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More and more cancer types are being linked to air pollution. While the linkage is quite easily understandable between air pollution and lung cancer, the damage does not stop there. It is far more harmful, and whether or not it is part of the respiratory system, most cancers are linked to air pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified air pollution as carcinogenic to humans.
The amount of particulate matter in the air, especially in developing countries like China and India, are loaded with carcinogenic material. This is due to increased transport overload, power generation, industrial emissions, residential heating etc. The exact composition of the air can vary depending on the time of the year, the location, weather, etc. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) also is spending a lot of time and money to find out the connection between these two. Establishing the link can help in preventing cancer.
Read on to understand the correlation between factors affecting air pollution and cancer incidence.
- Air pollution is not uniform and varies across the globe, depending on how some of the above mentioned factors are affected.
- Developing countries have more pollution levels, especially from vehicular fuel exhaust, metals, dust, and chemical solvents. These contaminate the air, making it carcinogenic.
- There is also lead, which is another “probable human carcinogen,” causing cancer of the liver, brain, and kidney.
- The other chemicals in polluted air include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and ozone.
- Also there are various compounds like volatile organic compounds, outdoor air pollutants, and other particulate matter, which are present in greater numbers in polluted areas.
- Paint thinners, dry cleaning agents, and other metals also contribute to increased air pollution. This, when inhaled, induces chronic inflammation in the tissues, making them react to the inflammation.
- Both outdoor and indoor agents cause pollution, and increases risk of developing cancer.
- Second hand smoke is a lot more dangerous than imaginable in inducing cancer.
Mechanism: Cancer is a result of chronic inflammation, which induces uncontrolled proliferation of the cells. A combination of the above mentioned compounds along with a strong predisposition (family history, for instance) puts the person at a very high risk to develop cancer. The symptoms may takes years, sometimes decades, to develop, but the onset starts off with continued exposure to these agents. So, if you are predisposed to developing cancer, ensure your exposure to the above pollutants is reduced, even if it cannot be completely avoided. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Oncologist.
The sound of the word cancer can be really traumatic and the fact the one may most of the time be unaware of this condition can be hard to handle. The same is the situation in the case of lung cancer as it does not produce any remarkable signs and symptoms in its early stages. However, there are ways in which you can be aware of this life-threatening ailment. Here are some tell-tale signs of an early stage of lung cancer:
A stubborn cough:
Beware when a cough is lingering on for long with no sign of relief. When a cough is related to cold and respiratory infection, it will subside within a week or so. But in case the cough is persistent, it can be a symptom of lung cancer. You should never dismiss a stubborn cough regardless of whether it is dry or producing mucus. You should talk to a doctor right away as he can check the lungs and may order for other tests to determine whether you have cancer.
Becoming easily winded or shortness of breath is considered the most prominent symptoms of lung cancers. This may occur when cancer blocks or inhibit the airway or when the fluid from the tumor starts building up in the chest. If you find that it is becoming difficult for you to breathe in doing tasks that you found easy before, you should not ignore it.
When the airways become inflamed, blocked or constricted, then the lungs would produce a wheezing and whistling sound while breathing. It can be associated with a host of other causes that are easily treatable but could also be due to lung cancer.
Even though headaches are considered one of the most common health problems, if there is a persistent headache, then it could be a sign that lung cancer has spread to the brain. It is important to understand that all headaches are not associated with the brain metastases. There are times when the lung cancer creates pressure on the superior vena cava which is in charge of supplying blood to the upper part of the brain. This pressure can also lead to headaches.
Pain in the bone:
If the lung cancer has spread to the other parts of the body, then it may produce mild pain in the back and other parts of the body. It tends to become worse during the night when you are resting on your back. But it can be difficult for a commoner to differentiate between muscle and bone pain. In case you are suffering from bone pain, you will see that it is becoming worse with movement. Moreover, lung cancer is also associated with pain in the shoulder, neck, and arm even though it is very rare. You should be very attentive to the pain and aches in the body and consult with an expert at the earliest.
You can easily combat lung cancer if diagnosed and treatment is started in its early stages.
Cervical cancer can throw life completely off balance. It is one of the most common types of cancer affecting women worldwide. Lack of an early diagnosis makes this life threatening condition almost untreatable. A Pap smear also referred to as a Pap Test comes as a ray of hope for many women.
A Pap smear is a screening test that plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and detection of cervical cancer in women. A Pap smear may further be used to point out any abnormalities in the cervical cells which may have a potential to turn malignant in the future. Doctors recommend all women (between 21-65 years of age) to undergo a pap smear to be on the safer side. While most women are advised to repeat the pap smear between every 3-5 years, women with the following conditions or ailments should be extra careful.
- Women who are HIV positive or those with a weak immune system.
- Those who have undergone an organ transplant.
- Any woman whose pap smear indicates the presence of precancerous cells.
- Women who had chemotherapy sessions.
The above mentioned conditions do not necessarily imply a 100% probability of cervical cancer. Consult your doctor and follow the necessary advice and precautions.
The procedure involved in a Pap smear
The Pap test is not a very tedious process and is often carried out in the doctor's clinic itself. The person to undergo the test is made to lie down on her back (the knees should be in a bent position). The physician then carefully inserts a speculum into the vagina. The main idea is to widen the vaginal walls so that the doctor can have a clear view of the cervix. Next, using a spatula, the doctor will collect samples of your cervical cells and send it for examination.
The significance of the Pap smear result
- A negative test indicates a healthy cervix with no precancerous cells.
- A positive result can, however, have many implications, such as there can be a condition known as dysplasia (minute alterations in the cervical cells). There may be some inflammation. However, the condition may be nothing to lose your sleep over. In many women, the condition heals by itself. A thorough investigation, (colonoscopy followed by a biopsy) may be needed if the problem persists for long.
Further, there can be
- Squamous intraepithelial lesion: This, unfortunately, indicates the presence of precancerous cells.
- Squamous cell cancer: As the name suggests, this more than often, confirms the presence of malignant or cancer cells.
- Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: Here the squamous cells appear very flat and thin, growing on the cervical surface. The condition may not necessarily indicate something serious. The person concerned may require further tests for a better interpretation of the condition.
A Pap smear is for your good. Go for a Pap smear and also encourage women in your circle to indulge in this healthy practice. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
I am a girl of 20 years of age and I am having very severe pain in my left breast. This has been a serious issue since a long time but now it has become very serious. Kindly suggest me what to do.
I was having a doubt regarding oral/mouth cancer. So I should go to dentist or what? Nd which test should I do?
I am 68 years man, with controlled BP and sugar as of now. I am taking Urimax F for prostate enlargement but is not much help, should it be used for long time, if it worsen should I go for surgery or more powerful medicine. please advise. Thanks.
Hello, my aunt is actually around 32 years old, and she was diagnosed with dermoid cyst in neck, which rather looks like branchial cleft cyst. So, may I know which doctor would be the best for her, regarding this issue.
Hello Sir I was a gutka and dipping tobacco addict guy I left chewing gutkha now some time I dip tobacco I want to quit i'm afraid of cancer I use since 4-5 years can you suggest me how to recover myself now? I'm a not a rich guy to spend money Please suggest me what to do?
He Is in bad condition due to extra enlarge prostate of size 117 please tell me any medicine name which will work immediately.
Sir, My mother had a colon cancer at Stage 2 and gone thru Radio & Chemo therapy and completed 28 days on 6th Sep-17. From 7th onwards she is having motions normal stool & now from last 4 days she is having watery motions where she does not have any control while passing the same. We have kept the Diapers but still its coming out. We are giving the medicine of REDOTIL 100 mg & becelac forte 1-1-1 from last 7 days. But motions are not getting controlled. Could you pls advice what should we do.?
I am 77 years old and have been diagnosed with enlarged prostate gland. I have been taking medicine dutasteride 5 mg and Tamsulosin 1/pd regularly. There is no infection. However, I have continuous mild pain in both testicles. May I request for your suggestion for relief from pain? Thanks.
2 days ago I see that round black spot inside cheek of mouth is it symptoms of cancer. Hear no pain no any problem I feel that but also I fee irritation and before 2 day I take a hookah. I am very very scare about it please please please help me what I do?
Scenario one: Mr PS, 35 years old, married for 5 years, now planning to have a child, suddenly felt that his erection of penis is not as good as it was earlier. initially he tried medicines shown in TV and newspaper and then many treatments through internet. but his problems persisted. Finally when he came to doctor, he was diagnosed to have ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION. Finally after checking, when doctor advised him blood test, it revealed high blood sugar and then he was advised anti-diabetic drugs. After starting this, his sexual performance improved much better.
So, what went wrong? Erectile dysfunction may be an early indication of diabetes. So, if you feel such probems, never ignore it and never feel ashamed to talk to doctor. If you try medicines shown in TV/ newspaper, your problem will persist and the diabetes may go to such point that your life will be threatened. So, never ignore such problem, however embarrasing it might be.
Scenario two: Mrs AM, a 42 years old lady having two children, gradually feeling of low sexual urge. Her husband tried many things but nothing worked. She also had repeated attacks of vaginal infections. After trying many things by themselves, they consulted doctor. And the cause of her LOW SEX DRIVE and VAGINAL INFECTION was found to be uncontrolled diabetes. And the story was same. She was put on insulin therapy and her conditions improved. But if she came earlier, she could have avoided insl=ulin therapy.
So, if any male or female is experiencing low sex desire, he or she should not try various types of treatments by themselves. Proper diagnosis is necessary, so that life threatening diseases are not missed. And as you all know, diabetes can sometimes be life-threatening. So, just imagine, a situation for which you feel embarrassed to talk to doctor, can endanger your life.
Scenario three: Mr MQ, a 30 years old male, is feeling pain and discomfort during intercourse and also sometimes during urination. He thought it may solve automatically after marriage. But it did not. And then he also had bleeding sometimes during intercourse and the pain increased. When he presented to doctor, doctor diagnosed it as a case of tight foreskin or PHIMOSIS. And the next day blood sugar was found to be very high. He was cured by circumcission after controlling blood sugar level with insulin. But after that he was found to have problems in retina and kidney. These are all because of diabetes. had he not ignored Phimosis, he could have avoided these complications of diabetes (retinopathy and nephropathy).
So, if you feeel any problems, particularly infections in private parts, do not ignore them Consult doctor and try to find out the cause.
Scenario four:. Mrs AR, 32 years female, having REPEATED MISCARRIAGE in previous three pregnancies. No apparent cause was found. Then blood sugar test was done properly and she was found to have very high blood sugar. Then she was advised to avoid pregnancy until sugar was controlled. She follwed the advice and then conceived fourth time when blood sugar was normal. Then she delivered a baby who was totally normal.
So, if any couple is experiencing repeated miscarriage, they should test for diabetes first.
So, never feel that diabetes is merely a disease of sugar. It can affect every organ and system. So, if you feel any problems in personal or conjugal life, however embarrasing to you it might be, never feel ashamed, rather consult doctor and have proper diagnosis done. A stich in time saves nine.
If mammogram isn't possible, it the Prolactin Serum body test good enough to detect any breast cancer? Also, pls tell me that if someone is having only milkish-waterish nipple stimulation, how much chances are of it being a breast cancer. N what stage it can be?
I am having a big curbs gaanth in my right breast and I t also painful too. What should be recommended to melt this soon .now I am taking homeopathic medicine for this.
Lungs are the most important organ of our body that has the responsibility of taking in the oxygen and releasing out carbon dioxide. When cancer develops in it, the entire body gets imbalanced. Lung cancer leads to more death than any other type of cancer, which is why identifying the symptoms and knowing the causes are instrumental in obtaining a timely diagnosis as well as in prevention of this disease.
Symptoms of Lung Cancer
In the early stages:
- Persistent coughing
- Chest pain
- Loss of appetite
- Sudden weight loss
- Coughing up blood
In the later stages:
Causes of Lung Cancer
Smoking: People who smoke are more prone to lung cancer. With the increase in the number of cigarettes you smoke, your chances of getting lung cancer increase too. People who don't smoke but are surrounded by the smokers also have high chances of being affected by this form of cancer.
Exposure to Asbestos: Asbestos is a group of mineral, which is present naturally in the environment. Lung cancer can occur due to the inhalation and ingestion of asbestos fibers.
Exposure to Ranon Gas: Ranon is a radioactive gas, which is formed naturally on decaying of radioactive elements. It is found in low levels in the air that we breathe and the water that we drink. Consumption of air and water having this gas leads to lung cancer.
High Levels of Air Pollution: Presence of high levels of dust particles and pollutants in the air that we breathe can cause lung cancer. 1-2% of lung cancer is caused because of it.
High Levels of Arsenic in Drinking Water: Consuming water with arsenic content is harmful. Some studies suggest that it is associated with increased risk of lung cancer.
Exposure to Chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals like uranium, coal products, gasoline, diesel exhaust and mustard gas can also cause lung cancer.
Family History of Lung Cancer: Chances of getting lung cancer increase if your parents, child or siblings are already prone to lung cancer. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pulmonologist.