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Most women attain menopause between the ages of late 40s and early 60s, the average age being about 51. This is an important milestone in a women-s gynecological history. One major change is altered female hormone levels, and this leads to a lot of physiological changes. From hot flashes to mood swings, there is also increased predisposition to osteoporosis and uterine cancer.
If you have not had your menstrual cycles for close to 12 months, chances are you are into menopause. So, that means absolutely no vaginal bleeding anymore whatsoever. However, if you experience bleeding, even spotting, be on the alert. It is not normal and needs to be examined, and if required, diagnosed and treated.
Postmenopausal bleeding or PMB as it is popularly called can be due to a variety of reasons. While it could be something as trivial as inflammation of the uterine or vaginal lining, it could also be an indication of more severe issues like cancer.
- Atrophic vaginitis - Decreasing hormonal levels lead to increased dryness and therefore inflammation of the vaginal and uterine tissue. This is one of the common causes of bleeding after menopause.
- Endometrial atrophy - Also caused by lower hormone levels, the lining of the body of the uterus gradually thins down and can get inflamed.
- Polyps - Noncancerous growths in the uterus, cervix, vulva, or vagina can also lead to bleeding
- Infections - General infection of any area along the uterine tract could lead to occasional bleeding
- Cancers - Though only 1 in 10 PMB cases turn out to be cancers, the prognosis improves with early diagnosis and intervention.
Diagnosis: As repeated above, reach out to your doctor if you notice postmenopausal bleeding. Diagnostic methods could include the following:
For very minor cases with diagnosis like altered hormone levels, no treatment may be required other than modification of the hormone replacement therapy.
For endometrial atrophy and atrophic vaginitis, use of estrogen creams and pessaries would be sufficient.
Polyps would require removal followed by cauterization (application of slight heat) to stop the bleeding.
Cancer - this would depend on the type and location and require a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. Removal of the uterus also may be required in some cases.
So, if you have had bleeding of any sort after ayear of menopause, do not ignore it.
Antibiotics have been the bed rock of modern medicine. Modern medicine (cancer chemotherapy, placement of implants, joint replacement, transplant) have been based on the premise that infections could be treated. But today these magic bullets are beaten by bacteria & we are facing antibiotic resistance as a global threat. To save them, we must use antibiotics only when needed, also use a narrower spectrum possible & for the right dose and duration. Most Upper respiratory tract infections or diarrhoea may be viral and may not require antibiotics.
Antibiotics, earlier referred as wonder drugs, are derived from bacterium and are used to cure bacterial infections. These antibiotics cannot be used to cure viral infections. Therefore, they must be used only when prescribed by any physician. Ever since its inception, antibiotics have gained importance in medicinal field. Other than curing bacterial infection, they have also been widely used in preventing an infection.
Below is the list of some commonly used antibiotics along with their usage-
- PENICILLINS- It is one of the earliest antibiotics to be discovered. Penicillin finds its use in curing ear infections, dental infections, skin infections, gonorrhea and urinary tract infections. If combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillin gets shielded by the attack of other damaging bacterium enzymes.
- AMINOGLYCOSIDES- This antibiotic is majorly used in treating pneumonia, typhus etc. This particular antibiotic comes with its own array of side-effects like damage to kidneys and ears. Therefore, it must be injected only if prescribed.
- SULFONAMIDES- These sulfa drugs are pivotal in curing kidney infections. They too have side effects. Excessive intake of sulfa drugs can hamper the functioning of your kidneys.
- FLUOROQUINOLONES- This antibiotic is used in treating urinal tract infections, skin infections and several kind of respiratory diseases like bronchitis, sinusitis and pneumonia. Owing to its side effects, this drug must not be given to children and pregnant ladies. Higher dosage may lead to a severe kind of nerve impairment, known as peripheral neuropathy. Additionally, they may also hinder bone growth.
- CEPHALOSPORINS- Alongside its usage in surgical prophylaxis, Cephalosporin can also be used in curing bronchitis, pneumonia, step throat, otitis, tonsillitis, gonorrhea etc.
- MACROLIDES- Macrolides serve as an alternative drug to penicillin. It can be used to treat all sort of respiratory infections, genital infections and gastrointestinal infections. Excessive intake of macrolides can cause gastrointestinal problems.
- TETRACYCLINES- Tetracyclines can be a remedy for malarial infections, syphilis and chlamydial infections. Additionally, they are also used for curing Rocky Mountain spotted fever, respiratory tract infections, Lyme disease, urinary tract infections, typhus and sexually transmitted disease. Due to its side-effects, they must not be consumed by children and pregnant ladies.
ANTIBIOTICS USED FOR ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS-
As mentioned earlier, antibiotics can also be used for preventing any infection while undergoing any kind of surgery. Antibiotic Prophylaxis is usually used when the patient is going to have breast surgery or joint replacement surgery or pacemaker surgery or cataract surgery or glaucoma surgery. Such medical procedures make the patient body highly prone to infections. Therefore, antibiotics are used to safeguard the patient's organs.
The abovementioned applications of antibiotics highlight its importance. But since the antibiotics have their side-effects, so it is advisable to undertake antibiotics only after consulting any physician.
Being confident is a very essential quality for all human beings, irrespective of their age or profession. Boosting up your confidence level will not only make you feel good about yourself but will also help you to keep your feet firmly on the ground ,no matter what situation you have to encounter in your daily life. Self -confidence also helps you to create a very good impression of yourself and gives you an edge over others, especially when you are trying to seek a job or representing your company or educational institute.
- Think positively. Positive thinking can help you see the better side of every situation you confront. Thus, it can increase your confidence level.
- Being prepared to face new challenges in life and accepting those challenges is another crucial step for improving your level of confidence.
- Volunteer for different causes and activities. You may consider volunteering for social causes or you may also volunteer for different activities at your workplace or institution. This is a very important step for boosting up your confidence.
- Try to visualize your success. If you can see it before your eyes, you can achieve it too. Imagining yourself as successful will automatically elevate your confidence level.
- Find out the true purpose of your life. This will add meaning to your life and thus, can increase your confidence to a whole new level.
- Connect with others more often. Staying alienated most of the time can bring down your confidence level. The more you connect, the more confident you will become.
- Never underestimate yourself and your abilities. Have a strong belief in who you are and what you are capable of. This can make you more confident.
- Try to stay fit and healthy. As we all know health is wealth. Being healthy and fit always will make you feel good about yourself and will thus enhance your level of confidence.
Along with the aforesaid tips, remember to smile always. A bright face will automatically make you appear more confident to others.
Foot arch pain is used in broader context for describing pain in bones, ligaments, muscles and nerve on the foot bottom. Slight damage to any of the components in the foot bottom can cause great pain. For starters, the pain lasts for a brief period, but increases over time if the condition is left untreated. Foot arch pain is more commonly witnessed in people over the age of 60 and among athletes engaged in sports of high impact.
The treatment plan of the pain totally depends on the cause. An early and right diagnosis goes a long way in treating the condition faster. For occasional mild to moderate pain, simple solutions such as footwear change can do the trick. Doctors often suggest four simple methods. This starts with rest followed by applying ice and then trying compression and elevation.
Anti-inflammatory medications are used to treat foot arch pain. Cases that are severe in nature can be treated with steroid and anti-inflammatory injections. For extreme cases, cortisol injections are prescribed too. This is done to relieve pain and release plantar fascia. Even stretching exercises are known to give relief from the pain. Some of the recommended exercises during this period are:
- Stretch-related to plantar fascia: This exercise should be performed by crossing the legs at the junction of the knee. The body weight should be rested on the unaffected leg and it should gradually come down to touch the toe. The idea is to stretch the plantar fascia. A set of 20 such movements should be practised on a daily basis. Each movement should last for about 10 seconds.
- Foot flexing: This exercise can be practised before getting out of bed. This is the tie when the pain from the plantar fascia is felt the most. This exercise should be repeated 20 times each lasting for about 10 seconds.
- Rolling stretch: This exercise should be started by sitting in a chair. A tennis ball should be placed under the foot arch and the same should be rolled back and forth for ten times at a time. The same should be repeated with the second foot. Once this posture gets comfortable, the same should be practised by standing on the ball. It is known to be extremely useful for people suffering from foot arch pain.
How to prevent foot arch pain?
1. Wear shoes that are half an inch lose as they will make feel comfortable while walking
2. Losing weight; obese tends to cause pain in the foot arch
3. Performing free hand exercise and simple stretching on a daily basis
4. Not to overuse the foot. People who stand for more than 5-6 hours at stretch on a daily basis are observed to have foot arch pain.
Do you know about the various benefits of yoga for your body and health? Yoga is the answer for a lot of aspects which everyone desires, such as a peaceful mind, a strong and flexible body and a healthy, glowing skin. It is commonly perceived that yoga aims at weight loss, but there are numerous benefits, which you can get by practicing yoga regularly. Here are the various ways in which yoga is ideal for your everyday life. It covers lots of aspects associated with your health and body functioning.
Yoga for overall fitness
You need to be physically fit, as well as perfectly balanced emotionally and mentally. This ensures that you are healthy in the true sense. Health is like a dynamic expression of life based on how happy, loving and enthusiastic you are in life. The various postures of yoga help in maintaining overall fitness, and balance both your mind and body in an ideal way.
- It helps in improving health.
- It gives you enhanced strength of mind.
- Your physical power and stamina gets boosted.
- Your body is perfectly detoxified.
Yoga for weight loss
Yoga is excellent for weight loss purposes. The Kapalbhati Pranayama and the Sun Salutations are effective yoga practices, which help you to lose excess weight. With regular yoga practice for a long time, you become extra sensitive to the types of food your body demands. This is effective for keeping a check on your weight.
Yoga for stress relief
Some minutes of yoga every day is a good way of eliminating stress that you experience in daily life. It refers to both physical and mental stress. Certain yoga postures, meditation, and Pranayama are ideal practices for getting rid of stress.
Yoga and inner peace
In today’s hectic world and the hustle bustle of daily life, every person desires some peace. This peace can be found within your own self and you do not always need to escape to the mountain to breathe freely. Practicing yoga regularly will give you immense inner peace, which is equivalent to a mini holiday to some nice, serene place. Yoga is very essential for calming your disturbed and troubled mind.
Moreover, yoga poses massage your organs and help in strengthening your muscles. The various breathing exercises and meditation forms associated with yoga are great for releasing unwanted, undesirable stress from your system. This, in turn, improves your immune system and prevents you from getting affected by frequent diseases and health conditions.
Over the years, infidelity has surfaced as the single most common reason that has the ability to shatter and dismantle a perfectly happy relationship. Infidelity can occur in any and every form of relationship and in each of them it is deemed as unacceptable and uncalled for. Lack of affection has been generally identified as the primary cause why people stray.
However there are other reasons too that cause infidelity. Some of them are:
The person who is held responsible for going astray may actually be the victim of bad judgement and an impulsive decision. There may not be anything wrong with the marriage but momentary attraction and a rash decision are possible reasons that lead a person astray.
Search for an emotional connect
A lack of emotional connect with the partner can be a possible reason for infidelity. An unquenchable thirst for attention and the need to be flattered as well finding an emotional connect with a new person causes infidelity.
Though the most common and devastating outcome of infidelity is the end of a relationship, there are ways one that helps one to overcome infidelity. Some of them are as follows:
Ending the affair immediately
The first and foremost step that you must take in overcoming infidelity is to end the affair immediately. If your relationship is important to you, then it would require your complete investment both physically and emotionally. You must snap all contacts with the other person and concentrate on rebuilding your relationship with renewed faith and trust.
If you want the relationship to work then you must have a completely free and open discussion with your partner. Coming clean about your past affair is imperative if you want to begin anew. Your partner deserves a complete, honest discussion and you must do it delicately and with a lot of care.
Willingness to compromise
Beginning a relationship after confessing about the past relationships requires a lot of hard work and compromises. It will take a long time for the relationship to be what it was before the infidelity and you should take complete responsibility for it as well have a willingness to compromise on certain issues.
Apart from attempts to amend yourself, you can also use the help of a marriage therapist. A marriage counselor or a therapist through prolonged discussions and sound counsels can avert the possible ending of the relationship.
Married for months and years and yet no intercourse? You are not alone! (This should be the heading) Mr. and Mrs. S. were married for over 2 years now. It was an arranged marriage and the couple were getting along well. The only issue bothering them was that despite trying in many different ways, sexual intercourse has not taken place between them. It appeared that initially the wife was afraid of penetration, has experienced pain when the husband tried to penetrate, avoided sex as much as possible, consulted several doctors and gynecologists and followed their suggestions.
Finally, when Mrs. S was mentally and physically ready for intercourse, the husband, Mr. S started experiencing erectile dysfunction. He says his erections are good when he is alone, or even when he indulges in foreplay, but loses erection the moment he tries to take the penis near the vagina.
The result? The marriage is unconsummated, that is, intercourse has not yet happened between the couple.
Unconsummated marriage is not a rare thing. Quite a few couples experience it, though the exact prevalence is not known. Usually it is expected to be more prevalent in cultures with no or limited sex education / premarital guidance. For some, the problem resolves in a few weeks, for others it takes years on end. I have seen several couples who were unconsummated for 6-8 years and at least one couple who were married for 18 years. It does not mean that the problem is so complex! It only means the couple have taken so long to pluck up the courage to seek professional help and to strictly follow the therapist's suggestions.
Whether a couple is married or not, when they are unable to accomplish vaginal penetration, the relationship may be impacted in profound ways. It depends on how much each one loves, cares and supports the other, or how much each distrusts and finds fault with the other.
- Some try every position, lubricant, anesthetic, tranquilizer or the advice of a well-wisher and rate the outcome as success or failure.
- Some may altogether avoid intercourse or even other sexual activities.
- Some engage in all other intimate sexual activities including mutual masturbation or superficial sex (sex between the thighs) but preclude attempts to penetration.
- Yet others resort to the blame game, accusing the other for the failure. - Nevertheless, all unconsummated couples feel distressed, except those who enjoy satisfying sexual life, albeit without intercourse. Marital distress may in some cases lead to disputes between the couple, their families, and eventual annulment of marriage.
- Some people seek immediate consultation when they notice the problem, but many delay it for weeks to years out of embarrassment. Many a time, the couples seek professional help only when their urge to conceive surmounts embarrassment. Yet others consult only when their relationship comes under threat.
Why does it happen?
Unconsummated marriage can result from physical problems as well as psychological causes.
Causes in women:
2) Past painful experiences
3) Sexual pain disorders such as localized vulvodynia (vulvar vestibulitis syndrome), which is characterized by pain with touch at the entry to the vagina, which can prevent intercourse.
4) Some women have a very thick hymen, or a septate hymen, which vertically separates the vagina into two sides.
5) Vaginismus - a condition in which the muscles surrounding the vaginal opening contract involuntarily and close the opening tightly, making the penetration impossible. This is a psychosexual condition requiring counseling and behavior therapy.
In the male:
1) Erectile dysfunction can prevent intercourse. If it has a physiological basis, it may be treated medically.
2) Too early ejaculation (ejaculating before penetration)
3) curvature of the penis (if the curvature is mild, it can be dealt with through creative positioning. In more severe cases, medical or surgical treatment may be needed).
4) Severe anxiety and being over protective.
1) Lack of knowledge about sexual anatomy, physiology and sexual positions & techniques may contribute to the inability to penetrate.
2) One or both of the partners may have mobility problems or difficulty getting in to or maintaining a position.
How is the problem treated?
Most of these conditions can be addressed with appropriate information, guidance, counseling and physical therapy, including use of vaginal dilators. A septate hymen needs surgical repair. Anxiety and fear have to addressed. Pain due to infections or deformities need to be treated. Male erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation require treatment.
Couples in unconsummated relationships of long duration, may need couples-therapy. Premarital education and counseling can go a long way in reducing the number of unconsummated marriages and the resulting distress and marital problems.