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Few small lymph nodes are seen in the axillary region and along the pectorails muscle on the right side during the ultrasound of my five year old son. During the fnac, smears show mature lymphocytes with transformed lymphocytes with lymphohistiocytosis cell clusters with few histiocytes showing hemophagocytosis in humorrhagic background. Kindly tell from which disease my son infected and what is diagnosis.
Mere breast m skin ke ander ek moti jaisa daana h jo kaafi mahino se ek hi condition m h. Dard nhi krta ise kaise htaya jaaye?
Sir, my fiancee is having breast cancer and she was getting treated with chemotherapy. Now she will treated with radiation. She has been diagnosed with ER/PR positive. So doctor has stopped her periods & told that it will be stopped for 5 years. So I want to know that can she try for pregnancy after marriage in between those 5 years? & What are the effects, merits or demerits.
I am 32 year old suffering from prostatitis. semen culture and urine culture are negative. All reports are negative Doctor give me trimethoprim 100 mg twice a day for 1 months is this a standard treatment. please really me.
Breast cancer is a type of a cancerous infection that develops in the skin cells of the breast. This condition is more commonly diagnosed after you have skin cancer and is more common in women than men. There are certain signs to identify this disease, which are as follows.
1. Breast lumps - Lumps are patches of skin that occur due to the thickening and swelling of the skin. Breast lumps is a very common phenomenon for women but that does not always lead to a breast cancer; however, frequent and reoccurring instances of the same increases the risk of breast cancer. A breast lump is easily identifiable through the naked eye as it looks different from the surrounding tissues.
2. Blood discharge - The nipple is one of the most sensitive areas in the human body. In case of women, it is meant to emit milk during pregnancy, in order to feed the infant externally. A probable symptom of breast cancer can also be a frequent discharge of blood from the nipple without any visible damage or injury.
3. Breast changes - If you are experiencing any visible changes in the size, appearance or shape of the breast, then it is an indicative sign that you may have breast cancer. Thus, it is of paramount importance that you observe, touch and physically examine your breast regularly for changes. If there is any major change detected then it is advisable to consult a doctor.
4. Inverted nipple - The tip of the nipple is generally bulging and pointing outwards both in cases of men and women. But sometimes the tip of the nipple is pushed inside due to excessive suction caused by the skin tissues present inside the breast around the nipple area. This suction forces the nipple to grow inwards which is abnormal and might harm the breast and skin in various ways.
However, apart from these main symptoms, some other signs are also there that increase your chances of being diagnosed with breast cancer. They are redness or pitting of the skin over your breast like an orange, peeling or scaling of the pigmented area around the nipple, dimpling of the skin on the breasts, and such others. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
With cancer on the rise, there is a constant search for ways to treat it without having to resort to surgery. One such discovery is interventional radiology (IR). This is a sub-specialty of radiology where minimally invasive techniques are used to diagnose and treat diseases in many organs.
Interventional radiology (IR) is used to:
- Manage pain and complications
- Perform biopsies
- Overall symptom management
- Manage metastatic disease
- Image-guided treatment
- Minimally invasive, so less pain and easy recovery
- Improved accuracy compared to an open surgical procedure
IR Procedures: Some of the common IR procedures performed to help manage cancer are listed below with brief descriptions.
- Ablation: Tumor ablation is a minimally invasive procedure that uses extremes of temperature. This procedure can be used to manage symptoms and to treat the tumor. Radiofrequency waves are commonly used and the target organs are lungs, liver, and spine.
- Chemoembolization: A minimally invasive approach, especially for deep-seated cancers such as liver. This involves delivering the chemotherapy directly into the artery which is feeding the cancer. The chemotherapy is also combined with blocking agents known as emboli, which improves the success rate of the attack on the cancer cells.
- Angiography: This procedure involves mapping the blood vessels. This can help identify abnormal enlargement or narrowing of vessels and blockages. This is done by injecting a dye into the blood vessels, which can then be imaged or viewed through an X-ray scanner.
- Biopsies: Thin needles are inserted into the affected organ to remove portions of tissue. This can help in confirming diagnosis, and in cases of very small lesions, even complete removal is possible.
- Pain management: Cancer is notorious for causing bone and joint pains as the growing tumor presses on the surrounding tissues. Where routine pain killers do not work, injections into the joint space are required. IR helps in this area by directing the injections into the appropriate spaces.
- Catheter placement: Where there is need for constant draining of fluids from cancers, IR is used for appropriate placement of catheters.
- Port placement: In patients who need to be given chemotherapy for prolonged periods, ports are placed which act as injection sites without the need for multiple pricks.
What can the patient expect?
- These are done as outpatient procedures, often in the morning
- Do not eat or drink in the morning
- Take your prescription medications with water alone
- Arrange for transport so you can return home as driving is not allowed
- Confirm any other specific instructions or advice with the lab performing this procedure.
The role of IR in managing cancer is only set to expand in the coming years. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!