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Asthma is controllable and not curable, as it is due to chronic inflammation of air tubes which lead to hyper responsiveness of airways to external factors. It may go into remission. Use of laba and ICS combination by inhalation with spacer in most cases is able to control symptoms of asthma that is wheeze, chest tightness, cough and breathlessness. Once the symptoms are under control, then patient can take maintenance dose of ICS by inhalation with spacer to keep the inflammation in the airways under control. Avoid tigers of asthma like extreme of temperature change, dust, smoke, pollution and allergens.
Colorectal surgery deals with the disorders of the rectum, anus and colon. Another name of colon is ‘large intestine’. These three body parts form the last stages of the digestive process. When the human waste passes through the colon, its salt and water are extracted before it exits the body as human excreta.
- Swelling and inflammation of the veins in the anus (also called as Haemorrhoids)
- Anal fissures- unnatural cracks and fissures in the anal area
- Fistulas or the unnatural connections between the anus and other anorectal areas
- Conditions of constipation
- Incontinence in passing of faeces
- When the walls of the rectum protrude through the anus- also called as Rectal prolapse
- Birth defects such as imperforate anus
- Anal cancer- this condition is rare
- Colorectal cancer- cancer of colon and rectum
- Any injuries to the anus
- Removal of any objects inserted into the anus
Bowel habits after colorectal surgery
Many patients report cases of diarrhoea, leakage of stool or gas, urgency to use the toilet and a feeling of insufficient evacuation of faeces. Relax; these conditions are not going to last forever. Your rectum and anus are adjusting to new conditions after this surgery. These organs may take six to twelve months to adjust to new bowel habits.
Is there a need to take a laxative or stool softener?
There is no need to take laxatives after a colorectal surgery. Drink lots of water to make your stool softer and easy to pass. If there is a water deficiency in your body, then it may lead to your faeces becoming hard. In that case, take milk of magnesium, colace etc.
Activities post surgery
You can continue with your normal schedule after this surgical procedure. Carry on running, jogging, exercising, climbing up the stairs etc. even after your surgery. Gastroenterologists recommend that patients should desist from lifting loads weighing more than 10 pounds so that there are no post surgery complications.
Diet after colorectal surgery
Avoid spicy and heavy to digest meals after your surgery. Once the intestines begin working normally, you can continue having your spicy food. Chew your food well to aid its digestion.
Returning to work after colorectal surgery
Most people are back to their work after taking a break of 2-5 days. If the surgery is pretty detailed, you may have to take a break of up to a month. Patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery may have to take a rest of 2- 4 weeks before they report back to work. Take it easy before slipping into your regular schedule. If working hurts after your surgery, don’t do it. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general surgeon.
Homeopathy can very well dissolve gall stones of small and medium sizes, and relieve the gall bladder and body permanently from the pain, suffering and complications coming from gall stones. One of the benefits of homeopathic treatment for gall stones is that your gall bladder does not need removal, and being an important organ for producing digestive enzymes, it is better to keep it in your body. The other benefit is that you get a side effect-free treatment, which is completely efficient and practical, and costs really low compared to other modes of treatments and surgeries.
But before one goes for a homeopathic treatment, a complete evaluation of the patient’s case history must be done so that the right medicine can be given as per the case, history, severity etc. Here is a quick look at the commonly used homeopathic medicines, which doctors, depending on your case history, may prescribe for your gall stone.
Homeopathic medicines used for treating gall stones
- Calcarea carbonica: If you have a family history of kidney and gall stones, are anxious and slow, overweight with high deposits of triglycerides and cholesterol, then you would be given this medicine.
- Chelidonium: If you get pain in any or both of the two patterns pain originating under your right shoulder blade and pain in the upper right abdomen, which spreads to the back, you will be prescribed this one.
- Lycopodium: This medicine is usually recommended in case you have a family history of stones in kidney and gall bladder, along with other complications like, chronic digestive disorders, high cholesterol, gastric problems, constipation, peptic ulcers, gas and bloating. The patient may usually get biliary colic pains late in the afternoon. He or she may also get irritated easily, and hate contradicting opinions.
- Natrum sulphuricum: The patient may have any or some of the problems like chronic diarrhea, gall stone pain, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, obesity and problem in joints. On top of that the patient may be too sensitive to changes in humidity and weather. In such a case, Natrum sulphuricum is given.
- Nux vomica: If a patient suffers from nausea, colic pains, spasmodic pains, heartburn and acidity, gas and bloating, and takes too much of rich and oily food and drinks, then this medicine is used to treat gall stones for him or her.
As you can see, there is a remedy for all types of patients. Hence in case of small to medium sized gall stones, you can always retain the gall bladder, avoid surgeries, and keep patience with systematic homeopathic treatment from an expert doctor. You will get positive results soon.
Living with a renal transplant constantly exposes you to the risk of organ rejection. Although it might sound scary, it usually happens because the medication needs to be tuned according to the requirements of your body. A change in medication usually solves the problem of a possible rejection, and a rejection becomes less likely if it doesn't happen within a year of the transplant. Some obvious signs of rejection are a pain on the region of transplant, fever, change in weight or low urine discharge.
The causes behind a renal rejection vary on the basis of the type of rejection that takes place. Here are three different types of renal rejection and their causes:
- Hyperacute Rejection - Hyperacute rejection occurs within 24 hours of the transplant. It can have an immediate effect and occurs as the existing antibodies act against the grafted material, causing irreversible destruction. The immune system may recognize it as a foreign body and destroy it. Hyperacute rejection is common for patients who have received multiple blood transfusions or have suffered from transplant rejection earlier. The tissue must be removed immediately before it becomes fatal for the recipient. This type of rejection can generally be avoided if the doctors type or match both the receiver and the organ donor. The organ is less likely to be rejected if there are similar antigens between donor and receiver.
- Acute Rejection - Acute rejection generally occurs after the first week of transplantation. Acute rejection is common in most recipients. Since a perfect match of antigens is rare to find, except in the case of identical twins, some amount acute rejection occurs in the case of all recipients. It can cause complications like bleeding and inflammation. The risk of acute rejection is highest in the first three months of the transplant.
- Chronic Rejection - Chronic rejection occurs months later after the transplantation. This happens over time when the immune system of the body reacts against the transplanted tissue and slowly damages the organ. In such a case, the kidneys can suffer from scarring or fibrosis and damaged blood vessels. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general surgeon.
I suffered from GERD from April 2016 to June 2016 then it again starting hitting me within short span of time till date I am suffering from the same, sometimes I have stomach bloating, gases, vomit sensation ,dizziness, loose motions ,sometimes burning sensation in chest, pricking sensation in chest, I take nexpro 20 in morning empty stomach to reduce the acidity, but motions are not clear, any suggestion.
Ovarian cysts is a common problem that affects women in their childbearing years. These cysts develop inside the ovaries at the time of ovulation.
These cysts are of four main types:
In most cases, ovarian cysts resolve themselves, but in some cases they can cause pain and grow.
Ayurveda is a holistic form of alternate medication that can be quite effective when it comes to treating ovarian cysts. This form of medication has negligible side effects and hence, can be prescribed to women of all ages. Apart from medication, Ayurveda also involves changes in lifestyle and diet. Ayurvedic herbs help balance the hormones in a woman’s body and thereby improve the overall functioning of the ovaries as well.
Some of the Ayurvedic herbs used in the treatment of ovarian cysts are as follows:
Guggul: This herb has the potential to revitalise cells and can rejuvenate a person. Guggul or commiphora mukul also has purifying properties that helps regulate lipid production and increase iron levels in a person’s blood. It also helps in weight loss and increases metabolism.
Shilajit: The Ayurvedic herb asphaltum or shilajit improves stamina and the ability to deal with physical and mental stress. It is also known to increase sexual desire and enhance libido for both men and women.
Amalaki: Amalaki or emblica officinalis is best known for its ability to rejuvenate cells and rid the body of free radicals. It also helps boost immunity, aids in the development of healthy skin and slows down the aging process. Amalaki helps with digestion and boosts metabolism along with maintaining the proper functioning of the liver.
Aloe: Aloe is the most common Ayurvedic product used for skin care and anti-ageing products. Apart from skincare and hair care, aloe also helps relieve hypertension and has well known antioxidant properties. Additionally, it helps deal with high blood pressure and respiratory problems.
Vitamins and minerals: Some vitamins and minerals boost immunity and have the ability to destroy abnormal cells such as cysts. Zinc helps prevent ovarian cysts, helps the body get rid of free radicals and aids in normal cell growth. Vitamin B complex helps in converting excessive estrogen into less weaker forms and hence balances hormone levels. Antioxidants like vitamin A and E protect the cells against damage and abnormal changes in the cell growth. Vitamin C also helps boost immunity and gives the body the ability to fight illnesses and infections. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ayurveda and ask a free question.
A Hernia may be defined as the protrusion of an organ into an adjacent connective tissue or muscle. The protrusion usually occurs through a tear or a weakened area in the muscle (Fascia). Hernia can be an Inguinal Hernia, Umbilical Hernia, Hiatal Hernia or Femoral Hernia. It can also originate from an incision (Incisional Hernia).
The Inguinal Hernia is commonly observed in males. Here, the intestine squeezes through a tear in the abdominal wall into the groin (Inguinal canal). At times, the small intestine bulges through the abdominal wall (weak spot) near the belly button, which results in Umbilical Hernia. In Hiatal Hernia, the upper part of the stomach passes into the chest through the diaphragm, and of all the hernia types, the Inguinal Hernia is the most common.
Severe strain and muscle tear or weakness can result in Hernia. Obesity, chronic constipation, chronic coughing and sneezing, ageing, damage caused by injury, medical conditions like Cystic Fibrosis, contribute to increased incidences of Hernia. In case of Hernia, the affected area tends to protrude or bulge out. If left untreated; Hernia can prove to be detrimental. One needs to consult a physician for proper diagnosis and treatment. Physical examination can help in the diagnosis of Inguinal Hernia. An ultrasound is needed to diagnose Umbilical Hernia. A Barium X -ray or endoscopy can be of great help in the diagnosis of Hiatal Hernia.
The severity of the Hernia depends upon its size. In case the Hernia is rapidly increasing in size, a surgery is needed for the repair. The surgery performed can be open or laparoscopic. In open surgery, Hernia is identified through an incision. Once located, the Hernia is removed from the adjacent tissues. In laparoscopic repair, small incisions are made in the affected region. Through these incisions, specialized instruments are inserted. It is through these instruments that the surgeon visualizes and performs the surgery.
In such repairs, a mesh, held in place by sutures is used as a scaffold. This facilitates the growth of new tissues in the affected person. This technique significantly lowers the chance of a recurrence.
Certain factors must be well addressed, before performing a Hernia operation:
- Hernia operations, laparoscopic in particular, should be performed by experienced surgeons. Inexperienced surgeons will do you more harm than good.
- Laparoscopic Hernia operation should be avoided in case a patient has adhesions from previous surgery.
- Extreme care should be taken while performing a Hernia operation in infants and children.
- In some cases, Hernia surgery might affect or injure the vas deferens in men. This in turn can affect fertility in men.
What is Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal Surgery (Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy)?
Gallbladder removal is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Gallbladder removal surgery is usually performed with minimally invasive techniques and the medical name for this procedure is Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy or Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal.
The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ that rests beneath the right side of the liver. Its main purpose is to collect and concentrate a digestive liquid (bile) produced by the liver. Bile is released from the gallbladder after eating, aiding digestion. Bile travels through narrow tubular channels (bile ducts) into the small intestine. Removal of the gallbladder is not associated with any impairment of digestion in most people.
What Causes Gallbladder Problems?
Gallbladder problems are usually caused by the presence of gallstones which are usually small and hard, consisting primarily of cholesterol and bile salts that form in the gallbladder or in the bile duct.
It is uncertain why some people form gallstones but risk factors include being female, prior pregnancy, age over 40 years and being overweight. Gallstones are also more common as you get older and some people may have a family history of gallstones. There is no known means to prevent gallstones.
These stones may block the flow of bile out of the gallbladder, causing it to swell and resulting in sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, indigestion and, occasionally, fever. If the gallstone blocks the common bile duct, jaundice (a yellowing of the skin) can occur.
- Ultrasound is most commonly used to find gallstones.
- In a few more complex cases, other X-ray test such as a CT scan or a gallbladder nuclear medicine scan may be used to evaluate gallbladder disease.
Gallstones do not go away on their own. Some can be temporarily managed by making dietary adjustments, such as reducing fat intake. This treatment has a low, short-term success rate. Symptoms will eventually continue unless the gallbladder is removed. Treatments to break up or dissolve gallstones are largely unsuccessful.
Surgical removal of the gallbladder is the time-honored and safest treatment of gallbladder disease.
What are the Advantages of Performing Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal?
- Rather than a five to seven inch incision, the operation requires only four small openings in the abdomen.
- Patients usually have minimal post-operative pain.
- Patients usually experience faster recovery than open gallbladder surgery patients.
- Most patients go home the same day of the surgery and enjoy a quicker return to normal activities.
Are you a Candidate?
Although there are many advantages to laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy), the procedure may not be appropriate for some patients who have severe complicated gallbladder disease or previous upper abdominal surgery. A thorough medical evaluation by your personal physician, in consultation with a surgeon trained in laparoscopy, can determine if laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy) is an appropriate procedure for you. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general surgeon.
Right up until recently, most gynecologists have shied from carrying out total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) due to the technical challenges and prolonged operating times which are related to it. Instead, they have preferred to do laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH), a comparatively inefficient three-part technique made up of a preliminary laparoscopic phase, then a vaginal phase, and, finally, another laparoscopic phase.
Now it is believed that it has the possibility being the method of choice for any great proportion of hysterectomy cases, specifically in those situations - for example once the pubic angle is narrow, the vagina small, or the uterus high and immobile - in which LAVH includes a reduced chance of success. Simultaneously, however, it is realized that wider adoption of TLH would depend about the growth and development of new tools to facilitate the colpotomy part of the operation, and on the development of a simplified technique that could reduce complications and operative time period.
The cancer of the bladder (an organ in the pelvic region that stores urine) is known as bladder cancer. This cancer begins in the cells that line the inner portion of the bladder. Though it usually affects the aged, bladder cancer can develop in people across other age groups as well. It is important to undergo frequent check-ups even after the condition has been cured, as there always remain chances of a relapse.
There are three types of bladder cancer:
1. Squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cells appear in the bladder in response to any infection, which, with time, can become cancerous.
2. Transitional cell carcinoma: These cells are present in the lining of the bladder. They contract when the bladder is empty and expand when it is full. These cells are also found in the urethra, hence there are chances for the cancer to develop in the urethra as well.
3. Adenocarcinoma: Adenocarcinoma forms in the mucus secreting cells in the bladder.
The symptoms of bladder cancer are:
1. You may urinate frequently
2. Frequent backaches
3. You may experience pain during urination
4. Pain in the pelvic region
5. There may be presence of blood in the urine
There is no known cause of bladder cancer. However, certain factors such as smoking, infection and exposure to chemicals are known to trigger it. The risk factors of bladder cancer are:
1. Age: The risk of bladder cancer increases with age, it usually affects people who are above 40 years of age.
2. Smoking: Smoking releases toxins in the body that get stored in the urine. These can damage the inner lining of the bladder and lead to bladder cancer.
3. Gender: Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer as compared to women.
4. Chemical exposure: Exposure to certain chemicals such as arsenic increases your risk of bladder cancer.
5. Chronic inflammation of the bladder: If you suffer from chronic infection of the bladder, then the risk of squamous cell carcinoma increases significantly.
Hi i Small cyst in right breast at 12 o click position Clarified lesion in the right breast at 3 o click position BIRADS - II Few small well defined hypoechoic areas seen in the left lateral chest walls BIRADS -II.
One of the most common problems faced by ageing men is benign prostatic hypertrophy. Prostate is the gland at the base of the urethra near the bladder and when it enlarges it can lead to symptoms, mostly related to urination.
1. Frequent urge to pass urine
2. Prolonged urination
3. Frequent nocturnal visits to the toilet
4. Intermittent urination
5. Difficulty to start urinating
6. Inability to completely empty the bladder
7. Urinary tract infections
There are medications available to manage this, but offer only temporary relief. Many men therefore prefer to have the surgery undergone to manage these bothersome symptoms. However, like any surgery, the risks and benefits need to be considered along with other conditions like age, overall health status, other comorbid conditions, etc.
Surgical removal of the enlarged prostate gland is a more definitive approach to manage these symptoms. In addition to providing a quick cure, it also is used in the following cases:
1. Patients who do not respond to medications
2. Presence of blood in the urine
3. Associated bladder stones
4. Frequent infections of the urinary tract
5. Associated damage to the kidneys
Procedure of Surgery
During the procedure, a tube is passed through the tip of the penis into the urethra towards the bladder neck. Once it is in the desired position, laser is passed through it to deliver energy that acts on the prostate to either completely or partially destroy it. There are two methods by which laser acts on the enlarged prostate and making way for free flow of the urine.
1. Ablation: Excess prostate tissue is melted away by the laser by using photosensitive vaporization of the prostate. This is also known as Greenlight laser therapy or KTP laser vaporization. Alternately, Holmium can be used as the source of laser energy to ablate the prostate tissue.
2. Enucleation: Excess prostate tissue is cut and teased out through the urethra. Holmium laser is used to resect the prostate into smaller pieces, which are then removed out through a resectoscope. Another technique uses a tissue morcellator which grinds the enlarged prostate into smaller pieces to enable easy retrieval.
More men now opt for laser prostate removal as it has the following advantages:
1. Reduced risk of bleeding: This becomes essentially important in patients who are on blood thinners.
2. No hospitalization: This can be done either as an outpatient or with minimal one day stay at the hospital
3. Immediate symptom relief: As compared to medications, the relief is felt almost immediately after the surgery
4. No catheter: With laser surgery, a catheter may be required for less than 24 hours unlike in open surgical cases.
As noted above, as with any surgery, once enlarged prostate symptoms set in, have a detailed discussion with your doctor to identify if you are a suitable candidate for laser surgery.
Screening for cancer of the colon or large intestine and rectum is a proven way of saving a person from the impact of colorectal diseases. This is partly because colon cancer is something that can be prevented if detected at an early stage and the polyps which may advance to cancer are removed properly. Thus if you are turning 50 soon, be prepared to present yourself for a screening colonoscopy that will help you ensure good health and well-being. It may sound uncanny, but do you know that 50,000 people across the world die from colorectal cancer every year, and it is ranked second in terms of cancer-centric deaths.
Understanding the importance of having colonoscopy: You may wonder how a painful, invasive, embarrassing, uncomfortable and time consuming a health test may be today. A screening colonoscopy is able to expose a cancerous tumour that's presently under way and cast light on chances and risk factors that may precede it. When you choose to intervene early, you have the power to nip those risks at their budding stage, much before those malicious cells become malignant.
Spreading of the colorectal cancer: Your large intestine is really a big and last organ of the gastrointestinal system where the small intestine discontinues. Its primary function is to remove the water out of the leftover solids of digestion and get rid of them in the form of stool. Cancer may start to develop anywhere within the tube that expands 5 feet long and squares the vacant area of the abdomen. The large intestine expands up towards the right side, i.e. the ascending colon and then turns left through the liver, i.e., the transverse colon cancer, bending down right at the spleen on its left, i.e. descending colon and loops to the middle, i.e., the sigmoid colon before it runs across the rectum and ends at the anus.
People who need a colonoscopy: To simplify matters, it can be said that all adults are at a potential risk of the colorectal cancer, including those people who lead a healthy life. But some people are at a higher risk. Those individuals have a specific gene mutation that predisposes them to develop into numerous polyps. The risk is also high with people who are first-degree relatives of a person diagnosed with cancer before the age of 50. People with Ulcerative colitis, various types of inflammatory bowel diseases and Crohn's disease are also at a higher risk.
Colorectal cancer is a serious ailment and screening colonoscopy is a feasible means of detecting any polyps that may be cancerous in the future. Speak with a reputed gastroenterologist today to stay ahead of the disease.
Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy
What is a total laparoscopic hysterectomy?
Is the removal of the uterus and cervix through four small (1/2 Abdominal incisions. Removal of the ovaries and tubes depends on the patient).
Why is this surgery used?
To treat disease of the uterus
• Infection in the ovaries or tubes
• Pelvic pain
• Overgrowth of tissue in the lining of the uterus
• Abnormal vaginal bleeding
How do I prepare for surgery?
The lab work for your surgery must be done at least 3 days beforesurgery. Some medications need to be stopped before the surgery. Smoking can affect your surgery and recovery. Smokers may have difficulty breathing during the surgery and tend to heal more slowly after surgery. If you are a smoker, it is best to quit 6-8 weeks before surgery. You will be told at your pre-op visit whether you will need a bowel prepfor your surgery and if you do, what type you will use. The prep to clean your bowel will have to be completed the night before your surgery.
• You will need to shower at home before surgery.
• Do not wear makeup, nail polish, lotion, deodorant, or antiperspirant on the day of surgery.
• Remove all body piercings and acrylic nails.
Most women recover and are back to most activities in 4-6 weeks. Youmay need a family member or a friend to help with your day-to-day activities for a few days after surgery.
What can I expect during the surgery?
Once in the operating room, you will receive general anesthesia before the surgery to keep you from feeling pain. A tube to help you breathe will be placed in your throat. Another tube will be placed in your stomach to remove any gas or other contents to reduce the likelihood of injury during the surgery. The tube is usually removed before you wake up. A catheter will be inserted into your bladder to drain urine and to monitor the amount of urine coming out during surgery. Compression stockings will be placed on your legs to prevent blood clots in your legs and lungs during surgery. After you are asleep the laparoscope is inserted into the abdomen and carbon dioxide gas is blown into the abdomen to inflate the belly wall away from the internal organs. After you are asleep the doctor will remove the uterus, cervix, and possibly the ovaries and tubes through the 4 small abdominal incisions.
What are possible risks from this surgery?
Although there can be problems that result from surgery, we work very hard to make sure it is as safe as possible. However, problems can occur, even when things go as planned. You should be aware of these possible problems, how often they happen, and what will be done to correct them.
Possible risks during surgery include:
Bleeding: If there is excessive bleeding, you will receive a blood transfusion. Conversion to an open surgery requiring an up and down or Bikini incision: If a bigger open incision is needed during your surgery, you may need to stay in the hospital for one or two nights.
• Damage to the bladder, ureters (the tubes that drain the kidneys into the bladder), and to the bowel: Damage occurs in less than 1% of surgeries. If there is damage to the bladder, urete rs, or to the bowel they will be repaired while you are in surgery.
• Death: All surgeries have a risk of death. Some surgeries have a higher risk than others. Possible risks that can occur days to weeks after surgery:
• Hernia:Weakness in the muscle at the incision that causes a lump under the skin.
• Incision opens: The abdominal or vaginal incision.
•Scar tissue: Tissue thicker than normal skin forms at the site of surgery
What happens after the surgery?
• You will be taken to the recovery room and monitored for a short time before going to the observation unit.
• Depending on the length of your surgery, you may not be able to eat or drink anything until the next morning or you will be started on a liquid diet. When you are feeling better you may return to a regular diet.
• You may have a scratchy or sore throat from the tube used for youranesthesia.
• You will be given medications for pain and nausea if needed.
Have the tube in your bladder removed in recovery room.
Have the compression stockings on your legs to improve circulation.
Be restarted on your routine medications.
Be given a small plastic device at your bedside to help expand your lungs after surgery.
Start walking as soon as possible after the surgery to help healingand recovery.
Stay in the hospital for 24 hours.
When will I go home after surgery?
Most women spend one night in the hospital and are ready to go home around noon -time the day after surgery. You should plan for someone to be at the hospital by noon to drive you home.
At home after surgery : If you use a bowel prep before surgery, it is common not to have a bowel movement for several days.
Call your doctor right away if you:
• develop a fever over 100.4°F (38°C)
• start bleeding like a menstrual period or (and) are changing a pad every hour
• have severe pain in your abdomen or pelvis that the pain medication is not helping
• have heavy vaginal discharge with a bad odor
• have nausea and vomiting
• have chest pain or difficulty breathing
• leak fluid or blood from the incision or if the incision opens
• develop swelling, redness, or pain in your legs develop a rash
• have pain with urination
• Your in cision will be closed with dissolvable stitches.
• Spotting is normal. Discharge will change to a brownish color followed by yellow cream color that will continue for up to four to eight weeks. It is common for the brownish discharge to have a slight odor because it is old blood. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
You will continue with your regular diet.
• Pain: Medication for pain will be prescribed for you after surgery. Do not take it more frequently than instructed.
• Stool softener: Narcotic pain medications may cause constipation. A stool softener may be needed while taking these medications.
• Nausea: Anti -nausea medication is not typically prescribed.
• Energy level: It is normal to have a decreased energy level after surgery. During the first week at home, you should minimize any strenuous activity. Once you settle into a normal routine at home, you will slowly begin to feel better. Walking around the house and taking short walks outside can help you get back to your normal energy level more quickly.
• Showers: Showers are allowed within 24 hours after your surgery.
• Climbing: Climbing stairs is permitted, but you may require some assistance when you first return home.
• Lifting: For 4-6 weeks after your surgery you should not lift anything heavier than a gallon of milk. This includes pushing objects such as a vacuum cleaner and vigorous exercise.
• Driving: The reason you are asked not to drive after surgery is because you may be prescribed pain medications. Even after you stop taking pain medication; driving is restricted because you may not be able to make sudden movements due to discomforts from surgery.
• Exercise: Exercise is important for a healthy lifestyle. You may begin normal physical activity within hours of surgery. Start with short walks and gradually increase the distance a nd length of time that you walk. To allow your body time to heal, you should not return to a more difficult exercise routine for 4 -6 weeks after your surgery. Please talk to your doctor about when you can start exercising again.
• Intercourse: No sexual activity for 8 weeks after surgery.
• Work: Most patients ca n return to work between 4 -6 weeks after surgery.
Menorrhagia refers to very heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding or periods in women. The bleeding is abnormal in nature, and if this continues for a long time, a hysterectomy surgery needs to be carried out to solve the problem.
Bleeding during the night time and passage of large blood clots during menstruation are other symptoms of Menorrhagia.
The various possible causes of this kind of heavy menstrual bleeding are:
Hormonal imbalance, specifically of estrogen and progesterone is a common cause, which is more likely in adolescents and in women nearing menopause. Dysfunction in the ovaries also causes hormonal imbalance.
Non-cancerous tumors or fibroids may also be responsible for menorrhagia.
Women suffering from a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy are likely to experience heavy menstrual bleeding.
Using blood thinners may lead to menorrhagia.
An intrauterine device used for birth control measures can cause disturbance and may lead to heavy menstruation.
A condition known as adenomyosis, where the glands in the uterus lining get embedded in the walls of the uterus, also causes menorrhagia.
Pelvic inflammatory diseases, infection in the uterus or fallopian tubes are other common causes.
Heavy bleeding may occur in patients with ovarian or cervical cancer.
Diseases of the kidney, liver or thyroid diseases may also cause menorrhagia.
Several tests and methods are carried out for the diagnosis of menorrhagia. They are:
A general physical examination.
Bleeding diary of the woman.
Blood tests to detect anemia or thyroid.
Pap Smear for the evaluation of cervical inflammation, infections or cancer
Ultrasound for evaluation of pelvic organs like uterus, ovaries and pelvis.
Hysteroscopy, where a camera is inserted into the uterus to observe the linings.
Sonohysterography, where a fluid gets instilled into the uterus along with an ultrasound test.
Certain drugs are used to treat menorrhagia. They include:
Iron supplements for treating anemia.
NSAIDS or non-steroidal anti-inflammatories for treating and reducing blood loss.
Tranexamic acid is used for reducing menstrual bleeding.
Several oral contraceptives are used for regulation of the menstrual cycle. Oral progesterone corrects hormonal imbalance and reduces bleeding.
Surgical procedures for treatment of menorrhagia include:
Hysteroscopy, dilation and curettage, where uterus lining is scraped and evaluated.
Uterine artery embolization treats menorrhagia with fibroids.
Focused ultrasound ablation enables the killing of the fibroid tissue.
Myomectomy, endometrial ablation and endometrial resection are other surgical techniques.
Hysterectomy surgery is the penultimate solution, where the uterus, cervix or ovaries are completely removed.
Menorrhagia is characterized by abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding in women. This is quite unhealthy and proper measures must be taken for curing the heavy bleeding.
Adrenal Glands are endocrine glands located right above the kidneys. They produce important hormones such as adrenaline, aldosterone and cortisol which are involved in a number of biological functions. The dysfunction of the adrenal glands can cause serious endocrine diseases.
Need for Surgery?
The adrenal glands may not function properly due to a number of reasons, including any kind of infection in the glands, kidney disorders, genetic ailments, lesions, tumours on or around the adrenal glands. Due to the irregularity in the release of hormones and enzymes that are essential to the normal functioning of a human body, a number of serious illnesses arise. There is an excess or absolute insufficiency in the release of hormones. This can even turn into a medical emergency. It can lead to uncontrollable obesity, very high or low blood pressure, dermatological problems, menstrual irregularities, blood sugar level irregularities, severe headaches, cramps, fluctuations in potassium levels and so on. That is when surgery is required.
How surgery is performed?
Laparoscopy is the type of surgery which requires minimum invasion. This is fairly a new and successful method of surgery. The patient recovers speedily and is able to go back home within a short span of time after the surgery. Removal of adrenal glands can be performed by making a maximum of three or four-and-a-half inches incision. This results in quicker cosmetic recovery compared to other patients of open surgery.
The surgery is performed under general anaesthesia. A narrow tube-like instrument, known as the cannula is placed into the upper abdominal cavity, below the ribs. Through the cannula, a tiny telescope, known as the laparoscope is inserted. It is connected to a special camera that provides a magnified view of the patient’s internal organs on a large monitor. Using such technology, the adrenal glands are dissected free from other organs and removed.
Post Operative Care
In case of a simple laparoscopic surgery, there are hardly any post operative complications. In case of mild pain or discomfort, the doctors may however prescribe some medications. It is important to go for a medical check up after a couple of weeks of the surgery, to make sure you are completely fine.
Recently I have diagnosed with enlarged ovaries due to hormone imbalance, test shows right ovary: 4.7*2.2 cm, left ovary: 3.2*2.2 cm, both are enlarged, mixed echogenic, no focal lesions, minimal free fluid seen in PID.
Obesity is a serious, chronic disease that can have a negative effect on many systems in your body. People who are overweight or obese have a much greater risk of developing serious conditions, including:
- Heart disease
- Type 2 diabetes
- Bone and joint disease
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically over the past few decades, and obesity during adolescence is associated with significant medical morbidity during adulthood. Eating disorders and obesity are usually seen as very different problems but actually share many similarities. Eating disorders (EDs) are the third most common chronic condition in adolescents, after obesity and asthma.
In fact, eating disorders, obesity, and other weight-related disorders may overlap as girls move from one problem, such as unhealthy dieting, to another, such as obesity. Understand the links between eating disorders and obesity and promote healthy attitudes and behaviors related to weight and eating.
What is an Eating Disorder?
Eating Disorders describe illnesses that are characterized by irregular eating habits and severe distress or concern about body weight or shape. Eating disturbances may include inadequate or excessive food intake which can ultimately damage an individual’s well-being. The most common forms of eating disorders include Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder and affect both females and males.
Signs & Symptoms of an Eating Disorder:
A man or woman suffering from an eating disorder may reveal several signs and symptoms, some which are:
- Chronic dieting despite being hazardously underweight
- Constant weight fluctuations
- Obsession with calories and fat contents of food
- Engaging in ritualistic eating patterns, such as cutting food into tiny pieces, eating alone, and/or hiding food
- Continued fixation with food, recipes, or cooking; the individual may cook intricate meals for others but refrain from partaking
- Depression or lethargic stage
- Avoidance of social functions, family and friends. May become isolated and withdrawn
- Switching between periods of overeating and fasting
What are the health risks associated with these disorders?
- Stunted growth.
- Delayed menstruation.
- Damage to vital organs such as the heart and brain.
- Nutritional deficiencies, including starvation.
- Cardiac arrest.
- Emotional problems such as depression and anxiety.
What is Obesity?
Obesity means being overweight by the accumulation of excess fat within the body. Obesity is defined to some extent by measuring Body Mass Index (BMI). People become obese by consumption of excess calories, imbalance between calories intake and calories outgoing, leading a sedentary life, lack of sleep , disturbances in lipid metabolism and intake of medications that put on obese.
What are the risks associated with obesity?
Obesity increases the risk for:
- High blood pressure
- Cardiovascular disease
- Gallbladder disease
- Respiratory problems
- Emotional problems such as depression and anxiety
How eating disorder and obesity are related?
Eating disorders and obesity are part of a range of weight-related problems.
- Body dissatisfaction and unhealthy dieting practices are linked to the development of eating disorders, obesity, and other problems.
- Binge eating is common among people with eating disorders and people who are obese.
- Depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders are associated with both eating disorders and obesity.
- The environment may contribute to both eating disorders and obesity.
Help adolescents develop healthy eating habits:
- Help children learn to control their own eating.
- Offer children a variety of healthy foods at meal and snack times.
- Eat dinner together as a family most days of the week.
- Be aware of your child's emotional health or else consult a psychologist
- Encourage children to participate in sports, dance, swimming and other physical activities.
- Counteract harmful media messages about body image.
The splendid approach:
The approach should be quite simple. A proper diet plan, nutritious foods and fruits with proper exercise can do a world of good to you. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dietitian/Nutritionist.