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When athletes begin training for marathons and put themselves under the pre requisite training for such an event, they might experience pain as a result of bone mass increase in areas of maximal stress. If however, the training and exertion is too rapid, the bone might begin to fail and the stress reaction might cause the bone to pain and eventually fracture in extreme cases, due to a stress fracture. The athlete will experience unbearable pain at night before such a stress fracture happens.
An X-ray is needed to determine if such a stress fracture has developed and the extent of the fracture. Prior to the fracture, the area affected will develop black or blue bruising. Hip bone is often the site of injury and many different factors may cause trauma to it. Stress fractures are caused by prolonged and repetitive injury and are common in long distance running athletes. Hip impingement might result from abnormally shaped hip bones wherein the bones grind against each other and deteriorate the connecting joint. The iliac crest (present in the greater pelvic part) of the hip bone impacting the muscle overhead, can lead to hip pointer injuries.
- Osgood Schlatter Disease is an overuse condition affecting children, mostly boys who participate in athletics. The patellar tendon and surrounding tissues get inflamed and with proper rest, ice compression, and elevation of the knee, it can be treated.
- Premature osteoporosis is a condition that affects female athletes in particular due to low calcium levels and menstrual dysfunction which hamper the body’s bone building process.
- Overtraining in male athletes may lead to osteoporosis due to reduced testosterone levels.
- Osteopenia or the loss of bone in athletes may result due to overtraining and psychological stress. The calcium is mainly resorbed from the ‘cancellous bone’ (bone tissue that has a structure similar to a mesh, containing many pores) in the femur.
- Most athletes suffer from low bone density and in extreme cases, this might lead to osteopenia. Cyclists are found to have the highest loss of bone density amongst athletes.
Diabetes is often referred to as diabetes mellitus by physicians, which is used for describing a group of metabolic-related diseases. Diabetic patients have high blood sugar (blood glucose) in the blood, the cause of which might be either the inadequate production of insulin or because the body is unable to use the insulin properly. Diabetes might also be a result of the combination of both.
Types of Diabetes-
There are three types of diabetes.
- Type 1 diabetes which was formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile onset diabetes due to the fact that the symptoms are typically diagnosed in young children and children in their teens. Approximately 10%diabetic patients are Type 1 diabetic where the body is unable to produce insulin.
- Type 2 diabetes was also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes or adult onset diabetes, as it occurs mostly in adults. Approximately 90%diabetic patients worldwide are Type 2 diabetic which occurs because the body is unable to produce the required amount of insulin for proper functioning. Overweight and obese people suffering from central obesity or abdominal obesity are more at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes than people who have a healthy body weight, as obesity forces the release of chemicals which may destabilize the cardiovascular and metabolic systems of the body. The risks of developing Type 2 diabetes also increases as one grows older.
- Another type of diabetes is gestational diabetes which mainly affects pregnant women who have high glucose levels in their blood. The bodies of these women are unable to produce the required amount of insulin to transport all the glucose to their cells leading to the progressive increase of glucose. Studies have revealed that women who have animal fat and cholesterol-rich diet before pregnancy are at more risk of developing this type of diabetes.
Symptoms of diabetes include excessive thirst, dehydration, increased urination and hunger. Symptoms may also include fatigue, skin problems, slow healing wounds, blurred vision and tingling in the feet.
- Patients who are afflicted with Type 1 diabetes will have to take insulin injections for life. Proper blood glucose levels have to be maintained throughout by following a strict diet and regular blood tests need to be carried out.
- Patients with Type 2 diabetes need to keep their weight in check. They are generally treated with tablets but sometimes insulin injections are recommended. These diabetic patients need to follow a healthy diet strictly, exercise regularly and keep monitoring their blood glucose levels. Another option for obese people to reduce symptoms is Bariatric surgery.
- While gestational diabetes can be controlled with proper diet and regular exercise, there are 10 - 20%of diabetics who will need medications to control blood-glucose. Undiagnosed and untreated gestational diabetes raises the risks of complications during childbirth and may result in a baby who is bigger than he / she should be.
Acute complications of diabetes may include hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia while chronic complications may include diseases of the blood vessels which could damage the eyes, nerves, kidneys and the heart. If you think you have symptoms which suggest diabetes, consulting a doctor at the earliest would be your best option.
Jaundice is a medical condition where the bilirubin level shoots up in the blood of the affected person. Also referred to as icterus, the condition may affect adults as well as newborn babies (Neonatal Jaundice), whereby the skin and the white part of the eye (sclera) appears yellowish in color (due to the accumulation of bilirubin).
Bilirubin is the bile pigment that results from the breakdown of hemoglobin (when the RBC cells breakdown). The bilirubin thus produced is released into the plasma. The liver then filters the released bilirubin for further metabolism. In the case of a diseased condition, injury or infection to the liver, it fails to remove the bilirubin from the bloodstream. As a result, there is an abnormal rise in the bilirubin level in the blood (Hyperbilirubinemia), resulting in jaundice. In jaundice, Bilirubin can go upto much higher levels. At 2.5-3 it just starts to get manifest as yellow eyes. Obstructive jaundice may require an endoscopic procedure or surgery.
Types of jaundice:
Jaundice may be of the following types:
- Hepatocellular jaundice: In Hepatocellular jaundice, the elevated bilirubin level in the blood is an outcome of a liver disease or an injury (altering the normal functioning of the liver).
- Hemolytic jaundice: Here, the increased level of bilirubin in the blood results from an increased breakdown of the RBCs (Hemolysis).
- Obstructive jaundice: As the name suggests, Obstructive jaundice results from an obstruction in the bile duct. As a result, the bilirubin does not get filtered and remains in the liver.
Factors contributing to jaundice:
The increased buildup of bilirubin may be an outcome of
- Obstruction and inflammation of the bile duct.
- Chronic liver disease including liver cirrhosis and hepatitis.
- Pancreatic Cancer.
- Hemolytic anemia: It is a condition resulting from increased breakdown of RBCs.
- Gilbert's syndrome.
- Certain medications may also interfere and alter the normal functioning of the liver (steroids, birth control pills, and acetaminophen, to name a few).
- In cholestasis, the bile (conjugated bilirubin), instead of getting eliminated, remains in the liver.
The symptoms associated with jaundice include
- The skin (particularly, the face, hands, nails, and feet) and the sclera appear yellowish.
- The urine appears dark in color.
- Fever, vomiting, tiredness, and loss of body weight.
- Abdominal pain (mild to severe).
- The stool appears pale in color.
- Itchiness or Pruritus.
Diagnosis and treatment:
The earlier the diagnosis, more effective is the treatment.
- Jaundice can be diagnosed by
- Physical examination.
- Bilirubin tests to determine the total bilirubin level.
- CBC is used to determine the levels of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets.
- Liver function tests.
The treatment for jaundice involves identifying the underlying factor responsible for the condition and treating it.
- In the case of obstructive jaundice, operation helps to improve the condition.
- Patients with hepatitis may benefit from antiviral medicines as well as steroids.
- In hemolytic anemia, use of iron supplements helps to improve the condition.
- Avoid oily and spicy foods, smoking and drinking.
- Rest as much as possible.