Doctor in Dr Ranjana Nanda Clinic
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Dengue fever is a disease caused by viruses that are transmitted to people by mosquitoes. Sometimes, its symptoms are mild and can be mistaken for those of the flu or another viral infection.People with weakened immune systems as well as those with a second or subsequent dengue infection are believed to be at greater risk for developing dengue hemorrhagic fever.
Chlamydia is a STD, caused due to intercourse, or even sexual contact. This is often accompanied by vaginal discharge or genital pain. Chlamydia can affect both the sexes to any age group, though young sexually active women are mostly diagnosed with it. If left untreated, this STD can cause further complications, some of them, fatal.
Symptoms of Chlamydia in women
1. Abnormal odorous vaginal discharge
2. Bleeding resulting from intercourse or even between periods
3. Pain during menstruation or sexual intercourse
4. Soreness in the lower abdomen
5. A burning sensation or itching around the vagina
6. Painful urination
7. Green or yellow vaginal discharge
Infection can extend to the fallopian tubes, leading to a disease called Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). PID can bear symptoms such as nausea, severe pain in the pelvic region, fever and unusual bleeding during one’s periods. There are also high chances of contracting the chlamydia infection in the anus, the indications being pain, bleeding and discharge from the anus. Oral sex with a person diagnosed with this condition can also result in you contracting this infection in the throat, resulting in soreness, fever and cough.
Causes of Chlamydia in women
1. Chlamydia, being a sexually transmitted infection, primarily spreads through unprotected sex. However, sexual intercourse need not always be the reason behind this disorder. Sexual contact or even indulging in oral sex without using protection (in the form of dental dams) can result in this disease.
2. Newborn infants are also prone to acquiring this infection that is passed on to them by their mothers during birth. Therefore, pre-natal checkups are a must for detection.
3. Rarely, one can contract the infection in the eyes as well, through any form of oral or genital contact.
Your heart is the most important and vital organ of all and regulates the flow of heart to all parts of the body. Thus, the valves and the arteries which take the blood to your heart are also an important component in ensuring that the circulation is constant. Thus, any hindrance to this process will put a lot of pressure on your heart and lead to more serious problems in the long run. Coronary artery disease is one such problem and can seriously put the health of your heart at risk.
What is coronary heart disease?
Coronary arteries are very important blood vessels, which carry nutrients, blood and oxygen to your heart. If the level of bad cholesterol is high in your blood, it will start leaving deposits on the walls of the arteries which are commonly known as plaque. This plaque will start building up over time causing blockage of the arteries and disrupting proper blood flow. Excessive build up of the plaque may then rupture the lining of the plaque. This will then induce blood clotting and further prevent the normal flow of blood.
Primary symptoms may include
- Shortness of breath: This may occur while you are exercising or performing activities which are mildly exerting.
- Heart beats very hard and fast: Your heart may beat very hard and fast, especially when doing everyday activities such as climbing stairs or walking for a prolonged distance.
- Angina or chest pain: You may experience pain in your chest as if someone was pressing against it with a lot of force. Angina is also triggered due to stressful activities or even emotional stress. It usually occurs on the left or the middle of the chest and may even be felt in the back, arms, and neck.
- Heart attack: Heart attacks are the most common and the most serious complications of coronary heart disease. You would feel extreme pain, akin to crushing on your chest, shoulder, or arm. It may even be accompanied by jaw pain, and sweatiness.
Non invasive forms of treatment are always preferable rather than invasive surgeries or procedures to treat coronary heart disease, especially where the risk of serious complications such as heart attack are still on the lower side. Some of the treatments used for coronary heart disease are as follows:
- Making lifestyle changes: Quit smoking, reduce alcohol consumption along with consumption of regulated diet will automatically start cleaning plaque that has built up within the arteries. Losing weight also tends to help.
- Medications: Special medications can take care of cases wherein the deposits are still lesser and the plaque buildup can be removed without the requirement of extensive surgery. Anti-cholesterol medications are one example of this.
- Surgical procedures: These are usually employed when the blockage is severe and cannot be corrected by the conventional methods mentioned above. Some of the procedures are angioplasty, stent replacement, as well as coronary artery bypass surgery.
Breast cancer begins when cells in the breast(s) start to grow out of control. It is understood as being the most common cancer, seen predominantly in females, globally. It is reasonably treatable and often curable.
1. Type: Adenocarcinomas constitute more than 95% of breast cancers with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) being the most common form of invasive breast cancer.
Frequently occurring breast cancers present as one of the following types mainly
- Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): Is the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer and is confined to the milk ducts of the breast. There is no invasion in the basement membrane. Pure DCIS metastasizes rarely. Non comedo cribrioform carcinoma is the most common DCIS found which, when compared to the comedo type, is mostly non-aggressive.
- Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): Represents majority (about 3/4th) of the breast cancers, and is known to metastasize commonly to bones, lungs and liver.
- Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS): Develops in multiple lobules of the breast (bilaterally). LCIS is less commonly seen, compared to DCIS.
- Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): Represent about a tenth of all breast cancers and tends to metastasize to other regions of the body.
Less commonly occurring breast cancers such as
- Inflammatory Breast Cancer: Is relatively uncommon and are caused probably owing to viral infections. The breast is warm, red and swollen.
- Paget’s disease of the nipple: Is a rare form of breast cancer. It begins in the milk ducts and spreads to the nipple and areola.
- Medullary Carcinoma
- Mutinous Carcinoma
- Tubular Carcinoma
- Phylloides tumor etc all.
2. Gender: Affects the female populace predominantly. However, a small percentage of breast cancer is attributable to the male populace as well.
3. Etiology: No definite cause is known. However, diet, lifestyle, environment, hormonal/ reproductive factors, personal or family history of breast cancer especially in first degree relatives and also any benign breast disease history etc all are known to increase the risk of breast cancers. Specifically, excessive fatty diet, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, benign breast disease, heredity/ inheritance of mutated breast cancer genes 1 (BRCA1) and 2 (BRCA2), smoking, alcohol intake, infertility, estrogen therapy/ hormone replacement therapy (long term) in post menopausal women, delayed age at first pregnancy, nulliparity (not having child), early menstruation, delayed onset of menopause, lactating mothers not breast feeding, exposure to ionizing radiation, sedentary lifestyle, depression, exposure to MMTV virus etc all can potentially increase the risk for breast cancer.
4. Features: Signs & symptoms, of breast cancer, manifest majorly in the following ways
- Lump/ nodule in the breast that gets attached to the skin of the breast over time. The lump / nodule could be hard and painless with irregular edges or it could also be soft, rounded, tender and painful.
- Enlarged lymph nodes in the axilla which are palpable.
- Swelling of whole or a part of a breast. This is even if there is no distinct lump felt.
- Retraction or thickening of the nipple(s).
- Pain in the breast or nipple.
- Discharge from nipple other than breast milk.
- Irritation/ scaliness of skin over the breast.
- Redness of nipples
- Rarely, red, swollen and tender breast.
5. Screening: Is generally recommended for asymptomatic populations goal of which, as usual, is to be able to detect & diagnose breast cancer at an early stage which is potentially curable. It is mostly radiologic with mammography/ USG being instrumental in raising suspicions for further diagnostics (i.e. biopsy) that help detect breast cancer, if any, early.
6. Diagnosis: A self-examination/ clinical exam of the breast(s)/ axilla that reveals a palpable mass prompts the following diagnostics. Abnormal blood test results may be indicative of malignancy, but a follow up imaging/ biopsy is always the gold standard for accurate diagnosis.
- Blood: ER/ PR/ HER2/neu, uPA, PAI-1, CA15-3, CA27.29 etc all tumor markers are helpful.
- Imaging: Mammography/ USG Scan usually, as relevant. Again, CT Scan of abdomen & pelvis and chest, PET CT scan, bone scan etc all help detect metastasis, if any, for cancers in stage III & above.
- Biopsy: either excisional, incisional, fine needle aspiration (FNA) or core biopsy technique, as contextually appropriate, is frequently employed and a histopathological examination (HPE) thereof clinches the diagnosis and the nature of the disease.
7. Treatment: Conventional treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy, hormone therapy/ chemotherapy as deems appropriate. Simultaneously, an adjunctive or integrative naturopathic treatment with suitable complementary & alternative medicines (CAM) too can help improve clinical outcomes and facilitate recovery as would be feasible contextually.
8. Prognosis: Preventive measures, earlier diagnosis and right early treatment is key for an effective therapeutic management & better prognosis. Like most other cancers, the chances of cure for an early stage breast cancer are more. The cure/ recovery chances are influenced by the type, grade, stage of cancer, recurrence and the patient’s general health & vitality etc all. Above-mentioned apart, age, menopause status, lymph node status, ER/ PR/ HER-2/ neu status, size & extent of breast cancer etc all also influence the treatment outlook in breast cancer. The five year survival rate is strongly correlated with the stage of breast cancer.
9. Prevention: Rightly said, prevention is always a better choice. Although genetic risks are difficult to modify, still an increased focus on protective factors and avoidance of the risk factors can be of help. An adherence to a Mediterranean diet, maintaining an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle with due emphasis on regular exercising (for at least 30 minutes daily), de-stressing and relaxation is highly recommended for reducing the risks of breast cancer. A healthy eating plate comprises essentially a low fat diet, fibre rich foods including whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables cooked using healthy vegetable oils, fresh fruits of all colours as seasonally available and healthy proteins/ fats including fresh fish, poultry, beans, nuts etc all. It is advisable to limit milk/ dairy, preferably of low fat content, to 1 to 2 servings max daily. Although alcohol is optional and is not for everyone, the consumption of the same, if any, has to be strictly in moderation, and is best avoided. Smoking is to be avoided as well. Again, red meat, butter, refined grains, sweets, sugary drinks including carbonated beverages and other high calorie foods etc all, if any, are to be taken sparingly or are best avoided too. Limiting dosage/ duration of hormone therapy, if any, especially to counteract post menopausal symptoms and also avoiding exposure to radiation and environmental pollution can help reduce the risks of breast cancer. Apart from the above-mentioned, for high risk cases, a prophylactic oophorectomy, prophylactic radical mastectomy, long term hormone therapy etc all can help reduce the chances/ risks of developing breast cancer significantly. Breastfeeding is known to confer protection against breast cancer risk too.
Autoimmune hepatitis is a liver disease that causes damage to the liver cells because the immune system of the individual turns against the body. The attack of the immune system on the liver causes it to become inflamed and the inflammation impairs the functions of the liver. The patient suffering from autoimmune hepatitis experiences symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, jaundice, weakness, weight loss, and edema.
Anyone experiencing these symptoms should become cautious about their condition and get it diagnosed because if left untreated, it can lead to liver cirrhosis and liver failure.
Ayurvedic treatment concept of autoimmune hepatitis: Autoimmune hepatitis is caused when the immune system of the body turns against itself and Ayurveda believes that this happens when there is an imbalance between the three physical energies – vata, pitta, and kapha. In case of autoimmune hepatitis, the pitta becomes vitiated causing the kapha to evaporate, which is a prime component of the immune system. This disrupts the immunity and causes problems in the liver. So, Ayurveda seeks to correct this vitiation and it does so with the help of medicines and cleansing techniques that would strengthen the liver and boosts its functions.
Immunity boosting Ayurveda treatment: The Ayurvedic treatment for autoimmune hepatitis focuses on medicines that have immunity-enhancing and liver-protecting properties. The idea is to increase the immunity of the body and to control and cure the damage done to the liver cells. Specific medicines such as curcumin and giloy have antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties, which restore the liver muscles and give relief from swelling. They also possess detoxification properties which cleanse the toxins built up in the liver as a result of the vitiation of the pitta dosha. The external detox procedures such as swedana and virechana also work by flushing out the toxins so that the body is cleansed of the dosha and feels at ease.
Ayurveda treatment benefits in autoimmune hepatitis: Ayurveda treats autoimmune hepatitis in a comprehensive manner. The remedies work to correct all the causes, that is, the hostile immune system and the damaged liver cells. Unlike allopathic medicines that try to give temporary relief by suppressing the symptoms, Ayurveda aims to bring permanent relief by addressing the causes that have led to the symptoms. With Ayurveda, one can be sure of finding lasting relief and that too without any side effects. The medicines and treatments are conducive to the body and are prescribed after complete diagnosis of the condition.
This is why one should go to a credible Ayurvedic practitioner for the treatment of autoimmune hepatitis. Based on the patient’s condition, a particular type of treatment is prescribed. For example, patients with the weak constitution are not advised swedana and virechana as it may prove harsh to them. Nevertheless, Ayurvedic medications work in all types of patients. All one needs is an expert to treat the disease. Last but not the least, Ayurveda places a huge emphasis on diet and lifestyle and the patient must adhere to the dos and don’ts prescribed by their doctor. It is important and also helps in quick recovery.
Consult an expert Ayurvedic Doctor for proper line of treatment.
On a pain scale of 1 to 10, delivery pain is rated as 11. It is one of the most severe forms of pain, and for women, it is almost like a second birth after coming out from delivery. With more and more advancements, attempts are being made to ensure this discomfort is managed better and the woman has a more relaxed experience through the delivery.
It is important to identify a couple of factors when going into delivery say for example who will be there with you, where the delivery will happen, how to manage the mind and body, and if there is anything else required for a smooth delivery. Having open discussions with the doctor, close family and friends will help you prepare for it.
Read on to know some pointers.
- People around you: Be careful about who is around you during the crucial hours. On one hand, ensure you have your midwives, doctors and nurses around you, who are knowledgeable and know how to handle the situation, if there is a crisis. On the other hand, have only close relatives and family members who are loving and supportive.
- Read up on labor: With so much information available both online and offline, read up from reliable sources and know what to expect during labor. While there may be an information overload, the overall info should be good to go and keep you updated.
- Talk about it: Whether it is the anesthesia, the needles, the instruments, blood, or injections, talk about your fears. Whether it is the doctor or your close family member, talk out your fears and see them disappear.
- Be positive: Surround yourself with positive images, positive people and positive thoughts. Soothing music is another must-have in your surroundings.
- Be active and occupied: For many women, keeping themselves occupied does not give time to worry about the pain. Constantly being on the move and not being confined to the home also reduces chances of pain.
- Try yoga: With rhythmic breathing and mild yoga, there are higher chances that you will be better able to manage the labor pains. Talk to your doctor as to what you can safely do. The swaying, squatting, and bending required by yoga does a lot of good to your overall body. Women who do some form of exercise and yoga in particular have a higher chance of vaginal delivery and are able to manage pain better.
- Warm bathing/showers: A warm bath soothes the lower back and the abdomen and can help in speeding up labor, as it helps in contractions.
- Involve your partner: The gentle touches and stroking will reassure you and ensure you are better able to sail through delivery.
Arthritis is a painful joint condition that leads to pain and stiffness as well as lack of proper mobility due to inflammation and swelling. Usually, an orthopaedic specialist will prescribe anti-inflammatory and pain relieving medication for this condition, but there are various things that you can do to ensure that this condition does not become a debilitating one in the long run. One of the best ways of doing this is by limiting your diet in certain ways when it comes to inflammation producing food.
- Fried food: Fried and processed food is packed with too much of salt in order to better preserve it so that it has longer shelf life. Also, the use of oil in order to deep fry can have a detrimental effect on the inflammation that is already causing problems for your joints. Therefore, it is best to avoid fried, fatty and processed or packaged food that has been frozen for too long.
- AGEs: When we speak of AGEs, we are not talking about the number of birthdays that you have celebrated. AGEs are actually Advanced Glycation End products that are a toxin released by food when it is heated, grilled, fried or pasteurised. These toxins can render damage to the proteins in your body. Once this process starts, the body retaliates by sending forth cytokines which are basically inflammatory messengers. This can lead to inflammation and arthritis.
- Sugar: Sugar and other refined carbs also have a large amount of AGEs as discussed above. These types of food should also be avoided by patients suffering from arthritis. Also, artificially sweetened drinks and too many baked goodies should be avoided by these patients.
- Dairy products: Owing to a certain kind of protein that most dairy products contain, these kinds of food are considered harmful for patients of arthritis. These proteins can encourage inflammation and irritation of the tissue that surrounds your joints. Switching to a vegan diet is considered helpful for arthritis patients.
- Alcohol: Excessive drinking is a major problem that can aggravate your arthritis situation. Smoking and drug abuse also leads to such problems. Drinking excessively can lead to the development of gout.
- Corn oil: This kind of oil is a part of most packaged, processed and fried food. It also leads to inflammation. Arthritis patients should switch to omega fatty three oils which can be found in fish.
Taking care of your body is a matter of maintaining a good diet with lots of activity that will be congenial for your condition. This will also help in keeping the painful symptoms of arthritis away.
Epithelial Ovarian Cancer is a condition in which malignant tumor emerges from the tissue lining in the outer surface of the ovary. Epithelial tumors are usually benign, but this form of malignancy has been found to be the most common type of ovarian cancer. Moreover, it cannot be diagnosed until in its advanced stage. Medical research shows that factors such as multiple pregnancies, delayed childbirth and early menarche seem to raise the risk of ovarian cancer, while dietary and environmental factors also play a significant role in it.
1. A majority of the patients have been observed to have extensive intra-abdominal growth.
2. They may experience discomfort or swelling of the abdominal region.
3. The feeling of being bloated, lack of appetite, unnatural weight alteration, dyspepsia, malaise, and urinary problems are frequently reported symptoms.
4. Patients also experience constipation and other gastrointestinal problems.
The first step towards treatment of ovarian cancer is to diagnose the condition. A thorough pelvic examination (consisting of an examination of the vagina, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and cervix) will help to pin point any abnormality of the ovary. If the doctor notes nodularity, firmness or lack of tenderness during the examination, these can be taken as symptoms of malignancy of epithelial ovarian tumors. Ultrasound examination of the abdominal region will also help to locate abnormality in the tissues on the outer surface of the ovary. The next logical step towards treatment is getting a biopsy. During this procedure potentially malignant cells are removed and then diagnosed by a pathologist to conclude if the cells are cancerous or not. The process of removal is known as laparotomy.
Apart from a handful of stage one patients, most women with epithelial ovarian cancer receive chemotherapy. The standard treatment for this type of ovarian cancer is the surgical elimination of tumor. This includes total abdominal hysterectomy, a surgery in which the uterus and cervix is removed through an incision in the abdomen. Post surgical treatment consists of taxane-platinum chemotherapy. Patients with minimal residual cancer undergo external radiation therapy or intraperitoneal chemotherapy (radioactive liquid is channelled into the abdomen with the help of a catheter).
A lot of research has been done in this field and a variety of clinical trials are available for a patient, if he/she wishes to be a part of it. Leading methods are immunotherapy and targeted therapy are also available. Immunotherapy uses the immune system of the patient to battle cancer. Bodily substances or substances created in the lab are used to restore and boost the body’s natural defence mechanisms against cancer. Targeted therapy, on the other hand, uses substances to identify the cancer and attack the malignant cells without jeopardizing non-cancerous cells.
For the benefit of couples suffering from infertility, modern medical science has introduced several innovative procedures. Some of the popular procedures are In-vitro Fertilization (IVF), Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI), Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT), Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), donor eggs and embryos and so on. In addition to these, there are several drugs and surgical procedures that help the couple in getting rid of infertility. Among all these procedures, IUI has gained popularity in the field of gynaecology and infertility treatment procedures. The IUI treatment is also popularly called as artificial insemination procedure. Although this is a popular procedure, it is appropriate that you should also understand its pros and cons.
IUI procedure in brief:
In simple terms, the IUI procedure involves placing the sperm inside the womb or uterus, which in turn would assist in fertilization of the egg. As a result of this procedure, the sperm reaches the fallopian tube, which enhances the chances or rate of egg fertilization.
Conditions precedent of IUI Procedure:
Before initiating the IUI procedure, the fast moving eggs are separated from the slow moving eggs. This separation is done in the laboratory. Further, in order to undergo IUI procedure, the women should be less than 40 years of age. On the other hand, apart from healthy fallopian tube, the women should also have higher ovarian reserves. Also, the sperm should have minimum mortality rate. However, IUI procedure is adopted only if the fallopian tube is healthy. IUI procedure is suggested in case the couple is having difficulty in vaginal intercourse, either because of psychosexual reasons or for reasons of physical disability.
The IUI procedure can be performed either with the husband's egg or with the donor’s egg. Some of the other important aspects of IUI procedure are briefly discussed here:
- The IUI procedure is a short duration procedure and it can be completed within a few minutes. This procedure does not cause any discomfort or pain. The procedure does not require any hospitalisation or administration of anesthesia. Further, the procedure also does not cause any side effects. In fact, compared to the IVF procedure, IUI is cost-effective.
- In order to enhance the level of success, the gynaecologist may suggest IUI procedure every month. In some cases, the gynaecologist may also prescribe a few medicines to simulate the ovulation procedure. Except this, IUI may not involve extensive medication.
You may undergo the IUI procedure under the supervision of sufficiently experienced gynaecologist. Further, you may also ensure the hospital is equipped with modern state of art machineries for carrying out the IUI procedure.
Teeth may be lost due to various reasons - decay, periodontal disease, age, trauma, etc. Whatever the reason, losing a tooth causes some side effects, as noted below:
1. Reduced chewing efficiency, thereby affecting nutrition
2. Aesthetics, more effect if front teeth are lost
3. Structural support to the face - puckering can happen
4. Overall nutrition affected
For someone who has lost a tooth or teeth, dentures are a boon. There are various options for people, and choice can be made based on economic, cosmetic, and overall health conditions.
Partial/complete: If only one or few teeth are being replaced, it is a partial denture. This can be fixed or removable. In case of old age or trauma where all teeth are lost, a complete denture would be in order. In most cases, this is a removable denture.
Fixed dentures/Removable dentures: Depending on whether the denture is fixed in the mouth or can be removed when not in use.
Metal or ceramic or combination: In some cases, for aesthetic or economic reasons, the patient can decide to go for a metallic fixed partial denture. The fabricated crowns will have a metallic surface but is acceptable given the strength, especially in posterior teeth, which take a heavy mastication load.
In cases of front teeth loss, the denture should almost always be a ceramic one, especially for cosmetic reasons. If the person cannot afford, a removable denture can be done.
The optimal denture should be chosen based on a number of factors including the functional and aesthetic expectations.
Caring for dentures: It depends on the types of dentures you choose.
Fixed dentures: This requires religious brushing, flossing or interdental brushing, and rinsing. The edges of the denture can put pressure on the gums and cause irritation, this needs to be watched for.
1. Clean the dentures after every meal
2. Be careful when handling them to avoid fall and breakage
3. Handle the clasps with care, altered clasps may not fit properly
4. Clean the bone and gums around the denture after each meal
5. Soak the dentures overnight in water or a denture-soaking solution
6. Avoid soaking it in hot water, can lead to warping of the denture plate
7. Avoid hard brushing of the dentures
With any denture in the mouth, visit the dentist regularly every 6 months to keep a constant vigil on your overall dental health. Ill-fitting dentures, especially, need to be corrected immediately as they can lead to irritation, ulcers, and even infections.
With these small precautions, the denture can function to its optimal level and serve as a good replacement of the lost tooth.