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Management of Abortion
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
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My wife facing too much problem on her period she has too mch pain in her stomach and her periods are not periodically come.
Hi, I am 24 years old and got married 6 months ago. I am having pcod. I got my last period on 6th april. My pregnancy test kit has shown positive result. But I am getting pain in lower abdomen. Is there any problem in my pregnancy? When does fetus can be seen or heart beat can be seen in ultrasound?
Aging is an inevitable phenomenon in our lives. Often our parents or grand-parents say “we are aged now, so it’s just a matter of few years”. But is it really so? French author Jules Renard said “It`s not how old you are, it`s how you are old”. Scientific studies has shown that “we can expect to become old”. There are mainly two reasons for it. One is our life style changes, leading to faster aging of the general population. The second thing is profound improvement in medical care that made it possible to conquer death even at the age of 80 years.In 1000 BC, the life expectancy was only 18 years. By 100 BC, the time of Julius Caesar, it had reached 25 years. In 2005, it was 80 years for women and 75 years for men. And today, you can expect to reach 82 years if you are a male and 85 years if you are a female. Men and women population need to be addressed differently from social, economic and biological points of view. Half of men at 85 and above live with their wives, but only 10% of elderly women live with their husbands. Aging is nothing but a sign of maturity. There are three signs of maturity in each sex. Two of them are common in both men and women; graying of hair and cataract in eye. The third one is unique to each sex. In men, it’s increased size of prostate gland (prostatism) and in female, it’s menopause.
Menopause is unavoidable in a woman’s life. In simplest term, it is the cessation of menstruation permanently at the end of reproductive life. The ovaries stop secreting female sex hormones- mainly estrogen and progesterone. In medical terminology, menstruation should be absent for 12 consecutive cycles to define it as menopause. Though menopause is the stoppage of reproductive function, it has profound effect in almost every organ of the body. Despite our socio-economic improvement, the age of menopause remains relatively the same; average 51 years with range of 45 to 55 years. However, there are some causes that may cause early menopause. If it occurs before 40 years, it’s called premature menopause. This needs medical consultation because it is caused by some serious diseases like genetic causes (may have family history of premature menopause- in elder sisters and mother), smoking, autoimmune disorders (body makes destructive substances against itself) etc. Sometimes premature menopause is the side-effect of some treatments like drugs (especially anti-cancer drugs), radiation and removal of ovaries by surgery. On the other hand, if menstruation continues to occur after 55 years, it’s called delayed menopause. It also deserves consultation with gynaecologists, as it is often caused by diabetes, some tumours and even some cancers. So, if menopause occurs too early or too late, it should never be ignored.
But if menopause occurs in time, do the women should consult gynaecologists? Well. You can find the answers from this article. Most of the women have some common problems after menopause; they become irritable or depressed and sometimes very much emotional and moody. Even suicidal tendency is not uncommon. Often they complain of sudden sensation of excessive warmth, the hot sensation, as if there is something burning on the head, the ears or other parts of the body. This is called “hot flush”, which is often associated with excessive sweating at night, palpitation and anxiety. This happens due to absence of estrogen hormone. These problems can be solved by hormonal drugs. Even non-hormonal drugs also work well. So, timely treatment can give them good quality of life and you don’t have to say “my mother has become intolerable these days”.
Frequently our mothers and grand-mothers complain of having back-pain or pain in the bones. This is due to osteoporosis; the destruction of components of bones and joints. They often get fracture with minor trauma. Again, this is due to deficiency of estrogen and also inadequate calcium intake. So, the treatment of this problem is exercise (at least 30 minutes per day), avoidance of smoking and the drugs that inhibits bone formation and adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Hormone therapy is also effective and there are many non-hormonal drugs that can prevent destruction of bone. Thus timely medical consultation may stop our mothers saying “I cannot go outside for pain in my knees”.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in elderly. Before the age of 40 years, males are more likely to die, than females, due to heart attacks. After 40, the sex difference is lost. This is because of absence of estrogen in women after menopause that alters the composition of fat (especially cholesterol) in blood. Cholesterol get deposited in the wall of blood vessels. Such problems can be avoided by dietary control, control of high blood pressure and diabetes and regular medical checkup.
The worst problemof the menopause is faced by the urinary and reproductive systems, i.e., the private parts of the body. In medical terminology, this is called “pelvic atrophy”. Our women remain very silent of it; most of them do not consult doctors for such problems. There is feeling of increased frequency of urination (women has go to the toilets frequently), burning sensation during urination and sometimes inability to hold the urine until they can reach the toilet or leakage of urine during coughing and sneezing (medically called “urinary incontinence”). The incontinence is not only a medical problem but also a social and hygienic embarrassment, for which many women avoid participation in social activities and even do not want to go outside. Sexuality is a thing that is often ignored both by the elderly people as well as the doctors. Menopause does not mean end of the conjugal life. Often the women may feel decreased libido (the desire) because of low hormone levels. And again there is difficulty in keeping intimacy for problems in the concerned area (due to decreased blood supply), again due to deficiency of estrogens. This may even lead to damage to the private parts and bleeding, while leading the conjugal life. For this, the couples should not suffer silently. There are many treatments that can avoid such urinary and sexual problems. Sometimes, simple counselling and some special exercises may prove to be adequate. Otherwise hormonal drugs (estrogens) can be used. And for this purpose, even we don’t need to take the hormones orally or by injection; simple local use of some creams or jellies help a lot. You will be surprised to know that testosterone may also help some women, because testosterone is not only found in male but is also an important female hormone. Those who want to avoid hormones, can try other non-hormonal agents. Even pregnancy is possible after menopause. There have been many examples of conception, either naturally or by test-tube baby (in vitro fertilization), after menopause. The recent socio-economic trend of delaying the age of marriage and child-birth is making this issue of pregnancy after menopause very much relevant.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in elderly, after heart attack. Lung cancer is increasing day by day in women and even non-smokers can also have lung cancers. Discharge of blood with cough or vomiting, long-standing cough, chest pain and weight loss needs consultation with chest physician. Breast cancer is a major cause of death in women. This can be avoided by monthly self-breast examination and consultation; if any abnormal swelling or discharge is found. Colo-rectal cancer (cancer of lower part of our digestive tract), recently showed increased incidence in all the age groups. So, if there is any bleeding with stool or passage of black coloured stool, it should never be ignored. Ovarian cancer is showing increased incidences all over the world. Despite significant improvement in cancer management, ovarian cancer is a nightmare of the gynaecologists. Often, even after best possible treatment, patients of ovarian cancer don’t survive beyond one year of diagnosis. So, if you have any problems in digestion, abdominal discomfort, pain and swelling, please don’t just go to medicine shop to take antacids; instead go to your doctor. Post-menopausal bleeding is a medical term, used to describe the condition where there is bleeding through vagina, after menopause. Even if the bleeding is only one drop, it should never be ignored. Though, most causes of such bleeding are not worrisome (due to drugs and ‘’pelvic atrophy”- as mentioned earlier), some cancers may present in this way. Cancer of endometrium (the inner lining of uterus) almost always present with post-menopausal bleeding. Cancer of cervix (the mouth of uterus) is the commonest cancer of reproductive system in our country, which is totally preventable by timely diagnosis by screening (even before actual cancer occurs) and timely HPV vaccination.
“What cannot be cured, must be endured”. We cannot cure the menopause, nor can we avoid it. But definitely we can give our older generation a better quality of life. The first step is obviously making them aware of the menopause and its aftermaths. Second issue is regular health checkup by physicians and gynaecologists, even if they feel no problems as such. But the most important issue is managing their problems. As mentioned above, life-style modifications (like diet, exercise) and non-hormonal drugs play important role. But if we consider the basic problem is menopause, it’s simply deficiency of secretion of female sex hormones from the ovaries. So, if we can artificially introduce those hormones in women, menopausal symptoms can be reduced. This led to emergence of a treatment modality, called HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy).
Clearly, as discussed earlier, HRT is required in women complaining of menopausal symptoms like “hot flush”, urinary and sexual problems, osteoporosis, and mood depression and also for young women having premature menopause. HRT does not only help to improve these problems, but also has some added advantage like preventing excessive weight gain, problems in oral cavity, eyes and ears and even colorectal cancer. Majority of the women report feeling better and having improved quality of life (social, personal, biological and conjugal) after start of HRT. There are multiple ways to give HRT to a woman. Those include injections (one in 1-3 month), oral tablets, local creams or jellies, skin patches etc. And the drugs include estrogen only, estrogen plus progesterone, tibolone etc.
Now the million-dollar question is, “is HRT absolutely safe?” The answer is difficult to give in one word. After the publication of the reports of the WHI (Women’s Health Initiative) and the MWS (Million Women Study), there have been a great hue and cry regarding safety of HRT. Those study found out many serious side effects of HRT and concluded that HRT should not be used in all the menopausal women. However, subsequently, many flaws of those studies were found out and subsequent review of the WHI study proved that HRT has few side effects. Thrombosis (increased tendency of blood to form clots) is a known side effect of hormonal drugs, but the problem occurs only to those who are at risk of thrombosis due to other causes (like obesity). Breast cancer is definitely a risk factor but the risk is small. So, the women need to continue self-breast examination and yearly checkup by their consultants. Blood fat concentration (cholesterol) may be altered, which needs regular lipid profile checkup. And finally there is increased risk of heart attacks and stroke. But possibility of heart attack is there only if HRT is started in very elderly women (after 60 years) and those who are already have some risks (obesity, smokers, and hypertensive). Even, timely initiation of HRT (before 60 years) can protect the heart and brain against stroke.
Thus HRT is found to have very minimum side-effects and that too at the expense of so many benefits. There are very few women who should not use HRT; those having thrombosis, heart disease or liver disease at present and very high blood fat level (high triglyceride). If the woman has any mass in the breast or post-menopausal bleeding, then HRT should be used only when the diagnosis of the mass or the bleeding is certain. To be on the safe side, before start of HRT, details examination by the consultant doctor is required. This includes checkup of blood pressure, heart, breast, liver and the pelvic organs. The best time to start HRT is as early as after menopause. For premature menopause, the women are relatively younger (before 40, even before 30). So, they should start HRT soon after consultation with doctors, if HRT is suitable for them. For women with natural menopause, HRT should be started before 60 years. Annual visit to the doctor is necessary to detect any side effects and to find whether HRT is needed further or not. HRT need not be continued lifelong. Most of the women can stop it after 5 years. Very few women have to continue it beyond 10 years. Actually, after 2-3 years of HRT, most of the menopausal problems subside and women do not require to continue HRT. However, before stoppage, doctor consultation is required.
In a nutshell, elderly people deserve special care. But that does not mean they should always be in the bed. They should continue their day to day activities. They have the full right to enjoy their life by themselves. What we can do is be supportive to boost up their confidence and self-esteem. That needs social as well as medical attention. Regular touch with physician and gynaecologist cannot be overemphasized. Most of the symptoms can be taken care by life style modifications and drugs. HRT should be used as necessary. HRT is very safe and cost-effective modality. “Not everyone grows to be old, but everyone has been younger than he is now”.
I am 13 week pregnant. I did my first scan last week and everything is fine. Is it safe to travel from UK to India? Because it's a long flight journey. I am traveling alone, so worried a lot.
Can I use pills to control bleeding and pain. If so please suggest them. My body weight is 40 and im 20 years.
My wife each and every month she gets periods on time we are trying our best to miss and planning for baby but not getting successful.Please suggest
Already taken an ipill in January first week, after that, period got irregular. First come after 44days, then after 20 days, then after 14 days. This month came in 2nd and 13th also. Why this happened like this. Is this get regular. What should I want to do. Please advice.
Hiii Doctors, I do not want to baby right now, I want to sex with my newly married wife without condom, when I use it, I do not get satisfy, so please advice me which time period of woman is safe for sex without condom, sothat we can enjoy the sex without condom.
I am 30 years old and trying to conceive since 3 months. I have regular menstrual cycle and ovulate each month on time (raw egg white cervical mucus observed. I never ever took any contraceptive pill or other hormonal medicines. How long will it take to conceive normally and how can I improve my fertility? Please let me know.
The size of your belly is not the only thing that changes when you are pregnant. Pregnancy affects every part of a woman's body and visible changes can be noted as the pregnancy progresses. This is partly because of hormonal fluctuations and partly due to the strain of carrying excess weight.
Here are some of the changes you can expect to see when you are pregnant:
- Changes in the respiratory system: Along with eating for two, you are also breathing for two when pregnant. The increased oxygen consumption leads to increased rate of breathing, shortness of breath and elevated pH levels in the blood.
- Changes in the cardiovascular system: The cardiovascular system is readjusted at the time of pregnancy. This increases the volume of blood in the blood. The expanding uterus puts pressure on veins and arteries, thus slowing the circulation of blood. You may also notice an elevated resting heart rate and low blood pressure in the second trimester.
- Changes in the gastrointestinal system: The enlarging uterus displaces organs of the digestive system and allows stomach acid to travel back into the esophagus. This leads to acidity and heartburn. Pregnant women also often suffer from constipation.
- Changes in the breasts: As pregnancy progresses, your breasts may increase in size and be more sensitive than usual. The nipples will also begin to stick out more than normal. By the third trimester, you may also notice a discharge of early milk or colostrum.
- Changes in the abdomen: By the second trimester, the abdomen will begin to expand. As the ligaments and abdominal wall supporting the uterus are stretched, you may experience an ache on one side or the other.
- Changes in the urinary system: Pregnant women feel the urge to urinate frequently. This is because the expanding uterus puts extra pressure on the bladder, urethra and pelvic floor muscles. This may also lead to temporary urinary incontinence. Pregnancy also increases the load on the kidneys as they need to filter not only your own blood, but also that of the growing baby.
- Changes in the skin: As the skin on the body stretches to accommodate the growing uterus, stretch marks are one of the common visible changes. This may also be accompanied by hyperpigmentation of the nipples, face and abdomen along with the appearance of spider veins and reddening of palms.
Other common changes include, swelling of ankles, leg cramps, increased body temperature and changes in hair texture.
Hello Doctor, I am 25 years old bachelor and I have buttocks reduction problem. My buttocks has been reduce for 38 to 32 with in 2 years and now it hurts when I sit on flat surface and I have started put on 26 waist jeans and its also loose from my buttocks and my belly is increasing. I am unable to work out due to my busy schedule and I works in night shifts. My breasts also become saggy and getting fat over arm pit and upper arms. I ever take care of not to take junk or fast food and taking green tea instead of black tea and coffee continuously. Please provide me best resolution. I want to get my previous buttocks and breast size and that should be tight as before.
Hi. I am a 27 year old married girl. My period is late by 7 days. I have period like cramps and vaginal discharge which sometimes smells like urine. What could be the cause? pregnancy or infection?
For optimum health it is vital to eat a well balanced diet that is high in fibre and includes all the major food groups.
1. For optimum health it is vital to include both soluble and insoluble fibre daily. Soluble fibre is found in foods such as psyllium husk, apples, oat bran and legumes (chickpeas, lentils). Sources of insoluble fibre include whole grains, broccoli, nuts, seeds and vegetable skins.
2. Including fibre in your diet will offer benefits beyond your bowel. Fibre plays an important role in helping to prevent serious health conditions. Fibre can also help manage the digestive complaints associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
3.The easiest way to boost your fibre intake is to eat foods in their most natural state i.e. fresh fruit and vegetables, whole grains (steel cut oats, rolled rye, brown rice, whole-wheat), legumes, nuts and seeds. If you are struggling to reach the recommended 25-30g of fibre per day, you may wish to boost your intake with a fibre supplement made from psyllium husk.
4. Make it a priority to drink 500ml of water before breakfast. Staying well hydrated will give you more energy, mental clarity and enhanced digestive function.
5. The first step to good nutrition is to remove all highly processed foods from your kitchen. This will allow room for nutrient dense, fresh foods.
6. Preparation is key, plan your meals at the start of the week, pre cook and freeze meals ahead of busy days and always carry healthy snacks in your bag for when you are on the run.
7. Make an effort to include raw foods such as fruits, vegetables, sprouts, nuts, seeds and fresh herbs. Raw foods provide enzymes, vitamins and disease protective antioxidants.
8. When it comes to fruits and vegetables variety is a must. Take the time to learn what is in season and try something new. Selecting seasonal produce ensures variety, optimal taste and quality.
9. When preparing meals you should simply think rainbow. If your plate is full of brightly coloured fresh produce you know you are on the right track.
10.Drinking herbal tea is a tasty way to improve hydration. Herbal teas include ginger, mint, jasmine, lemon grass, and chamomile.
11.A healthy diet is a balanced diet complete with all major food groups. Meals should contain a mixture of fibre rich carbohydrates, good quality protein and essential fatty acids.
12.It is estimated between 30- 50% of Australia adults are deficient in vitamin D. The easiest way to increase vitamin D levels is by going for a walk outdoors and enjoying sensible sun exposure.
13.Serving sizes have doubled over the years making it easy to overeat. Limit your portion size by eating from a smaller plate or bowl.
14.Limit added sugars to no more than 10% of your daily calorie intake or 6- 10 teaspoons per day. To calculate how many teaspoons of sugar is in a food product divide the grams of sugar by 4. For example 16 grams of sugar is equivalent to 4 teaspoons of sugar.
15. Probiotics are the beneficial ‘good’ bacteria essential for health and digestive function. Aim to consume probiotic rich foods like natural yogurt, fermented vegetables and fermented milk drinks on a regular basis.
16.Health is a state of complete physical and mental well-being. Do not neglect your emotional health, take time out to stop, relax and breathe.
17.Spice things up at meal times by using a variety of herbs and spices. Including fresh herbs will enhance flavour, texture and boost the nutrient value of any meal.
18.Good quality sleep is vital for good health. Poor sleep can impact on everyday life affecting concentration, mood, stress levels and weight gain. Aim to get into bed early and enjoy around 8 hours of deep sleep.
19.Fibre can benefit energy levels. Soluble fibre slows the rate of carbohydrate digestion and absorption therefore preventing blood sugar surges and crashes. Foods that are high in fibre are ideal choices for sustained, balanced energy throughout the day.
20.Studies have indicated that consuming around 7g of soluble fibre per day can help lower blood cholesterol levels. Once consumed soluble fibre binds to cholesterol aiding its passage through the body and eventual elimination. Don’t forget to drink plenty of water, soluble fibre works best when partnered with water.
How long a ipill can suppress the ovulation. When it was given 7 days before ovulation? please help me. Tnaku.
I am 18 years old and had sex first time in november 2014. I had regular periods after that. But this month I am not getting my period. Blood test (beta hcg) was 0.100 miu/ml. I am constantly worried about being pregnant. I know this is silly but please help me out. I am not bloated like other six month pregnant ladies but slightly fat. Please tell me am I pregnant? why am I not getting my period? how can I get it asap?
Hello doctor Am 12 weeks pregnant. And due to morning sickness eating very less food will it affect my baby? And also stress and crying so much at this point of pregnancy will it harm my baby? After crying I had little pain in my abdomen. How to know my baby is fine or not? I had scan at 11 weeks and everything was fine in it.
Although no one can entirely avoid catching a virus, a sincere effort to prevent the onset of a viral infection should definitely be made. True, that vaccinations really help curb the onset of flu and other viral infections, but a healthy diet and lifestyle are as essential. A nutritious and balanced diet along with regular exercises, will ensure that the immune system of the body remains strong, thus protecting you from viral fever and cold. If you are quite susceptible to cold and the flu, it is a cause for concern as it indicates poor immune system functioning. In this case, ensure that you bring certain changes to your diet and maintain good hygiene.
Here are a few tips which will help you stay away from viruses and infections-
- Make sure you take in plenty of Vitamin D: Vitamin D is known to offer great protection against viral infections such as cold and the flu and the best source of it is the sun. This is why cases of flu are more common during the winter months, when the days are short.
- Wash hands: Make it a point to wash your hands before every meal and after every visit to the toilet. Ensure that children do the same and consciously inculcate this habit in them. Most viral infections are spread through touch; while one can definitely not stop contact with other human beings and things, viral infection can be greatly avoided by maintaining this hygienic habit.
- Eat warm meals: Viruses can live under normal temperatures, but die due to high temperature. Thus, ensure that you eat warm meals to prevent the onset of viral infections.
- Try not to share personal utilities: Sharing personal belongings such as razors, toothbrushes and towels is another easy way of catching a virus. Avoid doing so especially when you are aware that viral infection is pretty rampant.
- Make sure you get your vaccinations at the right time: Today, flu vaccinations can be taken either yearly or in the span of 6 months. Make sure that you have taken yours on time to prevent the onset of any viral infection.
Viral infections are easy to catch, and will definitely affect your daily activities for a short period of time. It is thus, essential that you take the necessary precautions to prevent such infections. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.