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Dimple Creation Procedure
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Treatment for removal of Scars and Tattoos
Ways to manage Facial injuries
Moles are the most common form of physical identification proof, but are often unwanted. Moles and freckles are common skin irregularities that make a person consider cosmetic surgery. Moles can be described as non-cancerous skin lesions that develop when dark skin cells are bound together in small clusters. Almost everyone has one or more mole on their body. However, freckles are simply skin discolorations that appear on light skinned people. There are a number of ways in which moles and freckles can be removed.
- Dermabrasion: This is a procedure where a small wheel is run over your skin to remove the top layer. Dermabrasion is performed under anaesthesia and is a very effective way of removing freckles and flat moles.
- Laser Surgery: Laser surgery involves the use of concentrated beams of light to remove the topmost layer of skin. As this top layer is removed, freckles and light, flat moles are also destroyed thus leaving you with a clear complexion. In some cases, multiple sessions may be required to completely remove moles and freckles. Laser surgery is not recommended for large moles or moles that protrude out of the skin.
- Shave excision: This is a surgical procedure that involves cutting off the raised section of a mole with a sharp scalpel. It does not require any sutures, but may not remove the entire mole. This surgery is often suggested in cases where a mole had grown to protrude from the skin but the discolouration itself does not bother the person. There is a very low risk of scarring associated with this procedure but the mole may recur.
- Punch Excision: Small protruding moles can also be removed with a punch excision procedure. Here, a doctor will use a small cutting apparatus in the form of a small, cylindrical punch to twist and remove the entire mole. One of two sutures may be required to close the skin in this area.
- Surgical Excision: This procedure is suggested in cases of large moles. In such cases, the surgeon will remove the entire mole and close the skin with sutures. This procedure may leave a scar behind, but in most cases, this scar is not very prominent.
In rare cases, moles can be malignant and hence it is not recommended to try removing a mole at home. For this reason, you should always a consult a surgeon if a mole appears suddenly appears or begins to look suspicious.
Craniofacial surgery is a surgical procedure that deals with problems related to skull, face, jaws, neck etc. It involves surgical skills related to otolaryngology, plastic and maxillofacial surgery. This line of treatment involves bone manipulation and is not specific to any tissue. A Craniofacial surgeon often deals with organs such as muscle, bone, skin, and teeth.
Some of the common defects addressed by a craniofacial surgeon include facial fractures, Crouzon's Syndrome, craniofacial clefts, hemifacial microsomia and Treacher Collins Syndrome. A surgeon from this discipline undergoes training in otolaryngology, maxillofacial surgery and plastic surgery.
Here is a list of skull deformities that craniofacial surgery is capable of addressing:
1. Scaphocephaly: This is a disorder where the metopic suture is fused prematurely. This suture covers the front and back of the head. A shape deformity of this structure can result into a triangular and pointed forehead. This is found in 2.8 babies in a sample size of 10000 births. This tops the list of craniofacial surgery.
2. Trigonocephaly: The metopic suture gets prematurely fused in this type of conditions. The metopic suture lies in the forehead and premature fusion results in the forehead becoming pointed and triangular. The head appears as flattened from one side. This condition is witnessed in 1 out of 10000 births.
3. Brachycephaly: This is a condition where both the coronal sutures are fused permanently. The head appears high and wide when a person gets affected with this condition. This occurs in 1 out of 20,000 births.
4. Scaphocephaly: This is a condition where the sagittal suture is fused. This leads to non-growth of the skull in the perpendicular direction. This results in the head to be pointed and long. If the condition gets diagnosed within 6 months of the birth, the same can be rectified by opening the suture surgically.
In any case, where there is any involvement of the forehead, a procedure known as the front-supraorbital advancement is deployed to correct deformation of head shape. This procedure is typically performed at a younger age so that the brain get enough time and space to grow correctly. This also ensures that skull refrains from growing abnormally. This procedure moves both the skull and the eye socket forward.
Other forms of craniofacial surgery:
1. Plastic surgery: Plastic surgery deals with alteration, restoration, and reconstruction of body parts. Some of the surgical procedure includes microsurgery, burn surgery and hand surgery.
2. Maxillofacial surgery: Oral and maxillofacial surgery deal with diseases related to jaws, neck, head and other soft and head tissue of the mouth and jaw.
3. Orthognathic surgery: This form of surgery addresses problems of the face and the jaw which is related to growth, structure skeletal disharmonies and TMJ disorders. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a cosmetic physician.
A chemical peel is a form of skin treatment where an acid solution is used for the removal of damaged outer layers of the skin. Alpha hydroxyl acids and trichloroacetic acids are used in chemical peels. Phenol is also applied to the skin. Chemical peels aid in improving the skin’s appearance. The chemical acid solution makes the skin peel off. The new skin is much smoother and is less wrinkled.
Chemical peels are of several types:
- Superficial peels: In this type, alpha hydroxyl acid is used to penetrate the outer layer of the skin and exfoliates it gently. Superficial peels are used for improving the appearance of mild skin discoloration and rough skin.
- Medium peels: In medium peels, trichloroacetic acid is used for penetrating into the middle layers of the skin to remove damaged cells. Improvement in age spots, lines and wrinkles can be done using medium peels. Rough skin is smoothened.
- Deep peels: In the case of deep peels, trichloroacetic acid or phenol is used for penetrating the middle layers of the skin to remove damaged cells. Skin appearance is improved drastically.
Conditions treated with chemical peels
Chemical peels are used for the treatment of certain conditions. They can be used to treat the following conditions:
- Reduction in fine lines which occur under the eyes or around the mouth.
- Treatment of wrinkles which are caused due to sun damage or old age. This is done using chemical peels.
- Chemical peels help in improving the appearance of mild scars on the skin surface.
- Several types of acne are cured by chemical peels.
- Chemical peels help in reducing age spots, freckles and dark patches known as melasma, which occur because of pregnancy or because of taking birth control pills.
- The overall look and feel of the skin are improved after using chemical peels.
After a chemical peel treatment is done, the skin becomes extra sensitive to the sun. Hence, it is recommended to use a sunscreen lotion, which also protects against UVA and UVB light rays.
Are chemical peels safe?
Chemical peels are very effective and provide perfect rejuvenation to the skin. However, as far as safety is concerned, you should know that chemical peels have some side effects.
- They may result in a temporary or permanent change in the skin color, especially in women who take birth control pills.
- Scarring can occur and cold sores can get reactivated.
Chemical peels involve the use of chemicals or acid to improve the appearance and condition of the skin. This procedure is an effective one and satisfactory results are obtained. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a cosmetic physician.
Like good health and youth, most of us take our locks for granted, until they're gone. For many people, a hair transplant can help bring back what looks like a full - or at least a fuller - head of hair.
A hair transplant is a procedure in which a dermatological surgeon moves hair to a bald area of the head. The surgeon usually moves hair from the back or side of the head to the front or top of the head. Hair transplants typically occur in a medical office under local anesthesia.
Receiving a hair transplant can improve your appearance and self-confidence.
Good candidates for a hair transplant are:
- men with male-pattern baldness
- women with thinning hair
- anyone who has lost some hair from a burn or scalp injury
Hair replacement isn't a good option for:
- women with a wide-spread pattern of hair loss throughout the scalp
- people who don't have enough 'donor' hair sites from which to remove hair for transplant
- people who form keloid scars (thick, fibrous scars) after injury or surgery
- people whose hair loss is due to medication like chemotherapy
- Planning and Assessment before the Operation.
- Harvesting Methods: The patient is sedated using mild sedation and local anaesthesia after which the transplantation is performed. Common hair transplant methods to choose from are:
- Follicular unit transplant (FUT)
- Follicular unit extraction (FUE)
- Strip Harvesting
- Robotic hair restoration
Care Post Operation:
After the surgery, your scalp may be very tender. You may need to take pain medications for several days. You will be prescribed an antibiotic or an anti-inflammatory drug to take for several days. Most people are able to return to work 2 to 5 days after the operation. The treated area should be protected from the sun. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a cosmetic-plastic-surgeon.
Gynecomastia is a condition characterized by enlargement of the breast tissue in men. It occurs when there is an imbalance of the testosterone (male sex hormone) and estrogen (female sex hormone) in the body. It may a cause of embarrassment in men.
The primary cause for this condition is an increase in the level of estrogen in comparison with testosterone in the male body. Testosterone controls male characteristics such as body hair and muscle mass. Estrogen is responsible for controlling female characteristics such as breast enlargement.
Men usually produce small quantities of estrogen in their body to maintain certain sexual functions. Complications occur when estrogen levels in the male body increase too much in proportion to testosterone.
The condition can be classified as follows:
- Gynecomastia in infants: Half of the infants are usually born with large breasts due to their mother's estrogen. The effect tends to wear off in a few weeks.
- Gynecomastia during puberty: Gynecomastia occurs during puberty due to changes in hormones. The condition goes away without any treatment in six months to 1 year.
- Gynecomastia in men: This condition may peak in men during the age of 50-80. Statistics show that at least 1 out of 4 men in this age group has this condition.
Some other causes for this condition in middle-aged men are as follows:
- Heart medications
- Anti-anxiety drugs
- Medications that are used to treat heartburn
- Smoking marijuana and drinking alcohol
- If the cause of the condition is medications, then discontinuing the medicines should stop the effects. It can also be treated by taking medicines to reduce estrogen levels in the body.
- Surgery is another option where an incision is made in the chest area and the extra breast tissues are removed from the area. This also requires repositioning of the nipple in the chest.
- Post-surgery, you should stick to a proper and healthy lifestyle to retain the new shape of the chest area. Weight gain or taking steroids can cause the symptoms of this condition to reappear.
Rhinoplasty, more commonly known as nose surgery, is a cosmetic form of operation designed to change the shape and size of the nose.
A rhinoplasty can effectively change the size and width of the nose to complement the facial balance. It also helps improve nasal symmetry efficiently enhancing your facial features.
How is the surgery performed?
You can opt for either general anesthesia or local anesthesia for the surgery. The surgery is generally an outpatient procedure, but occasionally patients are asked to stay in the hospital overnight post the surgery.
The operation involves an incision which is made for easy access to the cartilage and bones of the nose. These incisions are generally placed inside the nose, so that they do not appear as scar marks after the surgery is done. Removal or replacement of the bone or cartilage depends on the demands of the restructuring of the nose. Once the reshaping of the nose is done, the nose tissue is put back into place and a splint is temporarily placed to support the new structure of the nose. The splint is removed once the nose heals.
Precautions to take after a nose surgery
After a nose surgery, the area around your nose will stay swollen and bruised for a considerable period of time. Thus you have to ensure that-
1. You get ample amount of rest
2. Use cold compresses over the swollen nose area, this will reduce the swelling and ease the pain
3. Do not indulge in relatively vigorous physical activity for sometime
4. Take you medicines regularly
Risks of nose surgery
Every surgery or medical procedure involves certain risks, and so does rhinoplasty. Along with some puffiness and bruising around the eye and nose region, you may also experience-
1. Some amount of bleeding
2. Injury to the septum area
3. Irritation of the skin and skin problems
5. Nasal blockage due to swelling in the inner nasal area
6. Complications resulting from anesthesia
Although there are certain risks to rhinoplasty, the surgery is considerably safe and the results are quite permanent. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a cosmetic-plastic-surgeon.
Eyelid Lift, Blepharoplasty and Ptosis surgery are terms related to modes of eye surgeries. However, they are not the same and have got some basic differences.
As we become old, our awareness towards the puffiness around the eyes increases. We also sense the extra skin over the eyelid and the droopiness. The above-mentioned surgeries are meant for correcting these disorders. Each surgery is meant for the treatment of a different disorder or condition.
We must know about these three procedures and the major distinctions between an eyelid lift, blepharoplasty and ptosis surgery.
- Eyelid Lift: This is a generic term or word, and it may refer to blepharoplasty, as well as ptosis surgery. Eyelid lift is not a technical name of any mode of surgery. It refers to the lifting of eyelids in general, for which several surgeries are conducted. It refers to any form of surgery where the tissues are lifted, repositioned or trimmed for lifting of the eyelids.
- Blepharoplasty: This is an actual surgical procedure carried out on the eyelids. In this surgery, excess skin is removed or the fat present is repositioned in order to remove the puffiness o the eyelids. In case of the upper eyelid, this surgery disposes of extra skin, which may hang over the eyelashes. Unwanted fullness is also reduced. The same thing is carried out in case of the lower eyelid. In some cases, the skin of the lower eye is not removed. Instead, it is moved to a different area such as the cheek.
- Ptosis Surgery: This mode of surgery is carried out for lifting the upper eyelids. This is done by manipulation of the muscle tendon on the eyelids which have stretched out. The weakening of the tendons may happen due to ageing, LASIK or cataract surgery, or because of using contact lenses. In a ptosis surgery, excess fat and skin from the eyelids are removed as well.
It's vital for anyone to know about eyelid surgeries and the basic difference between the terms eyelid Lift, blepharoplasty and ptosis surgery. While the eyelid lift is a general term, Blepharoplasty and Ptosis surgery fall under the modes of eyelid lift surgery. Choosing the best mode for your eyelids depends on the condition and symptoms you experience, and they may vary among people. Such surgeries are performed by oculo-facial surgeons. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a cosmetic physician.
Wrinkles are a normal yet unsightly sign of aging, which can come about due to various reasons including too much exposure to the sun, poor diet, excessive smoking and drinking, lack of proper sleep, advent of age, loss of moisture and elasticity as well as collagen, which creates a smooth and supple look and other such reasons. Cosmetic and plastic surgeons are now turning to a variety of methods to lessen the pronounced look of wrinkles and remove them for younger looking skin.
Here are a few methods currently in use:
- Fillers: Fillers like collagen and others including poly lactic acid, Calcium Hydroxylapatite and Hyaluronic acid can be used to restore the elasticity of the skin even as they provide precious hydration. These injectables can be used on the face as well as on hands for a smooth and supple look.
- Botox: To get rid of the lines on the forehead and to prevent the onset of more pronounced wrinkles, Botox or Botulinum Toxin Type A is a favoured element used by many cosmetic surgeons and dermatologists. This is usually administered via injection.
- Retinoids: This is administered with a surgical procedure in order to remove uneven pigmentation as well as the roughness of skin, which sets in with age and excessive smoking and sun exposure. It may cause skin peeling and redness.
- Laser: The use of laser resurfacing can also help in stimulating collagen production of the skin, which restores some of its elasticity so that wrinkles may be removed and further wrinkles prevented.
- Surgery: The use of surgical methods like face lifts, brow lifts and other cosmetic processes can help in giving the skin a tighter look, which does away with the appearance of wrinkles. These are usually minor procedures from which one will heal fast.
- Dermabrasion: This method is a surgical one that basically sands the surface of the skin in order to remove the wrinkles. It can cause side effects like permanent discolouration of the skin as well as scarring of sensitive skin in particular.
- Peels: Glycolic acid peels and deeper peels that use elements like Salicylic acid can be used to go deep into the skin and making it smooth again. It basically makes a difference to the fine lines. There is a chance of side effects like scarring, bruising and general discolouration in this method as well.
Adequate sleep, good nutrition, avoiding excessive sun exposure and a good skin care regimen can help in keeping wrinkles at bay for a long time. Moisturising with products that contain plenty of vitamin A and E can also help in reducing fine lines.
Briefing on Nerve and Brachial Plexus injury and their treatment
Breast lift surgery or Mastopexy is a form of plastic surgery used for lifting or raising sagging breasts in women. The size, contour and elevation of the breasts are modified or corrected using this procedure.
The position and shape of the breasts in women change after pregnancy, breastfeeding, suffering weight loss or with age. A breast lift surgery is effective in treating sagging breasts.
During a breast lift surgery, extra skin is removed from the breasts, and the surrounding tissues are tightened for reshaping of the breasts. The nipples and areola are also reshaped to a better location. A breast lift surgery may involve the procedures of liposuction and abdominoplasty for an even better rejuvenation.
Breast lift surgery is undertaken by many women for different reasons. Some women do not like their breast shape or volume after pregnancy and have this surgery done.
A breast lift surgery offers various benefits. They are:
- A breast lift surgery improves the body image of a woman and also boosts her self-esteem. Women feel their breasts have been affected negatively after pregnancy and undergoing this surgery enables them to have satisfactory breasts again. A breast lift surgery does not cause the breasts to increase in size. They appear bigger because they are higher in position and firmer than before.
- Having a breast lift surgery can push you to make better and healthier choices about your lifestyle. For undergoing any form of surgery, it is recommended that you stay as healthy as possible. This includes proper diet and eating habits along with regular exercise.
- A breast lift surgery improves the quality of life in women. Body image is improved, and the woman feels good about her breasts and body as a whole. According to studies, 92% of women having a breast lift surgery had improved self-esteem and a better, healthier life than before. Women become less conscious about their breasts after the surgery, as the breasts become satisfactory.
- As a result of this surgery, some clothes may fit better, and a woman can experiment with trendier outfits, and may also not wear a bra at times.
- A breast lift surgery gives women a better proportion between their breasts and buttocks. The contrast is better and makes a woman more attractive. More cleavage is created, and the breasts get more projected.
- A breast lift surgery is an efficient procedure to improve the breasts of women. Sagging breasts are corrected by a surgery which gives certain benefits to women. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a cosmetic physician.
A nose surgery (rhinoplasty) is performed to remove polyps and other blockages, alter the structure and shape of your nose and improve its function and or appearance. Here are a few things you should know about nose surgeries:
Deciding on surgery: Before deciding on undergoing nose surgery, consult with your doctor regarding issues related to your nose. Your doctor will check your problems and judge whether or not surgery is a feasible option. It is only with your doctor's confirmation that you should go for the surgery.
The procedure: The surgery is done either with local anesthesia (your nose and surrounding areas will be numbed) or general anesthesia (you will fall asleep). The surgeon will make incisions in your nostrils and base of the nose and alter the shape, structure and position of the cartilages in your nose for appealing shape and better functionality. Polyp removal is also done by rhinoplasty.
Recovery: After the surgery you will be required to wear a nose splint. You can expect swelling around the eyes, which will begin to subside after the third day. Swelling in the nose will go away after six months. Therefore, do not expect to see your results immediately, final condition of your nose will be apparent after the recovery period is over.
- You should avoid strenuous activity for three to six weeks.
- Do not smoke or drink alcohol during recovery. Smoking slows recovery time and alcohol reduces normal effects of drugs.
Will you develop scars?
As with all cosmetic procedures, rhinoplasty can leave scars. In closed rhinoplasty, incisions are made inside the nostrils and hence there is no scarring. In open rhinoplasty, an additional cut is made along the columella and this may result in scarring. However, the position of the scar is such that it is almost unnoticeable.
Risks: Any surgical procedure has certain risks. These risks associated with nose surgery include:
- Adverse effect to anesthesia
- Unfavorable outcome
- Visible scarring
- Difficulty in breathing
- Chronic nosebleed
- A perforated septum
- Bursting of blood vessels
- Nervous damage
- Possibility of revision surgery
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
How Gender Identity Disorder can be treated?
Tummy tuck also known as an abdominoplasty, a tummy tuck surgery is a form of cosmetic surgery, which is used to remove excess fat and skin from the abdomen as well as tighten the muscles in your abdominal regions. Similar to 'mommy makeovers' (a procedure applicable after pregnancy, which helps women restore their figure).
Tummy tuck surgery is used to help patients treat that loose and sagging skin who have experienced excessive weight loss within a relatively short period of time. Although, it is usually done for cosmetic reasons, it does provide a large number of medical benefits, such as:
1. Reduction in stress urinary incontinence: Stress Urinary incontinence is a bladder control problem that is characterized by involuntary urination because of exercises or normal bodily functions such as sneezing or coughing which might put pressure on the bladder. In some women, (SUI) can develop after a vaginal birth. The condition does not generally require a surgery. However, research has shown that in severe cases, abdominoplasty is helpful in patients who do not have a caesarean section. A slight bladder obstruction is made during the procedure using soft tissue which reduces the incontinence.
2. Better posture and improved abdominal tone: Strong muscles tend to become weak after multiple pregnancies and extreme weight loss. In these cases, diet and exercise are not enough. Abdominoplasty surgically removes excess fat and skin thereby, tightening weak muscles and flattening the abdomen. It is noticed that after the surgery, the patients develop an improved posture due to the tightened muscles supporting the spine. This helps in relieving a variety of back pains.
3. Correction of ventral hernia: Ventral Hernia is the bulging out of tissues through a defect, opening or past incisions within the wall muscles of the abdomen. In such a case, the surgeon may opt for Abdominoplasty to support the abdominal wall and prevent recurrences. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a cosmetic-plastic-surgeon and ask a free question.
Gynecomastia is a condition where the tissues of the breasts swell in a boy or men. This is caused by the imbalance of testosterone and oestrogen. It might affect one or both the breasts depending on the level of hormonal imbalances. Although not considered as a serious condition, Gynecomastia can be a difficult condition to cope up with. There are multiple treatment options and surgery is one of them. In many cases, this condition goes as abruptly as it appeared. For cases that are complicated and difficult to get rid of, doctors suggest a medical procedure get rid of the condition.
Symptoms of Gynecomastia:
Some common symptoms of Gynecomastia include tenderness of breasts, swollen breast gland, pain in the breasts, discharge from the nipple etc.
Causes of Gynecomastia:
There could be many causes of this disease. If the condition is witnessed in babies, it could well come from the mother due to an overdose of oestrogen. Gynecomastia also appears during puberty resulting in the breast to swell up. The condition can again crop up after the age of 50 due to hormonal changes.
Certain medications can be a reason of Gynecomastia. Some of the common medications include certain antibiotics, anti-anxiety related medications, chemotherapy shots, HIV patients receiving HAART, cardiovascular medications such as Lanoxin, anabolic steroids etc.
Certain drugs such as heroin, alcohol, methadone, marijuana, Amphetamines etc.
Certain health conditions such as hypogonadism, hyperthyroidism, liver cirrhosis, ageing, certain tumours, failure of the kidney malnutrition etc.
Risk Factors Of Gynecomastia-
Certain risk factors of gynecomastia include older age, use of certain steroids, adolescence and other medical conditions such as Klinefelter's syndrome, tumour related to hormonal fluctuation and disease related to thyroid.
A doctor typically checks the history of drugs along with the health condition of the patient. He might also take a look at the health of the extended family. A careful tissue evaluation of the genitals, breast and abdomen are done. This is followed by a physical exam followed by prescribing certain tests such as mammograms, complete blood work, CT scan, biopsy of the tissue, MRI scan etc.
Most people suffering from Gynecomastia see a significant regression with periodic treatment. If however the condition arises from an underlying cause such as cirrhosis and malnutrition, a doctor suggests 2 option- medications and surgery:
Medications: Certain medications that are known to be helpful for breast related cancers are known to be effective in this condition. Some common examples of these drugs include evista, arimidex and soltamox.
Surgery: Only after exploring all medical options a doctor suggests surgery. There are 2 procedures namely mastectomy and liposuction. The latter removes the fat cells of the breast and the former removes the breast gland tissue. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a cosmetic surgeon.
Types of Burn and its Treatment