Book Clinic Appointment with Dr. Vijay Lakshmi Rawat
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Submit a review for Dr. Vijay Lakshmi RawatYour feedback matters!
Patient Review Highlights
she was very clear and precise with her instructions, very well aware of the consequences of the things, and guided me very well, she was humble and gave me enough time that I had desired. Thank you doctor Vijaylakshmi.
Am very thankful to you doctor. Ur response was very helpful to me. Thank you very much.
Am very thankful to you doctor. Ur response was very helpful to me. Thank you very much.
Breast cancer is a form of cancer which develops from the breast tissue. Breast cancer is indicated by signs such as a lump in the breast, changes in breast shape, fluid flowing from the nipple, dimpling of skin, or the development of red scaly patches. Breast cancer is a fatal form of cancer in women and immediate diagnosis is required on observing the symptoms.
Diagnosis of breast cancer
Other than the regular breast screening, the diagnosis of breast cancer involves the following steps and methods:
- Seeing your general practitioner (GP): It is very important to visit your GP soon after noticing the symptoms of breast cancer. Your GP will examine you properly and in case your symptoms need more assessment, he/she will refer you to a breast cancer clinic.
- Mammogram and breast ultrasound: You will be required to have a mammogram, as recommended by a specialist breast unit. This is an X-ray of the breasts. An ultrasound scan may also be required. Breast ultrasound should be undertaken only if you are less than 35 years of age. This is because, young women have denser breasts and a mammogram is not as effective as ultrasound in the diagnosis of breast cancer. In ultrasound, high frequency sound waves are used for obtaining an image of your breasts. It is observed to notice any abnormality or lumps. A breast ultrasound is also important for determining whether a lump is solid or contains liquid.
- Biopsy: In this diagnosis process, a sample of the tissue cells is taken from the breasts and tested under a microscope to find out if it is cancerous. A scan and needle test for the lymph nodes present in your armpit is also done to check whether they have also been affected. A biopsy is undertaken in several ways, depending upon the condition and severity. A needle aspiration biopsy is used for testing a sample of your breast cells without the removal of the tissues. This is the most common form of biopsy and it is also used for draining a small fluid-filled lump or benign cyst. During the process, you will be given a local anesthetic. Usually, a needle biopsy is carried out guided by an X-ray, ultrasound and an MRI scan as well. This helps in distinguishing it from non-invasive changes such as ductal carcinoma in situ.
Another form of biopsy used for the diagnosis of breast cancer is called vacuum assisted biopsy or mammotome biopsy. In this process, a needle gets attached to a suction tube, which helps in obtaining the sample and for clearing the bleeding. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general-surgeon.
What is puberty?
Puberty is the phase in life when the body of the child matures to become an adult. This change is mainly influenced by the developing reproductive system and it makes them capable of sexual reproduction. It a progressive change and happens over a span of few years. Girls start to develop breasts and might start menstruating whereas boys notice changes in body hair growth pattern with their voices beginning to crack.
The average age for a girl to attain puberty is found to be 11, whereas in boys, it is longer and the average age is somewhere around 12. Puberty also marks the onset of emotional maturity in kids as well.
Sometimes puberty can be seen at a very young age such as 7 or 8; this is called precocious puberty. This can make it physically and mentally taxing for a child and can be a sign of health issues.
What causes puberty?
The stimulation of the hypothalamus in the brain leads to the production of a hormone called Human Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) which signal the Pituitary Gland to produce luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This is responsible for sexual development.
Signs that may indicate the onset of puberty in girls:
The telltale signs of puberty in girls are:
- Development of breasts
- Growth of hair in areas such as armpits and genitals
- A growth spurt, i.e., rapid growth in height
- Start of menstruation or her periods
- Increase in body fat in certain areas of the body
- Development of acne
- “Mature” body odour
Signs that may indicate the onset of puberty in boys:
The usual signs of puberty in boys are:
- Enlargement of the testicles or penis
- Pubic, underarm, or facial hair development
- Rapid height growth — a growth "spurt"
- Deepening of voice
- "Mature" body odor
- Increase in hair growth in other parts of the body such as the arms and legs
Along with these signs and symptoms, other signs can be changes in mood. Boys and girls may develop sexual urges wherein you will notice an unexplained attraction to the opposite sex. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Morning after pill is an emergency form of contraception. It is a type of birth control which can prevent unwanted pregnancy which is a potential risk after unprotected sexual intercourse. The typical name, “morning after pill”, is on account of the fact that it is usually taken on the morning after you have had unprotected sex the earlier night.
How does it work?
It primarily works by inhibiting or delaying ovulation. It does not cause abortion, but merely stops ovulation temporarily and thus, prevents fertilization of the egg with the sperm. It is required to be taken within 72 hours or 3 days after having unsafe sex for it to work effectively, but the sooner you take it, the better it is.
Risks associated with the Morning after Pill
Although the prospect of using this pill seems very useful and handy, there are risks associated with it as well.
It has temporary side effects such as nausea, headache, dizziness, lower abdominal pain or cramps.
It is not a reliable form of birth control like condoms, copper-Ts or IUDs as you might still get pregnant.
It can lead to bleeding between your periods or heavy menstrual bleeding can be experienced. It can even make your menstrual cycle irregular.
In serious cases, it can even lead to cerebral haemorrhage (bleeding inside the brain) and cerebral thrombosis (formation of clots in the brain).
It does not protect you from any sort of STD (Sexually Transmitted Disease) or STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection).
It can even lead to hormonal imbalances if taken on a regular basis as it can interfere with your regular estrogen and progesterone levels.
If taken multiple times, it can even affect your fertility in the future as it can alter the pH levels of your uterus.
- It is an emergency contraceptive and not recommended for routine use.
During pregnancy you should consume extra protein and calcium to meet the needs of the growing fetus.
There are some commonest misconceptions about infertility and these misconceptions should be eliminated as soon as possible so that the actual facts can be known. There are many online sites where you can find detailed information on the scientific explanations regarding infertility and you can follow them.
List of myths and facts regarding infertility:
1. Myth: The menstrual cycle of a woman is for 28 days.
Fact: Normal cycle ranges between 21 to 36 days.
2. Myth: A woman can have pregnancy on the day one of menstrual cycle.
Fact: The released eggs remain viable for almost 12-14 hours and a woman can get pregnant after an intercourse done two days after ovulation and five days before ovulation.
3. Myth: Infertility occurs due to stress.
Fact: Ovulation can surely get delayed due to hormone suppression, but infertility does not occur due to stress.
4. Myth: Sperms stay active for few hours.
Fact: Sperms stay alive at least for five days.
5. Myth: Men with a higher sexual drive will have a normal sperm count.
Fact: There is no relation in between fertility and virility. Sometimes, it has been found that men having a higher sex drive do not produce sperms.
6. Myth: Women have to wait for three months to conceive after stopping the usage of contraceptive pills.
Fact: As soon as a woman stops pill usage, hormonal levels go back to normal condition, as a result of which ovulation begins immediately.
7. Myth: Only females have infertility troubles.
Fact: Both women and men suffer from infertility troubles as per the current scientific studies.
8. Myth: Ovulation occurs in a woman on the 14th day of menstrual cycle.
Fact: Ovulation can be calculated by counting 14 days backwards from the past menstrual cycle's last day.
9. Myth: Daily sex can increase conceiving chances.
Fact: During ovulation, having sex each day, especially in between 12 to 16th day of the cycle can be the best timing.
10. Myth: Fertility troubles occur at 35.
Fact: Peak fertility timing in a woman's life is 20 and this might continue until late 30s. Fertility troubles might even arrive at a younger age. With age, conception chances get declined, especially after 35.
During the natural course of events, a woman's body starts its reproductive phase with menarche and at about 50 years of age, attains menopause. This is when the reproductive function ceases and the ovaries stop producing the hormone estrogen and progesterone. This is medically termed early or premature menopause.
Menopause that occurs before 40 years of age is termed as Premature Menopause; it is due to primary ovarian insufficiency and occurs in 1% of the women. If it occurs between 45 to 50 years, it is termed as early menopause.
Causes of premature menopause: Normal ageing, family history, genetic disorders, autoimmune disorders, toxins, and surgery are some reasons that could lead to premature menopause.
Effects: Estrogen and progesterone have a lot of beneficial effects on a woman's body. Reduction in their levels leads to some of the below changes:
- Emotional changes like mood swings, irritability, and in some cases depression, especially in premature menopause.
- Irregular cycles before complete cessation of the menstrual cycles.
- General mucosal dryness leading to vaginal dryness, dry skin, dry eyes.
- There also would be urinary incontinence and reduced sex drive due to reduced hormone levels.
- For women who still would want to have children, infertility would be a big cause for concern. This could lead to other emotional issues, worsening the depression.
- Bones lose their density and get weak and are more prone to fracture. This leads to Osteoporosis.
- Postmenopause, women are more prone to heart attacks and stroke, leading to cardiovascular health issues. Though not fully proven, this is believed to be true as the good role that estrogen plays on blood vessels is negated with menopause.
- Menopause leads to accelerated damage of genetic structures, thereby leading to faster ageing. This also leaves a feeling in the women of being less attractive and less desirable.
There is also a good news, that after menopause women are at lesser risk of cancer especially, breast and ovarian.
However, it is not easy for women to handle premature menopause. The body undergoes some changes much earlier than expected, and it requires a lot of support and caring and comforting to come to terms with it especially, if associated with infertility or chemotherapy for cancer. Emotional issues of not being able to have children and feeling less attractive require frank talks to boost the person's confidence and increase self-worthiness.
It is easier said than done, but one of the key ways to handle premature menopause is an open discussion.
Related Tip: "7 Ways To Deal With PMS"