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Dr. Nikhil Modi - Pulmonologist, Delhi

Dr. Nikhil Modi

93 (213 ratings)
MD, MBBS

Pulmonologist, Delhi

12 Years Experience  ·  1000 at clinic  ·  ₹300 online
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Dr. Nikhil Modi 93% (213 ratings) MD, MBBS Pulmonologist, Delhi
12 Years Experience  ·  1000 at clinic  ·  ₹300 online
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Hello friends,<br/><br/>I am Dr Nikhil Modi I am a consultant respiratory medicine in Indraprasth...

Hello friends,

I am Dr Nikhil Modi I am a consultant respiratory medicine in Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi. Today I will be talking about tuberculosis, as you know tuberculosis is one of the important diseases which we come across especially in a country like India. Tuberculosis what do we know about it, it is actually a disease which is caused by bacteria called microbacterium tuberculosis. It is a slow-growing bacteria hence symptoms of tuberculosis noted are very shuttle and slow to progress. How do we come to know that we have to get workout for tuberculosis? It is important to work upstart as early as possible because controlling the disease is possible if proper treatment is started. So what will be the symptoms which you will come across when you suffer from tuberculosis? Tuberculosis firstly can involve any part of the body, but most commonly it involves our lungs and the lining over the lungs, it is called as pulmonary tuberculosis. So the most common symptoms which we come across are cough which may be dry or sometimes we may have some sputum along with it, also one of the important features which is seen is presence of blood in sputum. So if anytime sputum is having blood you should get alarm and immediately consultant a specialist. Cough is usually caused by most of the allergic symptoms or other infections, so how do we differentiate, it is actually not easily differentiable from other cough but if your cough is persisting for more than 2 weeks then our work up of tuberculosis becomes important. So if you have a long-term cough you are Hemoptysis then always consult a specialist and go for the work up for tuberculosis. Secondly presence of low grade fever which may persist, if you are having weight loss, your appetite is reduce for a long time all this can be symptoms of tuberculosis. So in all these cases, a workup for tuberculosis becomes a must so at that point in time you need to consult a specialist. And it is easy to treat tuberculosis, if it is identified and drugs are good but the treatment is at least for a period of 6 months, which you have to take regularly otherwise tuberculosis may become resistant, the bacteria may become resistant and then it is difficult to treat it is called as MDR tuberculosis but now we have a treatment for that but the treatment may continue for two and a half years and it requires constant monitoring. There can be side effects from the drugs, but if you are in a proper supervision then that side effect can be minimised and the disease can we cured hundred percent. So any symptoms which may point out toward tuberculosis you should not ignore and consult a specialist as soon as possible. This is the basic crux about tuberculosis and I want to just say ki just be ready for it and it can be treated easily.

For any queries for my point of view if you want to ask you can visit me at Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi or you can contact me online on Lybrate platform.

Thank you.

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Hello my friends.<br/><br/>I m Dr. Nikhil Modi and I am consultant respiratory specialist in Indr...

Hello my friends.

I m Dr. Nikhil Modi and I am consultant respiratory specialist in Indraprastha Apollo hospital, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi. Today I will be talking about harmful effects of smoking and air pollution. As we know smoking has been a very important risk factor for causing numerous diseases in our body. Further now with the growing prevalence of air pollution which everyone has been talking about, we have read in newspapers, in media, so this pollution along with smoking is harming us to a large extent.

What are the diseases and how it cause? We all breathe all the time and when we smoke all the smoke goes through our air ways into our lungs and breathing continues even in air pollution so the pollution is also inhaled in our body. These air pollution and the smoke from the cigarettes which we inhale are full of large toxic agents. Some of them also are cancer causing agents. Some of them are harmful gases like sulphur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbon, and others. There are more than thousands of carcinogenic agents which are present in the smoke.

So we are been constantly expose to them. By inhaling them what all side effects can be there? It can start from very mild side effects from itching in the nose, sneezing, running nose, itching and watering of eyes which can be mild. Further down the airways involving causing bronchitis, asthma. It has to be noted here due to this growing air pollution and smoke. The number of asthma cases are on the rise. Now recent data has shown one in every 3 children. So small children are suffering from asthma which has been aggravated by all this air pollution and smoke.

Further this air pollution and smoke is harmful because it makes our body prone to large number of infections especially pneumonia. The pneumonia which was usually easy to treat now because of this smoking and everything they become difficult to treat and also can be a cause of death. Further, there is an increased risk of tuberculosis in patients who smoke and air pollution further adding to that. The most important of all is increasing number of lung cancer cases. Lung cancer, smoking has been identified with a most important factor which increases the risk of lung cancer.

So smoking harms our body. Further I would like to say smoking not only affects our lungs but through the when it is inhaled in the lungs it goes into the blood vessels and to other organs and it can also lead to cancer of other parts of the body. It can lead to increase the risk of heart attacks, it can lead to increase in the number of brain strokes also. So it is no part of the body is safe and all of them can be involved with smoking. Further this rising air pollution is also harmful. So what can we do? Smoking obviously we have to stop, it is in our hand if we stop smoking and then all of these can be minimized.

Further we have to support the government policies in reducing air pollution. We should not burn coal, should not burn wood, we should get our automobile service on time so that there is minimal emission of harmful gases from our pollution. And all other measures which we can take to minimize air pollution. Especially reduction of exposure of this air pollution and smoke in patients who are already allergic, prone to asthma so that they can lead a healthy life. It is important we do that because it is our future generation our children who are going to suffer from that and it is high time we take some action against that. And for smoking smoking cessation can also be done, there are ways of doing that through counselling and through the drugs which you can contact any specialist. You can contact me you can meet me in Indraprastha Apollo hospital or you can contact me through lybrate platform so that I can be your helper, helping you quit smoking. Thank you!

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Hello friends, I am Nikhil Modi. I am a consultant specialist respiratory medicines, working in A...

Hello friends, I am Nikhil Modi. I am a consultant specialist respiratory medicines, working in Apollo Hospital, Delhi. Today I will be sharing some words about Bronchial Asthma.

As we all know that due to the rising pollution, a rise in smoking habits, breathing problems are on a rise. One of the major breathing problem which is coming across all age groups, especially with children running into early bronchial asthma. It is a type of a chronic lung disease which is allergic in nature and can be caused due to exposure to dust, smoke, pollens and air pollution. Due to rise in this pollution, the number of cases of asthma is on rise.

How do we identify this condition?

Common symptoms we see in patients are;

  • A cough, which may be variable during the day, it may be more in the early morning or at night or it can be hacking chronic in nature which may be dry or sometimes thick scutum associated with it.
  • Breathing difficulty. Patients feel breathless even while sitting. And it increases while they do daily activities. The daily routine activities like washing, running, going to the office is hampered due to breathlessness.
  • Also, there is some wheezing or whistling sound which is observed by the patients.

Sometimes these symptoms are more in the night time or in the early morning. And patients are too uncomfortable even while sleeping with it. So, if any of these symptoms are there, especially when you note these symptoms during the change of season. More in the winters or while exposure to dust, pollution, if these symptoms aggravate then you may be suffering from bronchitis asthma.

Treatment of this is simple. Now a lot of effective treatments are coming up which help in treating this. But one thing you need to know is that this disease is controllable and not easily curable. So, the treatment may be a long term. With time, as your symptoms are less, the medicines can be reduced to a minimum, but we do not allow these symptoms to crop up again and again by taking infrequent medicines as this can permanently damage your lungs. This damage may be irreversible and this damage may not be curable again. For these newer drugs like inhalers have come up with anti-allergic medicines. But these should be prescribed after full examination by a specialised physician, especially the chest physician so that the amount and doses of the drug can be individualised. As different patients need different types of drugs for the cure.

Once the treatment is started, there is regime to step up or step down the regime with which we can easily control the symptoms and patient can lead a very healthy life.

Further, sometimes, it is important to identify the allergens and exposure to them are prevented can reduce the symptoms.

With this, I thank you all and if you have any query, you are free to contact me through Lybrate platform.

 

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Personal Statement

Hello and thank you for visiting my Lybrate profile! I want to let you know that here at my office my staff and I will do our best to make you comfortable. I strongly believe in ethics; a......more
Hello and thank you for visiting my Lybrate profile! I want to let you know that here at my office my staff and I will do our best to make you comfortable. I strongly believe in ethics; as a health provider being ethical is not just a remembered value, but a strongly observed one.
More about Dr. Nikhil Modi
Dr Nikhil Modi is an expert in the field of Pulmonology with a practice based in Delhi. He has done his MBBS from Maulana Azad Medical College in New Delhi, before moving onto his speciality with an MD from the V P Chest Institute in 2010. He has ten years of experience in which he has treated and managed patients with a variety of respiratory related issues that may have affected their lives adversely, if they had not been treated on time. Dr Nikhil Modi is also a specialist in emergency medicine as this field usually demands some knowledge and technique when it comes to reviving the respiratory malfunction that may have taken place in the tracts within this area. This makes his skill invaluable in many kinds of situations where the case may go from mild to moderate and even extreme. Further, he also specializes in Somnology and treats patients who are sleep deprived. As a sleep consultant, he focuses on sleep therapy based methods that help in reaching the root cause of the issue so that the patients are able o get better quality rest and a well functioning system at the end of the day. He helps patients in weaning off from smoking and other kinds of substance abuse that can lead to problems in the respiratory tracts. His patients also follow him because he comes up with good treatment plans when it comes to the lower and upper respiratory infections that can become fatal if not treated in a timely and appropriate manner. He is proficient in Hindi and English and usually charges 1000 INR for a clinic visit.

Info

Education
MD - V P Chest Institute - 2010
MBBS - Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi - 2006
Languages spoken
English
Hindi
Punjabi
Professional Memberships
European Respiratory Society (ERS)
American College of Chest Physicians
Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine

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Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals

Sarita Vihar, Delhi Mathura RoadDelhi Get Directions
  4.7  (213 ratings)
1000 at clinic
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Asthma - Know The Most Common Triggers Of It!

MD, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Asthma - Know The Most Common Triggers Of It!

If you have been diagnosed with asthma, it is important for you to know about the most common triggers of asthma. Asthma is a medical condition, which is characterised by paroxysmal wheezing respiration dyspnoea. It causes breathing difficulties, tightened chest and coughing. By identifying and reducing your exposure to several asthma triggers, you will be able to manage or control your asthma symptoms and the frequency of your asthma attacks. Here are the most common triggers of asthma you should know about:

Allergies that trigger asthma
Allergies, are common problems and over 80% of people are suffering from asthma and are allergic towards substances like weed pollens, animal dander, dust mites, mould and cockroach particles. Children having large amounts of cockroach droppings in their homes are more likely to develop childhood asthma. Dust exposure may lead to dust mite allergy in asthmatic patients.

Food which triggers asthma
Certain food allergies may lead to isolated asthma, where other symptoms are absent. Patients with food allergies can exhibit asthma as a part of anaphylaxis, which are food induced. The common food items which are associated with allergies include eggs, peanuts, cow milk, soy, fish, wheat, shrimps, salads and fresh fruits. Several food preservatives also trigger asthma. They may include sulfite additives such as potassium bisulfite, potassium metabisulfite, sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfate and many others. These are commonly used in food processing and trigger asthma in sensitive people.


Asthma induced by exercise
Strenuous exercise may lead to the narrowing of the airways in maximum people having asthma. Exercise acts as a primary trigger for asthma symptoms in many people. Patients having exercise induced asthma are likely to feel chest tightness accompanied by coughing and breathing difficulties after completing an aerobic workout session. Although the symptoms subside, they may reoccur within some hours. You should warm up properly and slowly before a rigorous workout session to prevent an asthma attack.

Smoking
People who smoke are more likely to have asthma. If you have asthma and still smoke, the symptoms of wheezing and coughing worsen. Pregnant women who smoke increase the chance of wheezing in their to-be-born babies. You should absolutely quit smoking if you have asthma.

Infections which trigger asthma
Several infections such as cold, bronchitis, flu and sinus may cause asthma attacks. The respiratory infections, which are viral or bacterial, are a common cause and trigger asthma, especially in children. Asthma is also associated with severe heartburn. According to studies, more than 85% people with asthma also suffer from heartburn. This is a condition known as gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

 

3014 people found this helpful

Air Pollution - How It Affects Your Child Health?

MD, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Air Pollution - How It Affects Your Child Health?

Air pollution is known to take a toll on the lungs of even the healthiest adults. So it comes as no surprise that the effects of this pollution on the lungs of children is deemed as a grave situation, full of health hazards including the onset of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorders and conditions like asthma. Read on to find out more about the link between air pollution and its effect on the lungs of children.

  1. Children's Lungs: Mostly, all the organs of a child's body are considered delicate and not fully matured until the child reaches a certain age. The main and largest part of the child's lungs will usually grow only after the child has been born - much like the arms and legs. In fact, it is a medically proven fact that about 80% of the tiniest of air sacs grow after the child's birth. These are called the alveoli and they facilitate the transfer of the oxygen into the blood stream with a life sustaining function that is built into our lungs. These alveoli continue to grow until the child becomes an adult. 
  2. Immunity and Infections: Like the lungs of the child, the immunity of the child is also still in its growth phase, and very much unlike the immunity that an adult enjoys. This makes the child more susceptible to infections that are usually carried by air pollution in today's day and age of urban living when myriad pollutants are sent into the air every single day. Also, since children play outdoors more often and spend more time breathing in this air, they are more prone to these infections and lung or respiratory ailments due to this reason. Various studies and tests have shown inflammation in the respiratory passages caused by deposits of carbon dioxide emissions in the lungs of children.
  3. Symptoms: Usually, the very first symptoms that show that air pollution is affecting the child's lungs can be seen when persistent coughing and wheezing sets in, without any proper reason. Also, when the child faces bronchial infections time and time again, then this points at the hazardous effects of air pollution as well. 
  4. Respiratory problems: Apart from respiratory problems which can lead to asthmatic attacks, hay fever and allergies as well as other COPD ailments, there are other related dangers. These can happen when constant choking and obstruction of oxygen due to pollution become a regular affair. These include strokes and brain damage which can eventually also lead to a higher risk of dementia. 

The government and citizens need to ensure that there is a drop in particle air pollution so as to ensure that children do not fall prey to such health problems.  In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3024 people found this helpful

Pulmonary Diseases - Know Everything About It!

MD, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Pulmonary Diseases - Know Everything About It!

Pulmonary diseases are some of the most commonly experienced health conditions all over the world. Millions of people suffer due to various causes including genetics, smoking, pollutants and infection. Now lungs are one of the most important and complex organs of the body. They are the apparatus through which oxygen enters and carbon dioxide gets expelled.

Lungs expand and contract on a constant basis to ensure that we can breathe properly. Let us find out more about lung or pulmonary diseases.

 

  1. Asthma: This is one of the most common and potentially fatal conditions that affect children and adults. It grips the airways formed by the bronchi which branch off into smaller tubes from the main trachea that holds them. This condition causes inflammation, and even spasms, which can lead to wheezing and breathlessness. The main triggers of asthma attacks include allergies, infections and pollutants that may escape into the airways.
  2. COPD: This is also known as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder. It is an umbrella term used for various lung conditions that cause breathing difficulties due to an obstruction of the airways. Chronic bronchitis is one of the conditions that falls under COPD, and is usually characterised by persistent, hacking coughs.
  3. Cystic Fibrosis: This is another condition that affects the airways by causing poor passage of mucus from the bronchial tubes. This condition is a genetic one where the mucus that gathers eventually becomes a lung infection.
  4. Pneumonia: This is a condition that causes an infection in the alveoli, which are the tiny tubes that the airways branch into. These are air sacs that can catch myriad infections like pneumonia.
  5. Tuberculosis: This is also a kind of pneumonia, which is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. This condition usually attacks the air sacs of the lungs and can be a potentially fatal disease if it is not treated on time. The patient will require immediate hospitalisation.
  6. Pulmonary Edema: This condition is caused by fluid leaks from the tiny blood vessels into the surrounding air sacs within the lungs. It can also be caused due to heart failure as well as back pressure which falls on the lungs. Direct injury to the lungs can also lead to this condition.
  7. Lung Cancer: This is a fatal disease which can be found in any part of the lungs. It has many forms and the type as well as the location usually determines the kind of treatment option that will be followed.
  8. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: When the lungs suffer a sudden injury which is usually caused by a bout of serious illness, it is called ARDS. Treatment involves the use of life support ventilation.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3164 people found this helpful

Tuberculosis: Different Types Of It!

MD, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Tuberculosis: Different Types Of It!

Tuberculosis is a highly infectious and potentially fatal disease which primarily affects the lungs. It is highly contagious and can infect other people via the tiny water droplets released by an infected person while coughing or sneezing.

There are two types of tuberculosis, that are pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis:

1. Pulmonary tuberculosis is a type of disease in which bacteria invade your lungs. It is possible that the bacteria in your lungs could kill you. However, fortunately if you have been taking the right medicines for your bacterial infection you can get cured immediately. The name of the bacteria which causes tuberculosis is known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

It is worth noting that latent tuberculosis has no symptoms and there is no way you can pass it to another person either. However, it is still crucial that you take treatment for it. If you do not complete your treatment, then your tuberculosis will progress to a very dangerous form of tuberculosis. This is known as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is sometimes abbreviated as MDR TB.

2. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is when tuberculosis affects in parts of the body other than the lungs. There are many parts of the body which tuberculosis can affect, including the lymph nodes, nervous system as well as the bone and joints. Luckily, it is easily curable.

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis has pretty much the same symptoms as pulmonary tuberculosis. This is because extrapulmonary tuberculosis is the exact same disease which occurs to the patient, it is just that it affects a different body part. Therefore, the exact treatment recommended for pulmonary tuberculosis can be used to cure extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3062 people found this helpful

Allergies - Possible Reasons Behind Them!

MD, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Allergies - Possible Reasons Behind Them!

Allergies are the result of the immune system’s response to foreign objects such as pet dander, pollen, certain foods, bee venom etc. In response to the allergen, the immune system produces antibodies, anticipating that the allergen is harmful in nature, even though that might not be the case always. The immune system can inflame the digestive system, skin, airways or sinuses when it comes in contact with allergens. The severity of allergies can vary from anaphylaxis to a minor irritation. In most cases, allergies cannot be fully cured. It, however, can be controlled with medication.

What are the symptoms of allergy?

  1. Various allergies cause different kinds of symptoms.
  2. Hay fever can cause sneezing, fluffy nose, itching of the eyes, nose, and mouth, swollen eyes etc.
  3. Food allergy can cause hives, mouth tingling, anaphylaxis, body itching etc.
  4. Insect sting produces symptoms such as anaphylaxis, cough, swelling on the source etc.
  5. Drug allergy can result in a rash, wheezing, swelling of the face, hives etc.
  6. Atopic dermatitis often lead to flake, itching, and reddening of the skin.
  7. There are other allergies that are triggered either by food or by insect bite. These can lead to a medical emergency known as the anaphylaxis. Some symptoms include skin rash, loss of consciousness, weak pulse, vomiting and nausea, shortness of breath etc.

What are the possible causes of allergy?

  1. Air:  A number of allergies occur from the surrounding air. Examples of such airborne allergies include pollen, animal dander, mould etc.
  2. Food items: Certain foods are known to be causing allergy such as tree nuts, eggs, peanuts, soy fish etc.
  3. Medication: There are medications such as penicillin-based antibiotics that can lead to allergy.
  4. Insect bite: Bite from insects such as wasp or bee can trigger an allergy in adults and kids.

What are the possible complications?
Allergy often leads to complication such as asthma, infection of the lungs, sinusitis, infection of the ear and anaphylaxis. The risk of getting these conditions increase, provided no treatment is done for a long duration.

How is the diagnosis done?
To investigate the type of allergy a person has, the doctor might ask for the exact symptoms that a person is encountering. He may ask questions related to intake of food and the possible triggers. A skin test is often performed, followed by a blood test to confirm the presence of allergy in an individual.

What are the methods of treatment?
Depending on the type of allergy one has, a doctor might prescribe nasal spray, eye drops, and pills to reduce the symptoms. Apart from this, if the allergy is severe in nature, a doctor might suggest going for immunotherapy and emergency epinephrine. Certain lifestyle changes and food habits go a long way in cutting down the symptoms.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2720 people found this helpful

Tuberculosis (TB) - When A Person Can Develop It?

MD, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Tuberculosis (TB) - When A Person Can Develop It?

Tuberculosis or TB as it is commonly known in medical circles is a bacterial infection commonly affecting the lungs. While there are some countries in the world, where TB is more common, anybody can develop TB if they are not very healthy. The TB bacteria spreads through the air. While some people's immune system would be able to fight the disease back; some people who have risk factors, the disease may continue to develop and present with symptoms.

So, a person can develop TB in two circumstances:

  1. Exposure to TB
    • Visited a country where TB is very common
    • Spent time with a person who is infected with TB
    • Exposure to crowded places like a market or a healthcare facility where TB virus is present
  2. Weakened immune system
    • Be HIV infected
    • Weak immune system due to long-term use of steroids
    • Chronic diseases like diabetes, malnutrition, end-stage kidney or liver disease, cancer, etc.
    • Extremes of age (children whose immune system is not fully developed, elderly whose immunity is weakened)
    • Chronic smoker, IV drug abuse, and/or alcohol user
    • Repeatedly exposed to TB bacteria in the last two years
    • Had TB bacteria, but not identified or treated
    • Drug therapy like chemotherapy, long-term use of steroids, auto-immune disease treatments, etc.

Signs and symptoms of TB:

If you are at risk, it is also suggested that you know the early warning signs and symptoms of TB. TB most commonly affects the lungs and is known as pulmonary tuberculosis. Watching out for these helps in early diagnosis which can both help arrest the condition in the early stages and improve prognosis.

  1. A persistent cough which lasts for more than 3 weeks
  2. Pain in the chest worsened with coughing
  3. Presence of blood in the sputum
  4. Generalized and extreme weakness or fatigue
  5. Unexplained weight loss
  6. Loss of appetite
  7. Fever and chills
  8. Profuse sweating at night

If a person has TB bacteria in the system but does not feel sick and does not have the above systems, then it means that the person is not actively infected. This person also cannot spread the disease to another person. However, when immunity is weak, this can develop into an infection. In a country like India where tuberculosis is quite prevalent, it is best to get yourself screened for active tuberculosis infection if you display any such symptoms.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2696 people found this helpful

Tuberculosis

MD, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Play video

Hello friends,

I am Dr Nikhil Modi I am a consultant respiratory medicine in Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi. Today I will be talking about tuberculosis, as you know tuberculosis is one of the important diseases which we come across especially in a country like India. Tuberculosis what do we know about it, it is actually a disease which is caused by bacteria called microbacterium tuberculosis. It is a slow-growing bacteria hence symptoms of tuberculosis noted are very shuttle and slow to progress. How do we come to know that we have to get workout for tuberculosis? It is important to work upstart as early as possible because controlling the disease is possible if proper treatment is started. So what will be the symptoms which you will come across when you suffer from tuberculosis? Tuberculosis firstly can involve any part of the body, but most commonly it involves our lungs and the lining over the lungs, it is called as pulmonary tuberculosis. So the most common symptoms which we come across are cough which may be dry or sometimes we may have some sputum along with it, also one of the important features which is seen is presence of blood in sputum. So if anytime sputum is having blood you should get alarm and immediately consultant a specialist. Cough is usually caused by most of the allergic symptoms or other infections, so how do we differentiate, it is actually not easily differentiable from other cough but if your cough is persisting for more than 2 weeks then our work up of tuberculosis becomes important. So if you have a long-term cough you are Hemoptysis then always consult a specialist and go for the work up for tuberculosis. Secondly presence of low grade fever which may persist, if you are having weight loss, your appetite is reduce for a long time all this can be symptoms of tuberculosis. So in all these cases, a workup for tuberculosis becomes a must so at that point in time you need to consult a specialist. And it is easy to treat tuberculosis, if it is identified and drugs are good but the treatment is at least for a period of 6 months, which you have to take regularly otherwise tuberculosis may become resistant, the bacteria may become resistant and then it is difficult to treat it is called as MDR tuberculosis but now we have a treatment for that but the treatment may continue for two and a half years and it requires constant monitoring. There can be side effects from the drugs, but if you are in a proper supervision then that side effect can be minimised and the disease can we cured hundred percent. So any symptoms which may point out toward tuberculosis you should not ignore and consult a specialist as soon as possible. This is the basic crux about tuberculosis and I want to just say ki just be ready for it and it can be treated easily.

For any queries for my point of view if you want to ask you can visit me at Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi or you can contact me online on Lybrate platform.

Thank you.

2904 people found this helpful

Smoking and Air Pollution

MD, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Play video

Hello my friends.

I m Dr. Nikhil Modi and I am consultant respiratory specialist in Indraprastha Apollo hospital, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi. Today I will be talking about harmful effects of smoking and air pollution. As we know smoking has been a very important risk factor for causing numerous diseases in our body. Further now with the growing prevalence of air pollution which everyone has been talking about, we have read in newspapers, in media, so this pollution along with smoking is harming us to a large extent.

What are the diseases and how it cause? We all breathe all the time and when we smoke all the smoke goes through our air ways into our lungs and breathing continues even in air pollution so the pollution is also inhaled in our body. These air pollution and the smoke from the cigarettes which we inhale are full of large toxic agents. Some of them also are cancer causing agents. Some of them are harmful gases like sulphur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbon, and others. There are more than thousands of carcinogenic agents which are present in the smoke.

So we are been constantly expose to them. By inhaling them what all side effects can be there? It can start from very mild side effects from itching in the nose, sneezing, running nose, itching and watering of eyes which can be mild. Further down the airways involving causing bronchitis, asthma. It has to be noted here due to this growing air pollution and smoke. The number of asthma cases are on the rise. Now recent data has shown one in every 3 children. So small children are suffering from asthma which has been aggravated by all this air pollution and smoke.

Further this air pollution and smoke is harmful because it makes our body prone to large number of infections especially pneumonia. The pneumonia which was usually easy to treat now because of this smoking and everything they become difficult to treat and also can be a cause of death. Further, there is an increased risk of tuberculosis in patients who smoke and air pollution further adding to that. The most important of all is increasing number of lung cancer cases. Lung cancer, smoking has been identified with a most important factor which increases the risk of lung cancer.

So smoking harms our body. Further I would like to say smoking not only affects our lungs but through the when it is inhaled in the lungs it goes into the blood vessels and to other organs and it can also lead to cancer of other parts of the body. It can lead to increase the risk of heart attacks, it can lead to increase in the number of brain strokes also. So it is no part of the body is safe and all of them can be involved with smoking. Further this rising air pollution is also harmful. So what can we do? Smoking obviously we have to stop, it is in our hand if we stop smoking and then all of these can be minimized.

Further we have to support the government policies in reducing air pollution. We should not burn coal, should not burn wood, we should get our automobile service on time so that there is minimal emission of harmful gases from our pollution. And all other measures which we can take to minimize air pollution. Especially reduction of exposure of this air pollution and smoke in patients who are already allergic, prone to asthma so that they can lead a healthy life. It is important we do that because it is our future generation our children who are going to suffer from that and it is high time we take some action against that. And for smoking smoking cessation can also be done, there are ways of doing that through counselling and through the drugs which you can contact any specialist. You can contact me you can meet me in Indraprastha Apollo hospital or you can contact me through lybrate platform so that I can be your helper, helping you quit smoking. Thank you!

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Common Breathing Problems - How To Treat Them?

MD, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Common Breathing Problems - How To Treat Them?

We rarely take the time to think about the way we breathe. After all, breathing is an involuntary action that begins when we are born and never stops until the moment we die. However, some people find it harder to breathe than others. There are many different kinds of breathing problems that can affect the old and young and thankfully, most of them can be treated and controlled.

  • Some breathing problems are short-term and dictated by seasons while others are chronic and long-term.
  • Having difficulty breathing when you have a cold and a stuffy nose is considered a breathing problem.
  • At the same time, shortness of breath caused by asthma is also a breathing problem.
  • Other breathing problems include sinusitis, allergies and nasal congestion caused by diseases like chronic bronchitis or f chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • Breathing problems can also be a result of diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis, lung cancer and pneumonia.

Ways it can be treated

To treat a breathing problem, one must first understand and identify the factors triggering it. Avoiding these triggers can effectively reduce the frequency and intensity of breathing problems. For example, not allowing pets into your bedroom can help treat breathing problems caused by an allergy to pet dander. Similarly, wearing a nose mask when outdoors, can reduce breathing problems caused by dust and pollution.

Medication can also help treat breathing problems

  • Antihistamines and decongestants are common medications used to treat such problems.
  • These may be prescribed as tablets to be taken orally or in the form of nasal sprays. In some cases, steroids may also be prescribed.
  • This is usually in the case of sinusitis and chronic allergies. These drugs are intended to be inhaled so as to clear the airways.
  • For people suffering from long-term breathing problems that are triggered by seasonal changes, taking a flu shot can help.
  • These injections reduce the body’s sensitivity to allergens and provide relief in cases of breathing problems.

However, it is important to note that when it comes to breathing problems, one should never self-medicate. What works well for one person may be ineffective for another. This is because unless the medication addresses the cause of the problem, it will not be of any use. Hence, it is important to consult a doctor for a proper diagnosis and understanding of your problem. It is also advisable to consult a doctor in the early stages of having a breathing problem rather than waiting for it to escalate.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2940 people found this helpful

Emphysema - Know About Its Different Stages!

MD, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Emphysema - Know About Its Different Stages!

If you are facing difficulties in breathing, especially in the process of exhaling, you are suffering from emphysema. Emphysema is a condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness. It occurs as a result of several triggers, smoking being the most common one. Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. People with this condition struggle to exhale, which implies that there is some obstruction in the air flow. This disease has no permanent cure but by quitting smoking, you can stop it from getting worse.

Stages
The progression and severity of emphysema occurs with the staging systems. The staging of the condition can help in developing a prognosis.

The Gold emphysema staging system
Gold is a major emphysema staging system created by a group known as the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung disease. The amount of air a patient can exhale forcefully in one second is determined during this stage. It is also referred to as the forced expiratory volume or FEV1.

The staging is as follows:

  • Stage 1: Mild emphysema (FEV1 greater than 80% of normal)
  • Stage 2: Moderate emphysema (FEV less than 80%, but more than 50% normal)
  • Stage 3: Severe emphysema (FEV lesser than 50%, but more than 30% normal)
  • Stage 4: Extremely severe emphysema. (FEV lesser than 30% of normal or lesser than 50% normal, with low levels of oxygen in the blood.

The BODE emphysema staging system
The condition affects several abilities. The BODE index, an acronym for BMI (body mass index), obstruction, dyspnea (breathlessness), exercise capacity (health index) is another staging system for emphysema in which the emphysema’s impact on several areas of life are measured. They include the following:

  1. Body mass index (B)
  2. Airflow limitation or obstruction (O), which is measured by pulmonary function tests
  3. Breathless or dyspnea (D), which is assessed thoroughly via a questionnaire
  4. Exercise capacity (E), which is measured to check how long a person with emphysema can walk in a span of six minutes

Life expectancy
The prognosis of emphysema is impossible to be determined in any person individually. The staging system helps to identify the severity of the condition, but the future cannot be predicted. Not many studies have been undertaken for the determination of the effects of emphysema on life expectancy. The best research that has been carried out included around 100 people, which is very less. The condition varies largely among people, even if they are in the same stage.

The statistics available on emphysema are not reliable enough for individuals who wish to know their life expectancy. It is considered that if a patient falls in a higher stage, his/her long-term life expectancy is less.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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