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Raja clinic

General Physician Clinic

12a-NEHRUJI NAGAR DINDIGUL
1 Doctor
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Raja clinic General Physician Clinic 12a-NEHRUJI NAGAR DINDIGUL
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We like to think that we are an extraordinary practice that is all about you - your potential, your comfort, your health, and your individuality. You are important to us and we strive to ......more
We like to think that we are an extraordinary practice that is all about you - your potential, your comfort, your health, and your individuality. You are important to us and we strive to help you in every and any way that we can.
More about Raja clinic
Raja clinic is known for housing experienced General Physicians. Dr. Rajarasool Mohamed, a well-reputed General Physician, practices in DINDIGUL. Visit this medical health centre for General Physicians recommended by 72 patients.

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12a-NEHRUJI NAGAR
DINDIGUL, Tamil Nadu - 624001
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Exercises After ACL Surgery!

MSPT (Master of Physical Therapy)
Physiotherapist, Indore

If you’ve recently had acl surgery, exercises are an important part of your recovery, in addition to a physical therapy program.

These level 1 exercises should be done for 1-4 weeks after surgery. The goal of these exercises is to regain neuromuscular control of the quadriceps, strengthen the hip and maintain knee and ankle range of motion on the affected leg.
Perform these exercises 1-3 times per day, only within pain-free range of motion. Stop the activity if it causes increased pain.
Please consult with your doctor before starting any home exercise program. These exercises should not replace instructions from your doctor.

1. Long sitting towel calf stretch-

Sit up with good posture and place towel on the bottom of your foot, while holding on to the ends.
Now pull the towel across the foot, so that your toes are being pulled towards you. Repeat for 2 sets for 30 seconds.

2. Supine hamstring stretch-
Sit up and place towel over your foot, while holding on to the towel with both hands.
Lie down on your back and bring your leg up until you feel a stretch in the back of your leg. Hold this for 30 seconds. Repeat twice, 30 seconds each time.

3. Quad sets-
Lie down on your back, place a small towel roll behind your knee.
Tighten the muscles at the front of your leg, and hold 3-5 seconds. Repeat for 2 sets of 10 repetitions.

4. Ankle pumps-
Lie on your back, or sit in a chair.
Life your ankles and toes up, then point them down. Repeat this for 2 sets of 10 repetitions.

5. Heel slides-
Sit down with a towel over your foot.
Slide your foot back by pulling the towel with your arms, bend your knee as far as you can. Hold it bent for 3-5 seconds. Continue to bend and straighten your knee for 2 sets of 10 repetitions.

6. Prone hip extension-
Lie on your stomach with your head on a pillow.
On your stomach, lift your leg up with your knee completely straight.
Continue this for 2 sets of 10 repetitions.
 

What Is Hepatitis B?

BHMS
Homeopath, Hyderabad
What Is Hepatitis B?

What Is Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is an infection of your liver. It can cause scarring of the organ, liver failure, and cancer. It can be fatal if it isn’t treated.

It’s spread when people come in contact with the blood, open sores, or body fluids of someone who has the hepatitis B virus.

What Are the Symptoms of Hepatitis B :

  • Jaundice. (Your skin or the whites of the eyes turn yellow, and your pee turns brown or orange.)
  • Light-colored poop
  • Fever
  • Fatigue that persists for weeks or months
  • Stomach trouble like loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting
  • Belly pain

Causes :

Hepatitis B infection is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The virus is passed from person to person through blood, semen or other body fluids. It does not spread by sneezing or coughing.

Diagnosis :

Blood tests. Blood tests can detect signs of the hepatitis B virus in your body and tell your doctor whether it's acute or chronic. A simple blood test can also determine if you're immune to the condition.
Liver ultrasound. A special ultrasound called transient elastography can show the amount of liver damage.
Liver biopsy. Your doctor might remove a small sample of your liver for testing (liver biopsy) to check for liver damage. During this test, your doctor inserts a thin needle through your skin and into your liver and removes a tissue sample for laboratory analysis.

Prevention :

The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given as three or four injections over six months. You can't get hepatitis B from the vaccine.

The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for:

  • Newborns
  • Children and adolescents not vaccinated at birth
  • Those who work or live in a center for people who are developmentally disabled
  • People who live with someone who has hepatitis B
  • Health care workers, emergency workers and other people who come into contact with blood
  • Anyone who has a sexually transmitted infection, including HIV
  • Men who have sex with men
  • People who have multiple sexual partners
  • Sexual partners of someone who has hepatitis B
  • People who inject illegal drugs or share needles and syringes
  • People with chronic liver disease
  • People with end-stage kidney disease
  • Travelers planning to go to an area of the world with a high hepatitis B infection rate

Take precautions to avoid HBV :

  1. Know the HBV status of any sexual partner. Don't engage in unprotected sex unless you're absolutely certain your partner isn't infected with HBV or any other sexually transmitted infection.
  2. Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex if you don't know the health status of your partner. Remember that although condoms can reduce your risk of contracting HBV, they don't eliminate the risk.
  3. Don't use illegal drugs. If you use illicit drugs, get help to stop. If you can't stop, use a sterile needle each time you inject illicit drugs. Never share needles.
  4. Be cautious about body piercing and tattooing. If you get a piercing or tattoo, look for a reputable shop. Ask about how the equipment is cleaned. Make sure the employees use sterile needles. If you can't get answers, look for another shop.
  5. Ask about the hepatitis B vaccine before you travel. If you're traveling to a region where hepatitis B is common, ask your doctor about the hepatitis B vaccine in advance. It's usually given in a series of three injections over a six-month period.
1 person found this helpful

What Is Hepatitis B?

Diploma In Gastroenterology, Diploma In Dermatology, BHMS
Homeopath, Hyderabad
What Is Hepatitis B?

What Is Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is an infection of your liver. It can cause scarring of the organ, liver failure, and cancer. It can be fatal if it isn’t treated.

It’s spread when people come in contact with the blood, open sores, or body fluids of someone who has the hepatitis B virus.

What Are the Symptoms of Hepatitis B :

  • Jaundice. (Your skin or the whites of the eyes turn yellow, and your pee turns brown or orange.)
  • Light-colored poop
  • Fever
  • Fatigue that persists for weeks or months
  • Stomach trouble like loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting
  • Belly pain

Causes :

Hepatitis B infection is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The virus is passed from person to person through blood, semen or other body fluids. It does not spread by sneezing or coughing.

Diagnosis :

Blood tests. Blood tests can detect signs of the hepatitis B virus in your body and tell your doctor whether it's acute or chronic. A simple blood test can also determine if you're immune to the condition.
Liver ultrasound. A special ultrasound called transient elastography can show the amount of liver damage.
Liver biopsy. Your doctor might remove a small sample of your liver for testing (liver biopsy) to check for liver damage. During this test, your doctor inserts a thin needle through your skin and into your liver and removes a tissue sample for laboratory analysis.

Prevention :

The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given as three or four injections over six months. You can't get hepatitis B from the vaccine.

The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for:

  • Newborns
  • Children and adolescents not vaccinated at birth
  • Those who work or live in a center for people who are developmentally disabled
  • People who live with someone who has hepatitis B
  • Health care workers, emergency workers and other people who come into contact with blood
  • Anyone who has a sexually transmitted infection, including HIV
  • Men who have sex with men
  • People who have multiple sexual partners
  • Sexual partners of someone who has hepatitis B
  • People who inject illegal drugs or share needles and syringes
  • People with chronic liver disease
  • People with end-stage kidney disease
  • Travelers planning to go to an area of the world with a high hepatitis B infection rate

Take precautions to avoid HBV :

  1. Know the HBV status of any sexual partner. Don't engage in unprotected sex unless you're absolutely certain your partner isn't infected with HBV or any other sexually transmitted infection.
  2. Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex if you don't know the health status of your partner. Remember that although condoms can reduce your risk of contracting HBV, they don't eliminate the risk.
  3. Don't use illegal drugs. If you use illicit drugs, get help to stop. If you can't stop, use a sterile needle each time you inject illicit drugs. Never share needles.
  4. Be cautious about body piercing and tattooing. If you get a piercing or tattoo, look for a reputable shop. Ask about how the equipment is cleaned. Make sure the employees use sterile needles. If you can't get answers, look for another shop.
  5. Ask about the hepatitis B vaccine before you travel. If you're traveling to a region where hepatitis B is common, ask your doctor about the hepatitis B vaccine in advance. It's usually given in a series of three injections over a six-month period.

What Is Hepatitis B?

BHMS, Diploma in Dermatology
Sexologist, Hyderabad
What Is Hepatitis B?

What Is Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is an infection of your liver. It can cause scarring of the organ, liver failure, and cancer. It can be fatal if it isn’t treated.

It’s spread when people come in contact with the blood, open sores, or body fluids of someone who has the hepatitis B virus.

What Are the Symptoms of Hepatitis B :

  • Jaundice. (Your skin or the whites of the eyes turn yellow, and your pee turns brown or orange.)
  • Light-colored poop
  • Fever
  • Fatigue that persists for weeks or months
  • Stomach trouble like loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting
  • Belly pain

Causes :

Hepatitis B infection is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The virus is passed from person to person through blood, semen or other body fluids. It does not spread by sneezing or coughing.

Diagnosis :

Blood tests. Blood tests can detect signs of the hepatitis B virus in your body and tell your doctor whether it's acute or chronic. A simple blood test can also determine if you're immune to the condition.
Liver ultrasound. A special ultrasound called transient elastography can show the amount of liver damage.
Liver biopsy. Your doctor might remove a small sample of your liver for testing (liver biopsy) to check for liver damage. During this test, your doctor inserts a thin needle through your skin and into your liver and removes a tissue sample for laboratory analysis.

Prevention :

The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given as three or four injections over six months. You can't get hepatitis B from the vaccine.

The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for:

  • Newborns
  • Children and adolescents not vaccinated at birth
  • Those who work or live in a center for people who are developmentally disabled
  • People who live with someone who has hepatitis B
  • Health care workers, emergency workers and other people who come into contact with blood
  • Anyone who has a sexually transmitted infection, including HIV
  • Men who have sex with men
  • People who have multiple sexual partners
  • Sexual partners of someone who has hepatitis B
  • People who inject illegal drugs or share needles and syringes
  • People with chronic liver disease
  • People with end-stage kidney disease
  • Travelers planning to go to an area of the world with a high hepatitis B infection rate

Take precautions to avoid HBV :

  1. Know the HBV status of any sexual partner. Don't engage in unprotected sex unless you're absolutely certain your partner isn't infected with HBV or any other sexually transmitted infection.
  2. Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex if you don't know the health status of your partner. Remember that although condoms can reduce your risk of contracting HBV, they don't eliminate the risk.
  3. Don't use illegal drugs. If you use illicit drugs, get help to stop. If you can't stop, use a sterile needle each time you inject illicit drugs. Never share needles.
  4. Be cautious about body piercing and tattooing. If you get a piercing or tattoo, look for a reputable shop. Ask about how the equipment is cleaned. Make sure the employees use sterile needles. If you can't get answers, look for another shop.
  5. Ask about the hepatitis B vaccine before you travel. If you're traveling to a region where hepatitis B is common, ask your doctor about the hepatitis B vaccine in advance. It's usually given in a series of three injections over a six-month period.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Exercises!

MSPT (Master of Physical Therapy)
Physiotherapist, Indore

Start exercising your injured leg when some of the swellings have gone down and you are able to put about half of your weight on that leg.

Quad sets: sit on the floor with your injured leg straight and your other leg bent. Press the back of the knee of your injured leg against the floor by tightening the muscles on the top of your thigh. Hold this position 10 seconds. Relax. Do 2 sets of 15.

Seated quad sets: sit in a straight-back chair with your injured knee bent at a 90-degree angle. Try to tighten the top of your thigh muscles without moving your leg. Hold for 10 seconds. Do 2 sets of 15.

Knee stabilization: wrap a piece of elastic tubing around the ankle of your uninjured leg. Tie a knot in the other end of the tubing and close it in a door at about ankle height.

  • Stand facing the door on the leg without tubing (your injured leg) and bend your knee slightly, keeping your thigh muscles tight. Stay in this position while you move the leg with the tubing (the uninjured leg) straight back behind you. Do 2 sets of 15.
  • Turn 90 degrees so the leg without tubing is closest to the door. Move the leg with tubing away from your body. Do 2 sets of 15.
  • Turn 90 degrees again so your back is to the door. Move the leg with tubing straight out in front of you. Do 2 sets of 15.
  • Turn your body 90 degrees again so the leg with tubing is closest to the door. Move the leg with tubing across your body. Do 2 sets of 15.
  • Hold onto a chair if you need help balancing. This exercise can be made more challenging by standing on a firm pillow or foam mat while you move the leg with tubing.


Straight leg raises: Lie on your back with your legs straight out in front of you. Bend the knee on your uninjured side and place the foot flat on the floor. Tighten the thigh muscle on your injured side and lift your leg about 8 inches off the floor. Keep your leg straight and your thigh muscle tight. Slowly lower your leg back down to the floor. Do 2 sets of 15.

Wall squat with a ball: stand with your back, shoulders, and head against a wall. Look straight ahead. Keep your shoulders relaxed and your feet 3 feet (90 centimeters) from the wall and shoulder's width apart. Place soccer or basketball-sized ball behind your back. Keeping your back against the wall, slowly squat down to a 45-degree angle. Your thighs will not yet be parallel to the floor. Hold this position for 10 seconds and then slowly slide back up the wall. Repeat 10 times. Build up to 2 sets of 15.

Step-up: stand with the foot of your injured leg on a support 3 to 5 inches (8 to 13 centimeters) high --like a small step or block of wood. Keep your other foot flat on the floor. Shift your weight onto the injured leg on the support. Straighten your injured leg as the other leg comes off the floor. Return to the starting position by bending your injured leg and slowly lowering your uninjured leg back to the floor. Do 2 sets of 15.

If you have access to a wobble board, do the following exercises:

Wobble board exercises

  • Stand on a wobble board with your feet shoulder-width apart.
  • Rock the board forwards and backward 30 times, then side to side 30 times. Hold on to a chair if you need support.
  • Rotate the wobble board around so that the edge of the board is in contact with the floor at all times. Do this 30 times in a clockwise and then a counterclockwise direction.
  • Balance on the wobble board for as long as you can without letting the edges touch the floor. Try to do this for 2 minutes without touching the floor.
  • Rotate the wobble board in clockwise and counterclockwise circles, but do not let the edge of the board touch the floor.
  • When you have mastered the wobble exercises standing on both legs, try repeating them while standing on just your injured leg. After you are able to do these exercises on one leg, try to do them with your eyes closed. Make sure you have something nearby to support you in case you lose your balance.

Causes & Symptoms Of Heart Valve Disease!

MD - Internal Medicine, MBBS, DM - Cardiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
Causes & Symptoms Of Heart Valve Disease!

Complications in the heart valve occur when the functioning of the heart valve is impaired. Valves of the heart allow the blood in one direction and prevent the blood from flowing back into the ventricles of the heart.

Heart valve diseases can be classified as follows:

1. Valvular stenosis
This condition occurs when the valves of the heart do not open completely due to stiffness. As the opening is narrow, the heart has to work hard to pump blood. This condition may lead to heart failure.

2. Valvular insufficiency
This is a condition where the valve does not close tightly. This causes some of the blood to flow back to the valve. As this condition deteriorates the heart has to work harder to pump blood.

Types and Causes of valve diseases:

1. Acquired valve disease 
The structure of the valve changes due to various infections or rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is caused by bacterial infection that had not been treated. It tends to occur in children and cause inflammation of the valves of the heart.

2. Congenital valve disease
This condition usually affects the pulmonary valve where the size of the valve is abnormal.

3. Bicuspid aortic valve disease
It is a type of valve disease that impairs the aortic valve. Instead of the regular three cusps, the bicuspid valve only has two. This may cause the valve to be stiff or cause it to leak.

4. Mitral valve prolapse
This condition causes the valve to flop back when the heart contracts. This condition also causes the leaflets of the valve to turn irregularly and cause it to stretch. This condition causes the valve to leak.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of valve disease are as follows:

1. Weakness: This condition may cause weakness and cause severe discomfort while performing daily activities.
2. Palpitations: Symptoms such as irregular heartbeats, skipped beats and rapid heart rhythm occurs in this condition.
3. Rapid weight gain: This condition can cause you to gain weight very rapidly.
4. It may cause swelling in your ankles, abdomen and feet.
5. This condition causes shortness of breath
 

Fistula-in-Ano - Ayurvedic Treatment For It!

N.D.D.Y, Bachelor of Ayurveda Medicine & Surgery (BAMS), Specialist In Ayurvedic Ksharsutra Therapy
Ayurveda, Delhi
Fistula-in-Ano - Ayurvedic Treatment For It!

Ayurveda takes a holistic approach to treat any disease. It aims to treat fistula-in-ano with a combination of herbs, good lifestyle, healthy diet etc. Ayurveda suggests that fistula occurs due to the disparity of the 3 doshas. The treatment aims at balancing the doshas and healing the condition from within without any side effects.

What is anal fistula?
Anal fistula is an opening other than the normal opening of the anus. Most people face oozing of stool and pus from the other opening. The surrounding area of the anus becomes painful and tender. If the opening closes for a few days, the pus gets trapped leading to fever and abscess. It is, therefore, important to get rid of the mucus and the pus completely and heal the fistula. In case of multiple openings, modern medicine suggests surgery to get rid of the situation. But, after surgery, recurrence chances are very high. Ayurveda on the other hand, uses oils, herbs, and other such non-inflammatory means to cure the condition. So, fistula is only best successfully treated by Ayurveda - Gugglu Ksharsutra Therapy that is minimum-invasive procedure is very. Advantage of this procedure are: 

  1. No chance of recurrence
  2. No pain
  3. No side-effects
  4. No hospital stay

Digestive fire from the Ayurvedic viewpoint:
Digestion only happens smoothly when the Jatharagni/Agni is strong. With natural food and supplements and herbs it is entirely possible to balance the digestive fire. Raw fruits, vegetables, and nuts are the ideal diet to heal this condition. Some foods to avoid to ensure that the aggravation of fistula doesn’t take place include aerated drinks, processed foods, milk and milk related products. The herbs that are prescribed by the Ayurvedic practitioner should be continued for at least 3-6 months.

Ayurvedic treatment for fistula-inano:
Ayurveda has a very precise dosage of herbs mentioned in the ancient books. It is suggested that two tablespoons of Triphala Guggul and 1 tablespoon of Vara Churna should be consumed daily, twice a day, Nirgundi oil should be applied locally every day and 2 tablespoons of curcumin should be consumed daily.

  1. Triphala Guggul: This formulation consists of two very important herbs- Guggul and Triphala. Both these herbs helps the body’s defence mechanism. This formulation is anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial in nature. Both the herbs help in toning the gastrointestinal tract, streamline the flow of bile and aids the intestine to effectively eradicate bodily waste.
  2. Vara Churna: Vara Churna is a formulation that contains several herbs such as amalaki, bibhitaka, haritaki etc. This formulation helps clean the colon and strengthen the GIT. This formulation is effective for vata, kapha, and pitta. Vara Churna is extremely effective for rectifying constipation, aiding blood circulation improving liver function and balancing the blood pressure.
  3. Nirgundi Oil: This oil is made up from the herb Nigundo. This herb is pungent, bitter and astringent in flavour. It is a natural antibiotic and is an anti-inflammatory. This oil can relax the muscles, reduce congestion and pain.

Induced Hearing Loss - Must Know Facts About It!

M.Sc - Audiology, BASLP
Audiologist, Delhi
Induced Hearing Loss - Must Know Facts About It!

While most noise is just in the background for us, loud noises, either in small spurts or prolonged exposure, can cause hearing loss. This has been happening more frequently as the levels of noise in an industrialized society go further up.

Noise induced hearing loss explained
Loud noises may damage the sensitive structure of your ear, which process the sound waves into information. They eventually become nonfunctional, resulting in a loss of hearing in that range. If exposure to loud noises continues, then this might extend to the entire range of hearing and may cause total hearing loss.

What may cause noise induced hearing loss?
Some of the scenarios which may cause noise induced hearing loss are as follows:
1. Listening to music on high volume: If you constantly listen to music or watch movies at your home on very loud levels, then it may result in noise induced hearing loss. In fact, listening to music or watching movies with headphones in your ears is one of the leading causes for hearing loss. Headphones have deceptively loud levels and may result in damaged hearing overtime.

2. Noise of household tools: Household tools such as drills, mixers, grinders, mowers, and saws can expose you to loud levels of noise. Even a quick exposure for a few seconds could temporarily damage your hearing. 

3. Occupational problems: Occupations such as construction, factory work and military that require the use of power tools on a constant basis can also cause hearing loss. The sound from the resulting friction might damage your hearing very quickly. Explosions and impacts are also causes of hearing loss in the military and law enforcement departments.

Prevention and treatment
Treatment:
 It is difficult to treat hearing loss as in most cases; it may be permanent, except sudden shocks, when your hearing might come back to normal. The only treatments for hearing loss are hearing aids or cochlear implantswhich can restore hearing partially.

Prevention: Prevention is the best method to avoid hearing loss and in most cases, you should wear ear protection such as mufflers or sound level reduction devices to protect your hearing. Also, practice listening to music, watching TV or movies at lower levels, especially if you are on the headphones.

Why It Is Important To Manage Stress In Diabetes?

MD - General Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Diabetologist, Ahmedabad
Why It Is Important To Manage Stress In Diabetes?

Keeping the blood sugar level within the accepted level can be a challenging at times. This is because the blood sugar is affected by a range of factors including lifestyle factors. Here is a brief roadmap to manage diabetes by following simple lifestyle changes:

Food:
Healthy eating is an art. It is one of the cornerstones of healthy living with or without high blood sugar. People suffering from blood sugar has more reasons to be specific about food to keep the blood sugar level under control.

  1. Portion size and carbohydrate counting: Carbohydrates play a key role in managing diabetes. It is, therefore, necessary to keep a close count of carbohydrates. People consuming insulin need to be more careful in this regard. One good way to ensure that carbohydrates consumption is under control is to ensure that the portion size is controlled.
  2. A balanced meal: A good meal should be a mixture of fruits, proteins, fats, starches, and vegetables. Few carbohydrates such as those found in vegetables, starch and whole grains serve a diabetic person better.
  3. Track your medication and meal: Too little consumption of food can lead to a sharp fall in blood sugar level. Too much food, on the other hand, can lead to high blood sugar. It makes sense to maintain a balance between food and medication.

Exercise:
Physical activity goes a long way in managing blood sugar level. Regular exercise consumes sugar in the form of energy and helps to maintain diabetes. Daily exercise along with certain household chores such as gardening can help to maintain diabetes:

  1. Make an exercise plan: It makes sense to consult the doctor or a healthcare professional before starting to exercise. Depending on the level of blood sugar, an exercise plan should be chosen. One should maintain a minimum of half an hour exercise schedule daily.
  2. Be prepared: Sudden change in lifestyle such as starting an exercise regimen can take a toll on the body. It is therefore advised that a person prepares himself by taking short snacks before starting to exercise. Staying hydrated is another crucial thing. Checking the blood sugar level before and after working out is a good habit.

Stress
Stress plays the devil in shooting up the blood sugar level. It becomes extremely difficult to manage diabetes with stress. Here is a list of important things to stay away from stress:

  1. Find a pattern: Logging stress within a scale of 1 to 10 can help to find a pattern. If the blood sugar levels are found to be high under stressful days, a person would know what should be skipped to cut down stress.
  2. Get help: Getting professional help to cut down stress is a good idea. Consulting a psychiatrist/psychologist can prove to be helpful in cutting down stress. Once the stress levels are down, blood sugar level automatically comes down.

Migraine - Know The Symptoms And Treatment!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - General Medicine, DM - Neurology
Neurologist, Faridabad
Migraine - Know The Symptoms And Treatment!

Headaches and migraines can vary drastically depending on their duration, specific symptoms and the person they are affecting. The more you know about your specific type of headache or migraine, the better prepared you will be to treat them—and possibly even prevent them. The two types of migraine are- 

  1. Migraine without aura: The majority of migraine sufferers have Migraine without Aura. 
  2. Migraine with aura: Migraine with Aura refers to a range of neurological disturbances that occur before the headache begins, usually lasting about 20-60 minutes.

Symptoms of migraine vary and also depend on the type of migraine. A migraine has four stages: prodrome, aura, headache and postdrome. But it is not necessary that all the migraine sufferers experience all the four stages.

Prodrome: The signs of this begin to appear a day or two days before the headache starts. The signs include depression, constipation, food cravings, irritability, uncontrollable yawning, neck stiffness and hyperactivity.
Migraine Aura: Auras are a range of symptoms of the central nervous system. These might occur much before or during the migraine, but most people get a migraine without an aura. Auras usually begin gradually and increase in intensity. They last for an hour or even longer and are 

  • Visual: Seeing bright spots, various shapes, experiencing vision loss, and flashes of light
  • Sensory: Present in the form of touch sensations like feeling of pins and needles in the arms and legs
  • Motor: Usually related with the movement problems like the limb weakness
  • Verbal: It is related with the speech problems

Headache: In case of a migraine attack one might experience:

  • Pain on both sides or one side of the head
  • Pain is throbbing in nature
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Sensitivity to smells, sound and light
  • Vision is blurred
  • Fainting and lightheadedness

Postdrome: This is the final phase of the migraine. During this phase one might feel fatigued, though some people feel euphoric.

Red flags that the patient may be having underlying serious disorder not migraine

  1. Onset of headaches >50 years 
  2. Thunderclap headache - subarachnoid haemorrhage 
  3. Neurological symptoms or signs 
  4. Meningism 
  5. Immunosuppression or malignancy 
  6. Red eye and haloes around lights - acute angle closure glaucoma 
  7. Worsening symptoms 
  8. Symptoms of temporal arteritis

These patients require CT scan / MRI or CSF examination. Most Migraine patients do not need these tests. 

Diagnosis of Migraine: Usually migraines go undiagnosed and thus are untreated. In case you experience the symptoms regularly then talk to the doctor, who evaluates the symptoms and can start a treatment. You can also be referred to a neurologist who is trained to treat the migraines and other conditions. During the appointment the neurologist usually asks about the family history of headaches and migraines along with your symptoms and medical history.

The doctor might advise for some tests like:

  1. Blood Tests: These reveal problems with the blood vessel like an infection in the spinal cord and brain.
  2. CT scan: Used to diagnose the infections, tumors, brain damage, and bleeding that cause the migraines.
  3. MRI: This helps to diagnose the tumors bleeding infections, neurological conditions, and strokes.
  4. Lumbar Puncture: For analyzing infections and neurological damages. In lumbar puncture a thin needle is inserted between the two vertebrae to remove a sample of the cerebrospinal fluid for analysis.

Treatments

Migraine treatments can help stop symptoms and prevent future attacks.

Many medications have been designed to treat migraines. Some drugs often used to treat other conditions also may help relieve or prevent migraines. Medications used to combat migraines fall into two broad categories:

  • Pain-relieving medications. Also known as acute or abortive treatment, these types of drugs are taken during migraine attacks and are designed to stop symptoms.
  • Preventive medications. These types of drugs are taken regularly, often on a daily basis, to reduce the severity or frequency of migraines.

Your treatment strategy depends on the frequency and severity of your headaches, the degree of disability your headaches cause, and your other medical conditions.

Some medications aren't recommended if you're pregnant or breast-feeding. Some medications aren't given to children. Your doctor can help find the right medication for you.

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