In india, 61million people were victims of diabetes in 2011 which is expected to reach 101 million by 2030
Diabetes disease related to metabolic, in which oxidation of carbohydrates and glucose is not fully detected. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder in which the body fails to convert sugars, starches, and other foods into energy. Many of the foods you eat are normally converted into a type of sugar called glucose during digestion. The bloodstream then carries glucose through the body. The hormone, insulin, then turns glucose into quick energy or is stored for further use. In diabetic people, the body either does not make enough insulin or it cannot use the insulin correctly. This is why too much glucose builds in the bloodstream.
The main reason is an irregular meal, mental stress, lack of exercise.
There are two major types of diabetes:
1. Type 1: this is popularly known as juvenile onset diabetes. Here, the body produces little or no insulin. It occurs most often in childhood or in the teens and could be inherited. People with this type of diabetes need daily injections of insulin. They must balance their daily intake of food and activities carefully with their insulin shots to stay alive.
2. Type 2: also known as adult onset diabetes, this occurs around 35 to 40 years. The more common of the two types, it accounts for about 80 percent of the diabetics. Here, though the pancreas produces adequate insulin, body cells show reduced sensitivity towards it. Type 2 diabetes is usually triggered by obesity. The best way to fight it is by weight loss, exercise and dietary control. Sometimes, oral medication or insulin injections are also needed.
Symptoms of diabetes
Extreme thirst and hunger
Sores or bruises that heal slowly
Dry, itchy skin
Unexplained weight loss
Unusual tiredness or drowsiness
Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet are symptoms of diabetes
Role of diet in diabetes
A meal of diabetic patient is depending on calories. Which decides on its age, weight, gender, height, working etc. Depending on each person's different dietary chart is created. We must take special care of time and amount of food in diabetes. Here we are giving diet chart for general diabetes patient.
Diet chart for diabetic patients
Morning at 6: teaspoon fenugreek (methi) powder + water.
Morning at 7: 1 cup sugar-free tea + 1-2 mary biscuits.
Morning at 8: 30: 1 plate upma or oatmeal + half bowl sprouted grains + 100 ml double toned milk without sugar
Morning at 10: 30: 1 small fruit or lemon water (fruits like kiwi, (black jamun, guava, cherries, peaches, berries, apple, pineapple, pears, papaya, figs, oranges, watermelon, grapefruit, pomegranate, amla.
Lunch at 1: 2 roti of mixed flour, 1 bowl rice, 1 bowl pulse, 1 bowl yogurt, half cup soybean or cheese vegetable, half bowl green vegetable, one plate salad
Evening at 4: 1 cup tea without sugar + 1-2 sugar biscuits or toast
Evening at 6: 1 cup soup
Dinner at 8: 30: 2 roti of mixed flour, 1 bowl rice, 1 bowl pulse, half bowl green vegetable, one plate salad
Night at 10.30: take 1 cup cream -free milk without sugar.
When you feel hungry it is advised to consume raw vegetables, salad, black tea, soups, thin buttermilk, lemon water.
Avoid these items: molasses, sugar, honey, sweets, dry fruits.
Foods you must avoid!
Salt: salt is the greatest culprit for diabetics. You get enough salt from vegetables in inorganic form, so reduce the intake of inorganic salt.
Sugar: sucrose, a table sugar, provides nothing but calories and carbohydrates. Also, you need calcium to digest sucrose. Insufficient sucrose intake might lead to calcium being leached from the bones. Substitute sucrose with natural sugar, like honey, jaggery (gur), etc.
Fat: excessive fat intake is definitely not a good habit. Try and exclude fried items from your diet totally. But, remember, you must have a small quantity of oil to absorb fat soluble vitamins, especially vitamin a & e.
For non-vegetarians: try and stop the intake of red meat completely. Try to go in for a vegetarian diet. If you cannot, decrease the consumption of eggs and poultry. You can, however, eat lean fish two to three times a week.
Whole milk and products: try to switch to low-fat milk and its products like yogurt (curd). Replace high fat cheese with low-fat cottage cheese.
Tea and coffee: do not have then two cups of the conventional tea or decaffeinated coffee every day. Try to switch to herbal teas.
White flour and its products: replace these with whole grains, whole wheat or soya bread and unpolished rice.
Foods with a high glycemic index: avoid white rice, potatoes, carrots, bread and banana -- they increase the blood-sugar levels.
Advice for diabetic patients:
35-40 minute faster walk every day
Diabetic person should eat food between times intervals like take breakfast in the morning, lunch, some snakes, and dinner
Avoid oily food
Intake more fiber foods in meals. It increases glucose level gradually in blood and keeps control
Fasting is not advisable
Diabetic person should eat food slowly
An obese middle-aged or elderly patient with mild diabetes 1000 -1600 kcal.
An elderly diabetic but not overweight 1400 -1800 kcal.
A young active diabetic 1800 -3000 kcal.
Daily intake of carbohydrate: 1/10th of total calories approximately 180gm.
Daily intake of protein: 60gm to 110gm.
Daily intake of fat: 50gm to 150gm.