Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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she was very clear and precise with her instructions, very well aware of the consequences of the things, and guided me very well, she was humble and gave me enough time that I had desired. Thank you doctor Vijaylakshmi.
Am very thankful to you doctor. Ur response was very helpful to me. Thank you very much.
Am very thankful to you doctor. Ur response was very helpful to me. Thank you very much.
Breast cancer is a form of cancer which develops from the breast tissue. Breast cancer is indicated by signs such as a lump in the breast, changes in breast shape, fluid flowing from the nipple, dimpling of skin, or the development of red scaly patches. Breast cancer is a fatal form of cancer in women and immediate diagnosis is required on observing the symptoms.
Diagnosis of breast cancer
Other than the regular breast screening, the diagnosis of breast cancer involves the following steps and methods:
- Seeing your general practitioner (GP): It is very important to visit your GP soon after noticing the symptoms of breast cancer. Your GP will examine you properly and in case your symptoms need more assessment, he/she will refer you to a breast cancer clinic.
- Mammogram and breast ultrasound: You will be required to have a mammogram, as recommended by a specialist breast unit. This is an X-ray of the breasts. An ultrasound scan may also be required. Breast ultrasound should be undertaken only if you are less than 35 years of age. This is because, young women have denser breasts and a mammogram is not as effective as ultrasound in the diagnosis of breast cancer. In ultrasound, high frequency sound waves are used for obtaining an image of your breasts. It is observed to notice any abnormality or lumps. A breast ultrasound is also important for determining whether a lump is solid or contains liquid.
- Biopsy: In this diagnosis process, a sample of the tissue cells is taken from the breasts and tested under a microscope to find out if it is cancerous. A scan and needle test for the lymph nodes present in your armpit is also done to check whether they have also been affected. A biopsy is undertaken in several ways, depending upon the condition and severity. A needle aspiration biopsy is used for testing a sample of your breast cells without the removal of the tissues. This is the most common form of biopsy and it is also used for draining a small fluid-filled lump or benign cyst. During the process, you will be given a local anesthetic. Usually, a needle biopsy is carried out guided by an X-ray, ultrasound and an MRI scan as well. This helps in distinguishing it from non-invasive changes such as ductal carcinoma in situ.
Another form of biopsy used for the diagnosis of breast cancer is called vacuum assisted biopsy or mammotome biopsy. In this process, a needle gets attached to a suction tube, which helps in obtaining the sample and for clearing the bleeding. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general-surgeon.
What is puberty?
Puberty is the phase in life when the body of the child matures to become an adult. This change is mainly influenced by the developing reproductive system and it makes them capable of sexual reproduction. It a progressive change and happens over a span of few years. Girls start to develop breasts and might start menstruating whereas boys notice changes in body hair growth pattern with their voices beginning to crack.
The average age for a girl to attain puberty is found to be 11, whereas in boys, it is longer and the average age is somewhere around 12. Puberty also marks the onset of emotional maturity in kids as well.
Sometimes puberty can be seen at a very young age such as 7 or 8; this is called precocious puberty. This can make it physically and mentally taxing for a child and can be a sign of health issues.
What causes puberty?
The stimulation of the hypothalamus in the brain leads to the production of a hormone called Human Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) which signal the Pituitary Gland to produce luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This is responsible for sexual development.
Signs that may indicate the onset of puberty in girls:
The telltale signs of puberty in girls are:
- Development of breasts
- Growth of hair in areas such as armpits and genitals
- A growth spurt, i.e., rapid growth in height
- Start of menstruation or her periods
- Increase in body fat in certain areas of the body
- Development of acne
- “Mature” body odour
Signs that may indicate the onset of puberty in boys:
The usual signs of puberty in boys are:
- Enlargement of the testicles or penis
- Pubic, underarm, or facial hair development
- Rapid height growth — a growth "spurt"
- Deepening of voice
- "Mature" body odor
- Increase in hair growth in other parts of the body such as the arms and legs
Along with these signs and symptoms, other signs can be changes in mood. Boys and girls may develop sexual urges wherein you will notice an unexplained attraction to the opposite sex. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Morning after pill is an emergency form of contraception. It is a type of birth control which can prevent unwanted pregnancy which is a potential risk after unprotected sexual intercourse. The typical name, “morning after pill”, is on account of the fact that it is usually taken on the morning after you have had unprotected sex the earlier night.
How does it work?
It primarily works by inhibiting or delaying ovulation. It does not cause abortion, but merely stops ovulation temporarily and thus, prevents fertilization of the egg with the sperm. It is required to be taken within 72 hours or 3 days after having unsafe sex for it to work effectively, but the sooner you take it, the better it is.
Risks associated with the Morning after Pill
Although the prospect of using this pill seems very useful and handy, there are risks associated with it as well.
It has temporary side effects such as nausea, headache, dizziness, lower abdominal pain or cramps.
It is not a reliable form of birth control like condoms, copper-Ts or IUDs as you might still get pregnant.
It can lead to bleeding between your periods or heavy menstrual bleeding can be experienced. It can even make your menstrual cycle irregular.
In serious cases, it can even lead to cerebral haemorrhage (bleeding inside the brain) and cerebral thrombosis (formation of clots in the brain).
It does not protect you from any sort of STD (Sexually Transmitted Disease) or STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection).
It can even lead to hormonal imbalances if taken on a regular basis as it can interfere with your regular estrogen and progesterone levels.
If taken multiple times, it can even affect your fertility in the future as it can alter the pH levels of your uterus.
- It is an emergency contraceptive and not recommended for routine use.
There are some commonest misconceptions about infertility and these misconceptions should be eliminated as soon as possible so that the actual facts can be known. There are many online sites where you can find detailed information on the scientific explanations regarding infertility and you can follow them.
List of myths and facts regarding infertility:
1. Myth: The menstrual cycle of a woman is for 28 days.
Fact: Normal cycle ranges between 21 to 36 days.
2. Myth: A woman can have pregnancy on the day one of menstrual cycle.
Fact: The released eggs remain viable for almost 12-14 hours and a woman can get pregnant after an intercourse done two days after ovulation and five days before ovulation.
3. Myth: Infertility occurs due to stress.
Fact: Ovulation can surely get delayed due to hormone suppression, but infertility does not occur due to stress.
4. Myth: Sperms stay active for few hours.
Fact: Sperms stay alive at least for five days.
5. Myth: Men with a higher sexual drive will have a normal sperm count.
Fact: There is no relation in between fertility and virility. Sometimes, it has been found that men having a higher sex drive do not produce sperms.
6. Myth: Women have to wait for three months to conceive after stopping the usage of contraceptive pills.
Fact: As soon as a woman stops pill usage, hormonal levels go back to normal condition, as a result of which ovulation begins immediately.
7. Myth: Only females have infertility troubles.
Fact: Both women and men suffer from infertility troubles as per the current scientific studies.
8. Myth: Ovulation occurs in a woman on the 14th day of menstrual cycle.
Fact: Ovulation can be calculated by counting 14 days backwards from the past menstrual cycle's last day.
9. Myth: Daily sex can increase conceiving chances.
Fact: During ovulation, having sex each day, especially in between 12 to 16th day of the cycle can be the best timing.
10. Myth: Fertility troubles occur at 35.
Fact: Peak fertility timing in a woman's life is 20 and this might continue until late 30s. Fertility troubles might even arrive at a younger age. With age, conception chances get declined, especially after 35.
During the natural course of events, a woman's body starts its reproductive phase with menarche and at about 50 years of age, attains menopause. This is when the reproductive function ceases and the ovaries stop producing the hormone estrogen and progesterone. This is medically termed early or premature menopause.
Menopause that occurs before 40 years of age is termed as Premature Menopause; it is due to primary ovarian insufficiency and occurs in 1% of the women. If it occurs between 45 to 50 years, it is termed as early menopause.
Causes of premature menopause: Normal ageing, family history, genetic disorders, autoimmune disorders, toxins, and surgery are some reasons that could lead to premature menopause.
Effects: Estrogen and progesterone have a lot of beneficial effects on a woman's body. Reduction in their levels leads to some of the below changes:
- Emotional changes like mood swings, irritability, and in some cases depression, especially in premature menopause.
- Irregular cycles before complete cessation of the menstrual cycles.
- General mucosal dryness leading to vaginal dryness, dry skin, dry eyes.
- There also would be urinary incontinence and reduced sex drive due to reduced hormone levels.
- For women who still would want to have children, infertility would be a big cause for concern. This could lead to other emotional issues, worsening the depression.
- Bones lose their density and get weak and are more prone to fracture. This leads to Osteoporosis.
- Postmenopause, women are more prone to heart attacks and stroke, leading to cardiovascular health issues. Though not fully proven, this is believed to be true as the good role that estrogen plays on blood vessels is negated with menopause.
- Menopause leads to accelerated damage of genetic structures, thereby leading to faster ageing. This also leaves a feeling in the women of being less attractive and less desirable.
There is also a good news, that after menopause women are at lesser risk of cancer especially, breast and ovarian.
However, it is not easy for women to handle premature menopause. The body undergoes some changes much earlier than expected, and it requires a lot of support and caring and comforting to come to terms with it especially, if associated with infertility or chemotherapy for cancer. Emotional issues of not being able to have children and feeling less attractive require frank talks to boost the person's confidence and increase self-worthiness.
It is easier said than done, but one of the key ways to handle premature menopause is an open discussion.
Related Tip: "7 Ways To Deal With PMS"
We have got just married. Contraceptive pill as unwanted 72 has been taken by me twice. Is unwanted 72 harmful for pregnancy later ?
Dear Dr. last 3 days back we had unprotected sex after that she take I pill but still not get any periods is there any chances to get pregnant.
She is 28 years old. She used to have stomach pain. After scan, doctor has told that she has a rasoli in her uterus of 77 mm. She had to operate. I want to know is operation is the only way to survive. Secondly because she is unmarried. Could she b able to give birth to a baby after marriage. Is there any risk of her life. I am very much worried. Please guide me.
Hlo I am 22 years old. I have done sex on 4th march 2016 nd after that periods came on 11 th march. Then nxt month on 17 april. And this month no periods till now. What is the problem. But I hv menses irregularity also. Is this delayed periods or something else.
My period started April 30 amd ended on may 4 or 5. I had unprotected sex on 14 and 22 of May. It was just 2-3 strokes and he did not orgasm inside and cleaned his penis while putting it in. What are the chances of me getting pregnant?
Fast Food Facts
What is fast food and why is it so popular?
Fast food, junk food, processed food, ready-meals - Whatever label you give it, it all comes down to the same thing - food that's been through the factory and had much of its goodness removed. Fast food is quick, convenient and usually inexpensive and hence children, teenagers and busy youngsters are easy target. However, it is little known that fast food is inexpensive because it is usually made with cheaper ingredients such as high saturated fat meat, refined grains with added sugar and fats, etc
Is fast food bad?
There is no such thing as a 'bad' food. All foods can fit into a healthy meal plan. It's true that fast food is usually high in fat, calories, cholesterol and sodium, but eating fast food every once in a while is not going to cause problems. If we eat too much fast food over a long period of time, though, it can lead to health problems like high blood pressure, heart disease and obesity.
If you are having fast food more than once a week, try to make healthier choices. Here are some tips:
- Choose foods that are boiled over fried, such as a grilled chicken sandwich instead of fried chicken or chicken nuggets
- Choose soups that are not cream based. If the name of the soup includes the word cream, such as 'Creamy Tomato Soup', avoid ordering it
- Have low-fat salad dressings instead of the full-fat kind
- Have a salad or soup instead of fries
- Use yoghurt, mustard or ketchup instead of mayonnaise
- Order smaller portions - the smaller the portion size, the lesser the calories
- When ordering a burger or sandwich, select leaner meats like grilled chicken instead of fried items such as burgers or steak and avoid adding cheese
- Choose water, low-fat milk, or diet sodas instead of regular sodas, fruit drinks, milkshakes or whole milk
- When ordering pizza, add veggies instead of meat, and get thin crust instead of deep dish
- If fruits and veggies are available, try to add them into your meal. For example, have lettuce and tomato on sandwiches or burgers
- Vegetable items are usually lower in fat than the meat dishes but can still be high in total calories
- Most appetizers are deep fried and some can hold more oil resulting in excessive calories. Switch to soups instead
- Stir-fry dishes are the best choice for lower calories
Essential Fast Food facts
- Laden with additives and unhealthy ingredients
A quick look at any food label will show you a long list of ingredients. We need to improve our ability to read and interpret food labels, which will help us make informed choices. More often than not, these foods are loaded with fats, sugar, salt and artificial additives. Many of these food additives, can have serious effects on long-term health. The fact that many children have diets high in processed foods underlies in the massive increase in childhood obesity
- Essential nutrients are missing
It's not just what's in fast food, which is alarming. What fast foods leave out, has just as bad an impact on health. Fast foods usually do not contain the following:
- Fiber, which is essential to keep the gut working properly. Processing methods remove most of the fiber originally present in the food. Long term low fiber intake can lead to serious health problems
- Vitamins and minerals in fast foods are lost due to processing and refining, which is often carried out at high temperatures. Some processed foods have added vitamins and minerals - often because those that were there to start with have been lost in processing. Others have very little or even non-existent nutritional value
- Bad for health
The dire effects of diets which rely too much on fast and processed foods are listed below:
- Lethal diseases - cancer, heart diseases, diabetes - are linked with poor diet and overweight
- Obesity in children and adults has reached a record high and continues to increase
- Lack of certain essential nutrients (like iron) can cause behavioural problems in children and can affect their ability to learn
- Long term fast/processed food (ab)use can lead to numerous other problems in children - caries prone teeth, dry skin, bad breath, constipation, digestive problems, headaches, poor concentration, depression, tiredness, anaemia - the list goes on and on
- Lacking flavour and texture
Junk foods are bland because processing wipes out subtle differences in flavour, appetizing fragrances and aromas. You have a well-flavoured meal in front of you, little knowing that this is due to added artificial flavours, colors and aromas. Yet the flavours never taste like food freshly prepared, from fresh and simple ingredients
- Not as fresh as they seem
Some processed foods pretend to be fresh - salads, which are doused in chlorinated water before packing. It's kept looking good, maybe for days and days on end, by added preservatives
What can you do?
Healthy eating and fast food can't exist side by side. As you switch to a healthy diet, one by one the fast foods must go:
- Learn to understand food labels. If you're looking for healthy food, labels hold the key. Read them and start seeking for healthier alternatives
- If you can't always avoid eating junk food, learn to choose the more healthy fast foods
- As you gradually eradicate unhealthy foods from your diet, replace them with simple, fresh foods and encourage your friends to do the same
- Help your family to start shopping differently, buying fresh foods more frequently, relying less on foods which have a long shelf life because they're full of artificial preservatives and buying for just few meals, at a time. Over a few months, you'll find that it's not that time-consuming and you and your family is actually enjoying planning and eating healthier meals
- In time, processed foods that used to seem appetizing will lose their appeal, as your palate becomes attuned to fresher, purer flavours
-Be realistic. Sometimes with friends you'll still have a burger or a ready-meal. Relax. Healthy eating is all about balance. As long as most of the time you're eating good, nutritious food, that's fine
Once you know the fast food facts, you'll never the feel the same about the foods in junk food joints again. Start gradually changing the way you eat and you'll enjoy food more and feel better, as well as give yourself, your family and friends massive health benefits which are long-term. You're not alone in this. Half the world is trying to do the same. But remember you can make it happen, only if you try. Your time starts NOW