squares the vacant area of the abdomen. The large intestine expands up towards the right side, i.e. the ascending colon and then turns left through the liver, i.e., the transverse colon cancer, bending down right at the spleen on its left, i.e. descending colon and loops to the middle, i.e., the sigmoid colon before it runs across the rectum and ends at the anus.

    People who need a colonoscopy: To simplify matters, it can be said that all adults are at a potential risk of the colorectal cancer, including those people who lead a healthy life. But some people are at a higher risk. Those individuals have a specific gene mutation that predisposes them to develop into numerous polyps. The risk is also high with people who are first-degree relatives of a person diagnosed with cancer before the age of 50. People with Ulcerative colitis, various types of inflammatory bowel diseases and Crohn's disease are also at a higher risk.

    Colorectal cancer is a serious ailment and screening colonoscopy is a feasible means of detecting any polyps that may be cancerous in the future. Speak with a reputed gastroenterologist today to stay ahead of the disease.

    750 Thanks
  • MD - Paediatrics, MBBS

    Heartburn is a common symptom experienced by many people, but is often overlooked as indigestion. Besides making you uncomfortable, this can be a sign of a much bigger health problem. While the occasional heartburn can be treated with antacids, chronic heartburn can be a sign of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or acid reflux.

    Here are three important reasons you should not ignore heartburn

    1. It can promote tooth decay: The acid regurgitated might not necessarily stop in the esophagus. It can often also make its way into your mouth. When this happens frequently it can promote tooth decay and wear out enamel. This can also leave your mouth with a sour taste. Acid reflux induced tooth erosion can easily be prevented by the early treatment of acid reflux,but in most cases is noticed only after the damage has been done.
    2. It can cause cancer of the esophagus: Chronic acid reflux that persists for years can lead to changes in the cells of the esophagus. This can lead to a cancerous condition known as Barrett's esophagus. The condition has no other symptoms can if left untreated can develop into cancer of the esophagus. Women are at a higher risk of this form of cancer than men. Though esophageal cancer is relatively rare, it is not something to be trifled with. The survival rate of esophageal cancer is very low in comparison to other forms of cancer. Only 15-20% patients live longer than 5 years after this condition is diagnosed.
    3. It can lead to breathing problems: Heartburn is caused by stomach acid flowing back into the esophagus. If it is inhaled after regurgitation, it can worsen asthmatic conditions and pneumonia. At the same time, treating acid reflux with medication like PPIs can also increase the risk of pneumonia as it can promote bacterial growth and suppress coughing. Thus, when consulting a doctor for acid reflux treatment ensure that you mention any existing asthmatic conditions so that you can be treated with your lung functioning in mind.

    In addition, acid reflux can also impact a person's health and quality of life. To prevent heartburn people often find themselves avoiding certain foods. This can impact their social lives and in turn make them withdrawing into themselves. A person's sleep can also be affected by heartburn. Hence, it is important to treat heart burn as early as possible and not wait for it to become a chronic problem.

    1988 Thanks
  • MBBS, DNB - Internal Medicine, DNB - Gastroenterology

    A stomach ulcer or gastric ulcer refers to the defects or breakdown in the mucosal lining in the stomach. The stomach contains acid, which helps in digestion and any break in the tissue lining may result in severe pain or bleeding in some cases. The pain is usually felt in the abdomen. Also, check out Stomach Aches and Pains in Kids.

    Stomach ulcers cause great discomfort and should be treated effectively. Here are the primary ways for treating stomach ulcers:

    1. Antibiotics: In the case of H. pylori infection, you should take a course of more than two antibiotics, to be taken twice a day and must be continued for a week. Antibiotics such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin or metronidazole may be used in case of such stomach ulcers. However it is always recommended to consult a specialized doctor before consuming any of these medicines. After several weeks of using the antibiotics, you should get a test done for detection of H. pylori bacteria. If they are still present, you have to take different antibiotics.

    2. Proton Pump Inhibitors: Proton pump inhibitors or PPIs helps in the reduction of the amount of acid produced by the stomach. This prevents damage to the ulcer and lets it heal naturally. PPIs are generally taken for four to eight weeks. The most common PPIs which are used for treating stomach ulcers are omeprazole, pantoprazole and lansoprazole.

    3. H2 Receptor Antagonists: H2 receptor antagonists reduce the production of stomach acid and function the same as PPIs. The most common H2 receptor for treating stomach ulcers is ranitidine. Consult a doctor for all stomach related problems.

    4. Antacids/ Alginate: All measures to treat stomach ulcers take several hours to show results. Your doctor may prescribe antacid medications for neutralizing the stomach acid. This will provide relief for the moment, but the relief is quite temporary and for a short span of time. By this time, the strong medicines most likely start working. There is a certain antacid medicine known as alginate. This develops a protective coating on the stomach lining. Antacids are available at all over the counter medicine stores and you should consult your doctor to get the best antacid which would work effectively on your stomach ulcer symptoms. You should take antacids before going to sleep or after taking meals.

    5. Natural Remedies: Stomach ulcer can also be treated at home using natural remedies. Medicines may sometimes cause further digestive complications, so home remedies are much more easy to follow and do not have side effects. The best way is to follow a proper diet, which is comprised of certain food items that help in curing stomach ulcers. You should consume bananas, honey, garlic, green leafy vegetables like cabbage, licorice and capsaicin.

    Stomach ulcers cause great pain and also bleeding in several cases. Proper treatment procedures should be taken in case of stomach ulcer. There are many medical remedies, as well as home remedies for treating stomach ulcers.

    1805 Thanks
  • DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder, which generally affects the colon (large intestine). It usually show symptoms like abdominal pain, cramping, bloating, diarrhea, gas and constipation. IBS is a long term condition. It can result in sudden mood swings, depression and thus, holds you back from living your life to the fullest. IBS can be controlled by managing lifestyle, stress and managing your diet. Medication and counseling could also be required to manage IBS.

    Symptoms of IBS:
    1. Immense cramping and pain.
    2. A feeling that your belly is bloated all the time
    3. Severe gas
    4. Alternating and sudden bouts of constipation and diarrhea.
    5. Presence of mucus in the feces.

    Whenever you experience such kind of symptoms, it is always advisable that you must consult a doctor, so that it doesn't lead to a serious condition.

    When should you consult a doctor for IBS?
    IBS is not a chronic disorder and can be controlled by home remedies. It may also require medical treatment if the symptoms become acute and persist for too long. If you experience certain symptoms like rectal bleeding, weight loss and heavy abdominal pain that might increase at night, you may be at a risk for colon cancer. If such symptoms persist, you should visit a doctor as soon as possible.

    Causes of IBS:

    1. Foods: Most people are susceptible to IBS if they consume foods like spices, fats, fruits, cabbage, beans, broccoli, cauliflower, carbonated beverage, milk or alcohol. These foods irritate the lining of the stomach and trigger IBS. However, the trigger may vary from person to person.
    2. Stress: Signs and symptoms of IBS can also increase if you are very stressed out. Stress makes your muscles too worked up and this may result in IBS. However, you should know that stress aggravates or triggers the symptoms but doesn’t cause IBS.
    3. Hormones: Women are more likely to develop IBS. Fluctuations in the hormonal cycle can trigger IBS. This usually occurs around or during menstruation.
    4. Other illnesses: Sometimes illness such as gastroenteritis (infectious diarrhea) or bacterial overgrowth in the intestines can trigger symptoms of IBS.
    5. Age: You will be more likely to develop IBS if you are 45 years of age or above.
    6. Hereditary: People having a family history of IBS are more susceptible to develop IBS.
    7. Mental problems: Depression, personality disorder, anxiety and a history of sexual abuse can also trigger symptoms of IBS.
    2620 Thanks
  • MCh HPB Surgery, Fellow, European Board of Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS

    Heartburn or acid reflex is a burning sensation that is felt in the throat or chest region after the intake of certain foods. While many of us must have felt heartburn once in our lifetime, too many occurrences such as this could be a fair indication of esophageal cancer.

    How an acidburn is related to esophagus?
    Esophagus is the tube which carries food from the throat to the stomach. In the case of an acid reflux, the acid from the stomach jumps to the esophagus leading to a condition known as the Barrett’s esophagus. This is a condition which replaces the tissue present in the esophagus with a similar kind of tissue found in the lining of the intestine. This being said, Barrett’s esophagus doesn’t necessarily lead to esophageal cancer.

    Key symptoms of Esophageal Cancer
    Difficulty swallowing is a key symptom of esophageal cancer. This condition is known as dysphasia. As the tumor grows bigger, it becomes more difficult to swallow food. Esophageal pain is also a common symptom reported by many patients. Loss in appetite and an unexplained weight loss are some of the other symptoms of this type of cancer. Although esophageal cancer does not show any visible signs in the early stage, some of the key indicators are chronic couch, indigestion and hoarseness of voice.

    Key risk factors:
    Some of the key risk factors for this type of cancer are as follows:

    1. Men tend to run a higher risk of getting this cancer than women.
    2. Esophageal cancer are often detected in people above the age of 55 or more
    3. Chronic tobacco users have higher chances of getting esophageal cancer
    4. Consumption of alcohol increases the risk of esophageal cancer
    5. Obesity increases the risk of acid flux thereby, leading to esophageal cancer
    6. Radiation treatment in the abdomen or chest area might also lead to esophageal cancer

    How an esophageal cancer is detected?
    Primarily there are 3 ways by which this cancer is detected. The first step for an oncologist to detect this cancer is to perform an endoscopy. If this fails, doctors often try a barium swallow on suspected patients and take an X-ray to understand the esophagus lining. If all this fails, doctors rely on a CT scan to detect this cancer.

    How is esophageal cancer treated?
    If a patient is lucky and the cancer gets detected in a very early stage, the tumor along with the infected cell can be surgically removed. Apart from surgery, some other alternatives are radiation and chemotherapy. A combination of radiation and chemotherapy or a surgery followed by radiation can also be suggested by the doctor. The treatment plan depends on the stage of detection.

    1824 Thanks
  • Masters Degree of Homoeopathy, MD - Homeopathy

    Appendicitis is a chronic or acute medical condition where the appendix gets inflamed and causes severe pain.  If left untreated, the condition can prove to be fatal. The appendix is a small tube shaped sac at the end of the large intestine. In humans, it is typically not known to have any functional value although some studies suggest that it helps digestion by creating a conducive environment for friendly bacteria. Surgical removal of the appendix is suggested as the most common treatment for the ailment.

    One of the key causes of appendicitis is believed to be the partial or complete obstruction at the mouth of the appendix. The common causes of obstruction include accumulation of fecal matter, worms, enlarged lymphoid follicles, trauma or tumors. It is also possible that an infection in the stomach could have extended into the appendix.

    Appendix is commonly detected because of its progressive worsening pain in the stomach which narrows down to the lower right side of the abdomen is called Mc Burney point. Half of the patients though do not have this typical symptom and instead come in with a complaint of gastroenteritis, urinary tract infection or even a kidney stone. Further blood tests, urine tests and MRIs or ultrasounds are used to pinpoint the area causing the pain.

    In most cases of advance appendix, a surgical intervention is necessary. The type of surgery will vary on a case to case basis.

    Homeopathy can be tried in early stages and is especially useful to treat chronic and recurrent cases. It works with the principle of 'like cures like', which means that the elements that cause the problem are a key to its solution too. It employs a holistic healing methodology getting rid of the signs and symptoms and restoring complete health. While other treatments focus on curing the 'problem', homeopathy also deals with the basic reason of the problem and the individual's susceptibility to it. Here are some of the remedies:

    1. Arsenicum album: This is used when the appendicitis has resulted in sepsis and the patient also suffers from diarrhea.
    2. Belladonna: This is an early stage remedy for cases where appendicitis is accompanied by headache, fever
    3. Bryonia alba: This is an effective remedy when the pain aggravates with movement. 
    4. Colocynthis: This is a recommended remedy when the patient experiences spasmodic or entwining pain, which worsens with indigestion. Applying warm pressure over the area helps in such cases
    5. Rhus Tox: This remedy is also called the 'homeopathic knife' to treat appendicitis. It is used when the pain is constant and the patient is never free from pain.

    To customize the selection of the remedies according to your specific symptoms, it is best to consult with a practitioner.

    7 Thanks
  • MD, BHMS

    A number of health problems today are caused by an unhealthy lifestyle. One such condition is a fatty liver or collection of fat in the liver. The buildup of fats in the liver is known as Fatty Liver. The liver processes everything that you eat or drink and filters harmful substances from the blood. If too much fat has accumulated in the liver, this process gets interfered with. These fat cells cause inflammation of the liver tissues which in time can lead to scarring and liver fibrosis. On its own, a fatty liver is relatively harmless, but when it reaches this stage, it can be life threatening.

    The reasons for Fatty Liver can be alcoholism, incorrect diet, obesity, diabetes, or even excess use of medication.

    If ignored or left untreated, many liver diseases will lead to permanent and irreversible damage to the liver and can be a significant threat to your health. But, there is no standard form of treatment for a fatty liver. If diagnosed in its early stages, treating the underlying cause can stop the progression of the disease and even resolve it. Homeopathy addresses the underlying causes of a disease and hence is an ideal form of treatment for a fatty liver. It can reduce the symptoms of this disease, improve liver functioning and even reverse the condition if treatment is started early.

    The Homeopathic medicines, which are made of natural substances, are given to patients after studying the unique symptoms experienced by each individual. Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity by using holistic approach. Homoeopathy is very proficient in managing all the symptoms of Fatty liver disease and furthermore plays a vital role in preventing relapse of the condition.

    Some of the most common homeopathic medicines for fatty liver are

    1. Chelidonium: This is often used to treat a fatty liver accompanied by right upper abdominal pain. In such cases, the liver may be enlarged and the patient also usually suffers from constipation or experience nausea and vomiting. The patient will also probably suffer from excessive weakness and have a desire for hot food and drinks.

    2. Lycopodium: A fatty liver accompanied by acidity can be treated with this type of homeopathic medication. In such cases, the patient will also complain of bloating and belching with a burning sensation. These symptoms tend to worsen n the evening and the patient may have an intense craving for sweets and hot drinks.

    3. Phosphorus: This is used to treat cases of fatty acid which triggers regurgitation accompanied by sour belching. In some cases, the patient may also experience pain in the liver and excessive flatulence. Vomiting may also occur along with weakness while passing stool.

    4. Calcarea carb: Obese patients suffering from this condition can be treated with calcarea carb. These people often have a distended abdomen, are lactose intolerant and suffer from chronic constipation. They are also overly sensitive to cold air and sweat excessively from the head.

    5. Nux Vomica: homeopathic remedy for fatty liver with pain in abdomen after eating.

    Nux vomica is great for any abdominal problem including fatty liver caused by excessive consumption of alcohol. These patients often suffer from abdominal pain a few hours after eating with sour or bitter tasting belches. They may constantly feel the urge to pass stool but are unable to do so.

    Though homeopathic remedies have negligible side effects when taken in low dosages, they should never be self-prescribed. If you suffer from a fatty liver, consult a homeopathic doctor immediately who can diagnose it properly and treat you accordingly.

    4911 Thanks
  • DNB - Urology, MS - General Surgery, MBBS

    The bladder is a hollow storage organ that collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until it can be passed out of the body through the urethra during the process of micturition or urination. It has a thin inner lining of cells called urothelial cells and a thick muscular wall, which exerts pressure to push the urine out of the body.

    Causes of Bladder Tumors

    In most cases, the bladder tumor develops on the inner layer due to a combination of some of the following factors.

    1. Hereditary: A strong family history of cancer predisposes a person to cancer.
    2. Gender: Men are 3 times more prone for bladder cancer than women.
    3. Ethnicity: White people are more prone for bladder cancer black people.
    4. Smoking: Smokers develop bladder cancer 2-6 times more frequently than non-smokers. cigarettes contain toxic, carcinogenic substances which reach the kidney and are stored in the bladder, leading to their damage.
    5. Occupational hazards: Some workplaces have a higher likelihood of causing bladder cancers, especially dye and rubber industries. The effects can be damaging, and the person may develop cancers years after the exposure has happened.
    6. Recurrent bladder infections: In some people, this can also lead to bladder cancer in the long run.

    Types of Bladder Tumor

    Depending on the extent of the cancerous spread, it can be of two types:

    1. Non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors: The tumor spread is limited to the inner part of the bladder (urothelial cells)
    2. Muscle-invasive bladder tumor: The tumor has spread to the thick muscular outer layer. This is more advanced and prognosis is poor compared to the noninvasive type.

    The most common and diagnostic symptom of bladder cancer is the presence of blood in the urine, known as hematuria. This will be intermittent and happens whenever the tumor bleeding happens. Other symptoms include pain in the lower abdomen and frequent urination.


    From the most noninvasive to the most invasive diagnostic test, these include:

    1. Urine microscopy to detect cancer cells in the urine
    2. Cystoscopy A tube inserted into the urethra to look into the inner wall of the bladder is highly diagnostic
    3. Ultrasound, CT Scan, and biopsy can also be further used to identify severity of the tumor.


    Once the tumor is diagnosed, treatment would depend on the severity of the tumor. For both invasive and noninvasive tumors, definitive therapy is surgery, known as transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT). The cancerous bladder tissue is removed through a cystoscope as done for diagnosis. The bladder is then flushed with chemotherapy agent to kill any residual cancer cells in the bladder. This is then followed by BCG vaccine, which is again done 1 to 4 weeks for several months to avoid recurrence. In some cases, radiotherapy may also be included.

    2741 Thanks
  • Fellowship Minimal Access Surgery(FMAS), DNB ((Surgical Gastroenterology), MS (General Surgery), MBBS

    Gallstones are bits of solid material that may be formed in the gall bladder. The gallbladder is a little organ located under the liver. You won't not know you have them until they've block your bile duct, causing pain that will need immediate medical intervention, and even hospitalisation in some cases.They may comprise of cholesterol, salt, or bilirubin, which consists of red platelets. Gallstones vary in size. They can be as little as a grain of sand or as even the size of an apricot in many cases.

    Women are more likely to develop gallstones than men. Read on to know more:

    Causes: There are a number of causes for this condition, especially in women. These causes are as follows:

    1. Intake of anti-conception medication pills, hormone trade treatment for menopause side effects, or pregnancy
    2. Fasting
    3. Malfunctioning of the gall bladder
    4. High cholesterol levels
    5. Gallstones may be created when there is excessive amount of cholesterol in the bile discharged by the liver. This bile normally separates the cholesterol and helps in the normal functioning of the liver and other digestive organs of the body.
    6. Bilirubin: Bilirubin is a substance created when your liver wrecks old red platelets. A few conditions, like cirrhosis of the liver and certain blood issues causes the liver to create more bilirubin than it ought to. This can lead to complicated conditions like gallstones.
    7. Bile: Your gallbladder needs to exhaust bile to be sound. In the event that it discharges its bile content, the bile turns out to be excessively thick which causes stones to shape.
    8. Weight: Being overweight or underweight can also cause a malfunction which can lead to the appearance of such stones. The diet also has a bearing in such cases.


    1. Fever
    2. A yellowish tint in your skin or eyes, which can demonstrate jaundice
    3. Sickness or retching
    4. Clay coloured stools
    5. Pain in the right upper quadrant of your stomach area
    6. Nausea
    7. Vomiting
    8. Other digestive issues


    Numerous individuals with gallstones may be asked to go through surgery to remove the gallbladder. These include the following:

    1. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: The specialist passes instruments, a light, and a camera through a few little cuts in the midsection.
    2. Open cholecystectomy: The specialist makes bigger cuts in the belly to expel the gallbladder. You may have to spend a couple days in the hospital after the operation.
    3. Without getting operated: If you have a mild condition and your specialist feels you shouldn't have an operation, he may recommend medicines like chenodiol, ursodiol, or both. These medications work by dissolving cholesterol stones. One may experience mild loose motions as a side effect.
    2168 Thanks
  • Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)

    One of the most common health problems people have is indigestion. As per ayurveda, the accumulation of Ama or toxins leads to an imbalance in the way the small and large intestines functions along with various other participating organs like the liver and more. And this is the rootcause for indigestion.

    The digestive tract or system is one of the most important organs of the body. Ayurveda relies on the rhythms and functions of the body to find the rootcause of ailments. Indigestion usually occurs because of bad daily habits & less physical activity.

    There are many ways to treat to indigestion in an ayurvedic way. Let us look at the top tips for the same:

    1. Timely intake of meals: For better digestion, one must take meals at the same time everyday. Also, do not sit down for the next meal before the previous meal has been digested properly.
    2. Sleep: Sleep is a major factor that cure stress and creates a balance of sorts in one's routine, thus aiding proper digestion.
    3. Exercise: Some form of movement and exercise is imperative to keep the digestive system in prime working condition. Walk and yoga especially are ideal to boost one's digestive health.
    4. Aloe vera: An ounce of aloe vera a day will keep indigestion away. Break off, a leaf and scoop some gel into a smoothie for smooth digestion.
    5. Turmeric: Haldi or turmeric helps in reducing bloating and is one of the most commonly used spices found in ayurveda. This spice is a staple in indian cooking as well, where pretty much all dishes are seasoned with cooked turmeric.
    6. Meditation: This is one of the best ways to give digestion a positive push with a good dose of mindfulness and awareness for better balance in the body.
    7. Avoiding unhealthy food: One must avoid unhealthy food that are excessively fried, fatty, sweet or cold so as to aid the digestive fires in doing their job effectively.
    8. Triphala: This combination of three fruits ensures that your digestive system remains in good working condition.
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  • DM - Gastroenterology, MD MEDICINE, MBBS

    Sometimes, when it comes to problems in the abdominal area, an ultrasound is not clear enough for a diagnosis. In such cases, an Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be performed. This procedure gives the doctor a clear view of the duodenum, bile duct, pancreatic ducts, gallbladder and papilla of Vater.

    This procedure is usually performed under intravenous sedation without general anesthesia. This procedure involves the use of a duodenoscope, which can be described as a thin, long, flexible tube with a camera at one end. It also has a fiber optic bundle that transmits lights to the camera and a chip to transmit video images to a TV screen.

    This is inserted through the patient’s mouth and sent down the throat through the food pipe to the stomach and duodenum while the patient is lying on his or her back. The air pipe is left undisturbed so as to not interfere with the patient’s breathing. Since the patient is not under general anesthesia, he or she can move and turn according to the doctor’s needs. The papilla of Vater is a small nipple like structure with an opening to the bile duct and pancreatic duct. Once this has been identified, a small plastic catheter is passed through the duodenoscope into the bile duct or pancreatic duct through the papilla. Dye is then injected into the area and X-rays are taken of the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. In cases where a biopsy is needed, other instruments can also be passed through the endoscope. Plastic or metal stents can also be passed through this to relieve obstructions in the bile ducts and pancreatic ducts.

    ERCP can be used to diagnose and treat a number of conditions in the liver, bile ducts, gall bladder, pancreas and papilla of Vater. These include:

    • Blockage of the bile duct by gallstones, cancer, scars, tumors or compression from adjacent organs.

    • Jaundice due to an obstructed bile duct. This can also cause light stools and dark urine.

    • Persistent upper abdominal pain

    • Unexplained weight loss and loss of appetite

    • Diagnosing a Dysfunctioning Sphincter of Oddi within the Papilla of Vater

    ERCP can also be used to confirm pancreatic cancer and cancer of the bile duct. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, the doctors can customize treatment according to the patient’s needs.

    3662 Thanks
  • Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)

    Unhealthy and sedentary lifestyle combined with bad eating habits are majorly responsible for acidity in people today. It is experienced not only by the people of upper age groups, but also by children as they eat a lot of junk food outside.

    Acidity happens due to excess secretion of acid by the gastric glands of the stomach. If you have upper abdominal discomfort or pain, stomach fullness, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, indigestion, belching, water brash or irregular bowel movement, then you must be suffering from acidity or gastritis.

    According to Ayurveda, the main cause of this condition is the worsening of the Pitta Dosha (the fire element) in your body. The reasons that worsen this dosha are:

    1. Having foods that don't match your constitution or which aren't supposed to be taken together like milk and salt or milk and fish.
    2. Smoking, excessive intake of coffee, tea and alcohol.
    3. Intake of extremely spicy and sour beverages and foods.
    4. Consuming white flour products, especially products made from white sugar.
    5. Having food even though you may be suffering from indigestion
    6. Controlling the urge to urinate or pass stool
    7. Prolonged exposure to heat and the sun

    What does worsening Pitta Dosha do to your digestive power?
    The exacerbated Pitta worsens your digestive fire, causing your food to be not properly digested as well as influence the production of ama (toxins). When ama builds up in your digestive channels, it brings about the problem of hyperacidity. The treatment focuses on calming down the irritated Pitta Dosha. For this, certain herbs are used to get rid of the toxins that block these channels. This automatically improves your digestive fire, inducing better digestion.

    What changes you're required to make?

    To keep this problem at bay, there are certain lifestyle changes that you may have to make such as: Practice yoga and Pranayam like Bhujangasana, Vajrasana, Shitkari Pranayam and so on. Avoid fermented as well as processed foods. Avoid coffee, tea, alcoholic or carbonated beverages. Curb the consumption of acidic foods like garlic, onions, ginger, vinegar, and tomatoes. Also, avoid having curd / yogurt at night.

    4485 Thanks
  • M.Ch ( Surgical Gastro), M.S (Gen Surg), MBBS

    The gallbladder can be found under the liver and is a pear shaped organ. This four inch organ is responsible for storing bile, which is a combination of the various fluids as well as fat and cholesterol. These are essential for the body and its metabolism, as the bile helps in breaking down the food that enters the digestive system. With the help of the gallbladder, this bile divides the food into smaller parts within the intestine. This ensures that the energy released by the food is more easily absorbed into the bloodstream. There are a host of problems that can attack the gall bladder including stones, infection and more.

    Let us find out the symptoms of a gallbladder attack and the various ways in which it may be successfully treated.

    1. Pain: One of the most common symptoms of a gallbladder attack includes pain. This can be felt in the section that lies in the middle and the upper right portion of the abdomen. The patient may initially experience mild pain that comes and goes intermittently. Eventually, if the pain is not treated, it can start to radiate on a constant basis and hold the patient in its grip.
    2. Nausea: Nausea and vomiting are also common symptoms of any gallbladder related problem. Chronic cases usually end up experiencing these symptoms. Nausea and vomiting in such conditions are a result of digestive problems like acid reflux which can be caused due to the gall bladder condition.
    3. Fever: If there is an infection in the gall bladder, then the patient may also experience fever and chills. This will require immediate treatment and the prescription of antibiotics. If it is not treated on time, the problem can become serious and dangerous.
    4. Loose Motions: Diarrhoea is a problem faced by many patients suffering from this condition along with jaundice and lighter coloured stools.

    Treatment: Mostly, doctors will recommend surgical methods to deal with gall bladder attacks and conditions. A laparoscopic surgery may be conducted to remove the gallbladder. Also, medication will be prescribed to dissolve the gallstones that may have been caused by cholesterol. The patient will also have to undertake many lifestyle changes in order to successfully treat this condition over a period of time.

    One will have to avoid greasy and oily food. Also, the fat intake of the patient will have to be reduced so that the cholesterol build up does not affect the gallbladder again. The patient will also have to add fibre to his or her daily diet, in the form of fruit and oats. This will help in improving the bowel movements as well.

    3988 Thanks
  • MD - Paediatrics, MBBS

    Here are symptoms, cause and treatment of Diarrhea

    3126 Thanks
  • Post Graduate Diploma In Nutrition And Dietetics, B.Sc. - Dietitics / Nutrition

    Sugar is the trigger to most of the diseases an adult faces in present times. Sugar is not only harmful for adults, but can pose severe threats to the health of a child as well, if not administered in monitored proportions. But again, sugar is indispensable when it comes to sweetening your drinks and desserts. In order to prevent yourself from the health hazards of sugar, you should know more about its scope and effects.

    1. Sugar can lead to a fatty liver: Fatty liver is a troubling issue faced by many across the globe. It is wrong to think only alcoholics are subjected to this health condition. People who exercise little and consume huge amounts of fructose are also exposed to the threat of this disease. When a person doesn't do enough to burn up the existing amount of glycogen in his or her liver and take in fructose repeatedly, the liver turns that fructose into fat, impairing one's liver capabilities to a great extent.
    2. Sugar may make you resistant to Leptin: Leptin is a hormone released by your fat cells. The hormone is particularly necessary as it sends signals to your brain telling it you are full and won't be requiring any more food. Fat people have more number of fat cells and thus additional Leptin too. The Leptin becomes inactive due to the effects of heightened blood triglycerides and insulin, both of which counter its functioning.
    3. It is addictive and there lies the key to temptation: Sugar is enormously addictive. If you like sweetened products, you will find it hard to resist your cravings for cakes, cookies or chocolates. Sugar accelerates dopamine secretion; this hormone makes a person feel good. Dopamine is the hormone released on the consumption of drugs such as cocaine.
    4. Calories in sugar are not balanced out with any mineral or vitamin: Because of its lack of nutrient value, sugar is said to have empty calories. Food items rich in sugar tend to make a person lethargic and slackened while depriving them of essential minerals and vitamins. It is therefore, best to not allow children to have pastries, chocolates or puddings in excess.
    5. Sugar leads to extensive tooth decay: Sugar can accumulate on your teeth if you are having too many sweetened food items. This causes your teeth enamel to wear away, making it more prone to cavities and dental caries.
    5395 Thanks
  • CCP, MBA, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)

    If you are feeling uneasy and witness symptoms like loss of appetite, heartburn and unexpected stomach pain, chances are you have acidity. Stomach conditions wherein acid levels of the gastric juices are much more than normal is known as acidity. Acidity gives you tremendous discomfort.

    You can use any of these listed Ayurvedic treatments if you suffer from acidity:

    1. Mulethi (liquorice) and honey: You can reduce liquorice root to powder, then to half a spoon of this powder add little honey to form paste. Consume this paste twice daily after meals. Liquorice neutralizes the acids quickly to give relief.
    2. White pumpkin juice: Take white pumpkin peel, slice it and make a pulpy juice out of it. Having half a cup, twice a day gives fast recovery from gastritis and acidity. Alternatively, you may eat sweet made of pumpkin (peetha ki methai) after meals.
    3. Amla powder (Indian Gooseberry) and honey: Soak one teaspoonful of amla powder in half a cup of water. Add honey, stir and drink empty stomach in the morning. Repeat similarly in the evening.
    4. Cumin seeds: You can reduce cumin seeds to a powder form, then add half a spoon of it to water; presumably, one liter. Then, boil and filter it. You will have to make sure that you drink this solution instead of normal water. Take this water based solution everyday till recovery. This is quite an effective remedy for acidity.
    5. Buttermilk: You can take half a glass of buttermilk and add a pinch of asafoetida and turmeric to it. With it, also add a tiny amount of fenugreek. Drink it at night to get the best out of it.
    6. Jaggery: You can try taking boiled ash gourd with jaggery. This relieves the burning sensation in the stomach to a considerable extent.

    Ayurvedic treatment is a natural way of curbing health problems. Acidity that happen to people often can be effectively cured with Ayurvedic remedies mentioned above.

    4232 Thanks
  • MD - Homeopathy

    Indigestion spares nobody. No matter how healthy you are, at some point or the other, everyone suffers from acidity, bloating and gas. On its own these problems are rarely serious, but they can leave you feeling quite uncomfortable and can be embarrassing as well.

    Homeopathy can be very effective when fighting against indigestion of any kind. This form of treatment has negligible side effects and hence can be given to both children and adults. Homeopathy does not address only the symptoms but goes to the root of the problem. Thus it also stops the problem from recurring.

    Here are few common homeopathic medicines that can help ease indigestion:

    1. Nux Vomica: Nux vomica is known as the remedy for overindulgence. This homeopathic medicine can be used to treat stomach problems of all kinds. It is very effective against bloating and gas and is also often used to treat constipation. Nux vomica is also known as the best homeopathic remedy for heartburn associated with excessive alcohol or caffeine.
    2. Pulsatilla: This is often used to treat gastric problems that follow eating heavy food like pastries, ice cream and food fried in ghee or butter. It can also be used to treat loose motions.
    3. China: China is an effective form of treatment against bloating and build up of gas. Abdominal pain caused by gas can also be treated with China. This homeopathic remedy can also be used to treat diarrhea that is accompanied by extreme weakness.
    4. Arsenic Album: Gastric troubles that are triggered by food poisoning can be effectively treated with Arsenic Album. Some of the symptoms it treats are nausea, loose motions, abdominal pain and vomiting. Acidity and a burning sensation in the stomach can also be eased with this medicine. Arsenic Album is also used in cases of chronic vomiting where the stomach does not retain any food.
    5. Lycopodium: Sometimes even eating a light meal can leave you feeling bloated and with a heavy feeling in your abdomen. This bloating and excessive gaseousness accompanied by burning burps can be treated with Lycopodium. It also treats acidity triggered by starchy and flatulent food.

    Along with taking homeopathic medicine, making a few changes to your eating habits can also help treat chronic gastric problems. Chew your food and eat slowly. Avoid eating anything that is too hot or too cold and drink plenty of water. Ideally you should hydrate your stomach half n hour before eating a meal.

    3728 Thanks
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