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What is a hysterectomy?
This is a surgery that is used to remove the ovaries or even the uterus. This surgery is usually conducted in order to deal with the extreme conditions that may be caused by the severe onset of various conditions related to the reproductive system of women. Read on to find out why this surgery carried out and what are the after effects?
Causes: This surgery can be carried out for a variety of reasons. One of the main reason is the manifestation of uterine fibroids that can cause severe pain and bleeding. These fibroids will have to be removed surgically and in case they have spread, the uterus will have to be removed entirely. Also, if the condition has spread to the ovaries, it may be imperative to remove the ovaries as well. Furthermore, if the patient is suffering from endometriosis, where the tissue has spread too much and cannot be contained merely by medication or other forms of treatment, then the doctor will have to conduct a hysterectomy surgery in order to remove the affected areas of the reproductive area. Also, other conditions for which this surgery may be required include adenomyosis, chronic pain in the pelvic area, cancer of the uterus, cervical cancer and uterine prolapse.
Procedure: A hysterectomy is performed under anesthesia, and the doctor makes a five to seven inch incision in the abdomen for an open surgery. The doctor will then continue to remove the uterus through this incision. Also, usually, the patient will have to spend about three to four days in the hospital following this surgery. A vaginal hysterectomy may also be conducted for certain cases, depending on the type and severity of the condition that has led to this form of treatment. For this kind of surgery, the incisions will be made in the vaginal area.
After effects: Starting from hormonal imbalances to early menopause, this surgery can leave significant after effects in its trail. The patients who have been through this surgery will be asked to abstain from heavy physical work that involves lifting heavy objects and bending. Also, the doctor will recommend abstinence from sex. One will have to avoid these things for a period of at least six weeks after the surgery. In many cases, the patient may also go through heavy menstrual bleeding.
Doctor visits: In case the bleeding and hot flashes are excessive, then the patient will have to consult a doctor and take further appointments so that the condition may not reoccur. Also, the doctor will usually prescribe supplements like vitamins, which must be taken on a regular basis after the surgery to avoid any complications at a later date.
Hi i am having Gerd kinda symptoms I need toh know the medicines Throat pain stomach pain acidic feeling while consuming food.
Hi, I have undergone surgery 10 years back for ovarian cyst. At present am facing irregular menstrual period, am about to get married. Am very much worried that if I face infertility. Kindly suggest on this.
Colorectal cancer is otherwise known as cancer of the colon or the rectum. This can affect both men and women with age being a major risk factor. Majority of such cancers are seen to occur after age of 50 years.
Type: Colorectal cancers can present as one of the following types:
Adenocarcinomas are the most common type of colorectal cancers. These cancers begin in the cells making mucous and other fluids. Certain colorectal cancers begin as adenomatous polyps (adenomas) that turn cancerous over a period of time. This is precisely why the adenomas are regarded as pre-cancerous or pre-malignant.
Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumors, GI stromal tumors, primary colorectal lymphoma, leiomyosarcoma, melanoma & squamous cell carcinoma are certain other colorectal cancers
Carcinoid tumors: start in specialized cells that produce hormones, in the intestine.
GI Stromal tumors: start in the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), in the wall of the colon.
Lymphomas: start typically in the lymph nodes but they may also start in colon or rectum.
Sarcomas: can start in the muscle and the connective tissue in the walls of the colon and rectum.
Gender: It affects both male and female populace.
Etiology: Mostly, the factors that are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer include the following –
Age exceeding 50 years.
Racial & ethnic background such as African Americans, in the USA, are known to have the highest incidence of colorectal cancer, and mortality rates.
Low fibre and high fat diet. Excessive consumption of red meat (e.g. goat meat, beef, pork, lamb, or liver), processed meats, butter, refined grains, sweets, sugary drinks etc all can increase the risk of colorectal cancer.
Personal history of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) (e.g. ulcerative colitis), Crohn’s disease, adenomatous colorectal polyps, colorectal cancer etc all.
Family history of colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyps etc all.
Inherited syndromes such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer or HNPCC).
Sedentary lifestyle/ associated Obesity.
Tobacco and alcohol abuse.
Features or symptoms can vary from person to person depending on the size and location of the tumour. Following are the signs & symptoms mainly -
Changes in bowel habits, diarrhea or constipation or an alternating diarrhea and constipation.
Occult/ blood in the stool, and
Problems related to blood loss (e.g. anemia, weakness, fatigue, intolerance to exercise, shortness of breath, increased heart rate, chest pain etc all),
Abdominal discomfort (frequent gas/ flatulence, bloating, fullness, cramps, and pain), vomiting etc.
Unexplained weight loss,
Pain with bowel movement,
Feeling that bowel does not empty completely,
Stools are narrower than usual.
- Diagnosis: Following are the diagnostics employed. Abnormal blood test results may be indicative of malignancy, but a follow-up imaging/ biopsy is always the gold standard for accurate diagnosis.
- Blood: fecal occult blood test, Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) assay values are raised, Hb/ RBC counts may be low.
- Imaging: Colonoscopy, Endorectal Scan/ CT Scan followed by Biopsy clinches the diagnosis and the nature of the disease.
- Apart from the above-mentioned barium enema X-Ray, USG, Chest X-ray, PET CT scan etc all help detect metastasis, if any. An increase in level of the serum tumor marker ‘CEA’ is indicative of metastatic spread/ proliferation that can be ascertained through a PET CT scan.
- Treatment: Conventional treatment includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy as contextually appropriate. Simultaneously, an adjunctive/ integrative naturopathic treatment with suitable complementary & alternative medicines (CAM)/ therapies too can help improve clinical outcomes and facilitate recovery as feasible contextually.
Prognosis: Preventive measures, earlier diagnosis and right early treatment is key for better prognosis and efficient/ effective therapeutic management. Usually, the chances of cure for an early stage cancer are more. Above-mentioned apart, recovery chances are influenced by the grade, stage of cancer, recurrence and the patient’s general health & vitality etc all too.
Prevention: Rightly said, prevention is always a better choice. Although genetic risks are difficult to modify, still an adherence to a Mediterranean diet, maintaining an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle with due emphasis on regular exercising (for at least 30 minutes daily), de-stressing and relaxation is highly recommended for prevention or reducing the risks of colorectal cancer. A healthy eating plate comprises essentially a low fat diet, fibre rich foods including whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables cooked using healthy vegetable oils, fresh fruits of all colours as seasonally available and healthy proteins/ fats including fresh fish, poultry, beans, nuts etc all. It is advisable to limit milk/ dairy, preferably of low fat content, to 1 to 2 servings max daily. Although alcohol is optional and is not for everyone, the consumption of the same, if any, has to be strictly in moderation, and is best avoided. Smoking is to be avoided as well. Again, red meat, butter, refined grains, sweets, sugary drinks including carbonated beverages and other high calorie foods etc all, if any, are to be taken sparingly or are best avoided too. Apart from the generic preventive measures as mentioned above, certain pre-malignant conditions, of which adenomas are the most common, can be successfully treated with complementary and alternative medicines too.
Sir, I have pain during swallowing food in my esophagus. Help me .i take penta wok medicine. But not get relief yet.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH is a condition where the prostate gland gets enlarged. This is mostly common in men who are ageing. When the prostate gland gets enlarged, the flow of urine through the urethra gets blocked, and hence, several problems related to urination may occur. BPH occurs as a result of hormonal imbalance. If untreated, BPH can lead to severe bladder and urinary health conditions.
There are several symptoms and signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Here are 7 common symptoms:
- A frequent need for urination: Men affected by BPH feel an increased need to urinate frequently. This gets enhanced during the night and is called nocturia. The patient may even need to urinate more than eight times a day. Due to the enlarged prostate gland, more pressure is put on the urethra, which leads to uncontrollable urination.
- Urinating difficulties: The act of urination becomes difficult. Because of enhanced pressure on the urethra, the flow of urine to the penis from the bladder gets blocked. This makes a urine stream hard to start. The urine stream gets weak and interrupted, and more difficulty may be experienced during the end of urination.
- Pain during urination and ejaculation: Due to pressure on the urinary tract and reproductive system, pain can accompany urination and ejaculation. Some patients tend to push urine out, which results in pain. The pain may also occur because of infection during BPH.
- Blood in urine and an unusual color/smell: Urine may take a dark color and have an unusual smell due to urinary retention. Unpleasant urine smell signifies urinary tract infections. Blood in the urine may also result because of dilated veins present on the surface of the enlarged prostate.
- Urinary retention: When a patient is unable to pass any urine, it is called urinary retention. Such a condition requires immediate treatment, and you need to consult a doctor immediately.
- Urinary tract infections: Bacteria may start growing in the bladder when the bladder is not fully emptied of urine. This bacterial infection causes darkening of the urine, and emission of a foul odor.
- Bladder stones: Bladder stones may develop because of the inability of the bladder to empty itself completely. This is a major symptom of BPH. Hard lumps of minerals or bladder stones are formed when the urine present in the bladder gets highly concentrated, which causes the crystallization of minerals. Bladder stones may cause infections, result in blood in urine, cause bladder irritation and may also block urine flow.
So you see that benign prostatic hyperplasia involves the enlargement of the prostate gland, and results in several problems related to urination and different symptoms. Hence, immediate treatment is advisable.
Homeopathy can very well dissolve gall stones of small and medium sizes, and relieve the gall bladder and body permanently from the pain, suffering and complications coming from gall stones. One of the benefits of homeopathic treatment for gall stones is that your gall bladder does not need removal, and being an important organ for producing digestive enzymes, it is better to keep it in your body. The other benefit is that you get a side effect-free treatment, which is completely efficient and practical, and costs really low compared to other modes of treatments and surgeries.
But before one goes for a homeopathic treatment, a complete evaluation of the patient’s case history must be done so that the right medicine can be given as per the case, history, severity etc. Here is a quick look at the commonly used homeopathic medicines, which doctors, depending on your case history, may prescribe for your gall stone.
Homeopathic medicines used for treating gall stones
- Calcarea carbonica: If you have a family history of kidney and gall stones, are anxious and slow, overweight with high deposits of triglycerides and cholesterol, then you would be given this medicine.
- Chelidonium: If you get pain in any or both of the two patterns pain originating under your right shoulder blade and pain in the upper right abdomen, which spreads to the back, you will be prescribed this one.
- Lycopodium: This medicine is usually recommended in case you have a family history of stones in kidney and gall bladder, along with other complications like, chronic digestive disorders, high cholesterol, gastric problems, constipation, peptic ulcers, gas and bloating. The patient may usually get biliary colic pains late in the afternoon. He or she may also get irritated easily, and hate contradicting opinions.
- Natrum sulphuricum: The patient may have any or some of the problems like chronic diarrhea, gall stone pain, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, obesity and problem in joints. On top of that the patient may be too sensitive to changes in humidity and weather. In such a case, Natrum sulphuricum is given.
- Nux vomica: If a patient suffers from nausea, colic pains, spasmodic pains, heartburn and acidity, gas and bloating, and takes too much of rich and oily food and drinks, then this medicine is used to treat gall stones for him or her.
As you can see, there is a remedy for all types of patients. Hence in case of small to medium sized gall stones, you can always retain the gall bladder, avoid surgeries, and keep patience with systematic homeopathic treatment from an expert doctor. You will get positive results soon.
Ovarian Cancer, as the name suggests, is a cancer that affects the ovaries. It leads to the abnormal growth of cells, which eventually spreads over to other parts of a woman’s body, such as the stomach, uterus and vagina. The risk of ovarian cancer is greater in women who have experienced the process of ovulation many times in their lifetime. It also includes those women who attain menopause at a much later stage in their lives or those who start ovulation at an early age. The different types of tumors, which develop in ovarian cells are more often than not, benign or non-cancerous and do not spread beyond the ovaries.
Therefore, they can be easily treated by either removing a part or the whole of the ovary. But malign tumors have the ability to spread to other parts of the body and can prove to be fatal.
What are the causes of ovarian cancer
1. Family History: If someone in your close relation like mother, sister or daughter has developed ovarian cancer, then the risk of becoming susceptible to the disease also increases. If any of your close relatives have developed the disease earlier at a young age, then it’s quite likely that it was due to some inherited faulty gene. BCRA1 and BCRA2 are known to be the faulty genes that are connected to ovarian cancer.
2. Age: You become more susceptible to developing ovarian cancer at a postmenopausal stage.
3. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Women who go for hormone replacement therapy put themselves at a greater risk of developing the disease. Nevertheless, if you stop undergoing the sessions of HRT, your risk of suffering from this fatal condition eventually decreases.
4. Obesity/overweight: This is also one of the important factors behind the increased risks of developing ovarian cancer. So, the more obese you are, greater is the risk involved.
What are the symptoms associated with ovarian cancer?
1. Symptoms at an initial stage include pelvic or abdominal pain, postmenopausal vaginal bleeding or irregular menstruation.
2. Loss of appetite or feeling full quickly
3. Other typical symptoms are diarrhea, constipation, nausea or changes in bowel movements.
4. Feeling of mass pressure at your lower back or pelvis
Treatment available for it
Treatment for ovarian cancer generally consists of a combination of surgery and chemotherapy:
1. Surgery: Treatment usually entails removal of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes, including the surrounding lymph nodes as well as the fatty abdominal tissue, which often gets affected with ovarian cancer. This surgery may help you to retain the ability to conceive.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is a procedure that follows a surgery and is performed to destroy the remaining cancer cells, if any. Chemotherapy drugs are either inserted into your vein or directly into the abdominal cavity and if need be, into both.
When blood clot blocks one or more arteries in your lungs the condition is known as pulmonary embolism. It can cause a decrease in the oxygen levels in your blood, damage to your lungs due to sudden restrictions in the flow of blood along with adverse effects on other parts of your body. Life threatening blockage can cause death if left untreated and you should immediately contact your health care provider to get proper diagnosis. Pulmonary embolism requires various lab tests and generally requires short time to resolve.
Symptoms: The symptoms of pulmonary embolism mainly depend upon many factors pertaining to your previous medical history. Pulmonary embolism varies with the size of your lungs, the size of the clots formed in your blood, and any other underlying history of the heart or lungs. That said, pulmonary embolism has symptoms which are not similar to any two persons and will vary accordingly.
The common symptoms however may include the following and you are advised to opt for a health checkup if these are persistent in your body:
- Cough along with bloody sputum is a common symptom.
- Shortness of breath, which will become worse as the days passes by. They will appear suddenly and cause huge discomfort in breathing.
- Chest pain which may give you the feeling of a heart attack. The pain will intensify when you sit to eat or cough. Deep breath will cause problems too and will not go away easily with exertion.
- Some other symptoms include fever, excess sweat, irregular heartbeat and dizziness.
Pulmonary embolism can be diagnosed by the following methods:
- Electrocardiography (also known popularly as ECG) to measure your heart's electrical activity and functioning.
- CT plumonary angiography is gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism.
- Chest x ray, which is a common and non invasive test to check your heart and lungs as well as the problems with any bones surrounding them.
- ECHO can detect secondary changes in heart due to pulmonary embolism.
Treatment of pulmonary embolism can be done with medicines if it is detected at an early stage or also if the clot is small. However, if the size of your clot is problematic and blocks the blood flow to your lungs or heart then surgery may be necessary. Open surgery and clot removal surgery are common in the treatment of pulmonary embolism and will require good regular follow up check ups. Regular leg exercises will also reduce the chances of any underlying disease and you should hence consult your doctor.
Menorrhagia refers to very heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding or periods in women. The bleeding is abnormal in nature, and if this continues for a long time, a hysterectomy surgery needs to be carried out to solve the problem.
Bleeding during the night time and passage of large blood clots during menstruation are other symptoms of Menorrhagia.
The various possible causes of this kind of heavy menstrual bleeding are:
Hormonal imbalance, specifically of estrogen and progesterone is a common cause, which is more likely in adolescents and in women nearing menopause. Dysfunction in the ovaries also causes hormonal imbalance.
Non-cancerous tumors or fibroids may also be responsible for menorrhagia.
Women suffering from a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy are likely to experience heavy menstrual bleeding.
Using blood thinners may lead to menorrhagia.
An intrauterine device used for birth control measures can cause disturbance and may lead to heavy menstruation.
A condition known as adenomyosis, where the glands in the uterus lining get embedded in the walls of the uterus, also causes menorrhagia.
Pelvic inflammatory diseases, infection in the uterus or fallopian tubes are other common causes.
Heavy bleeding may occur in patients with ovarian or cervical cancer.
Diseases of the kidney, liver or thyroid diseases may also cause menorrhagia.
Several tests and methods are carried out for the diagnosis of menorrhagia. They are:
A general physical examination.
Bleeding diary of the woman.
Blood tests to detect anemia or thyroid.
Pap Smear for the evaluation of cervical inflammation, infections or cancer
Ultrasound for evaluation of pelvic organs like uterus, ovaries and pelvis.
Hysteroscopy, where a camera is inserted into the uterus to observe the linings.
Sonohysterography, where a fluid gets instilled into the uterus along with an ultrasound test.
Certain drugs are used to treat menorrhagia. They include:
Iron supplements for treating anemia.
NSAIDS or non-steroidal anti-inflammatories for treating and reducing blood loss.
Tranexamic acid is used for reducing menstrual bleeding.
Several oral contraceptives are used for regulation of the menstrual cycle. Oral progesterone corrects hormonal imbalance and reduces bleeding.
Surgical procedures for treatment of menorrhagia include:
Hysteroscopy, dilation and curettage, where uterus lining is scraped and evaluated.
Uterine artery embolization treats menorrhagia with fibroids.
Focused ultrasound ablation enables the killing of the fibroid tissue.
Myomectomy, endometrial ablation and endometrial resection are other surgical techniques.
Hysterectomy surgery is the penultimate solution, where the uterus, cervix or ovaries are completely removed.
Menorrhagia is characterized by abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding in women. This is quite unhealthy and proper measures must be taken for curing the heavy bleeding.
Abdominoplasty, also known as “tummy tuck” is a surgical procedure aimed at removing excessive skin from the abdomen. This surgery removes the extra fat and skin, thus making the abdomen flatter, resulting in tighter muscles near the walls or border of your abdomen. You should consult a doctor and strictly follow prescribed procedures before and after the surgical process. It must not be confused with liposuction i.e. the cosmetic surgery which removes excessive fat deposits in the body.
Abdominoplasty or tummy tuck is beneficial to you,
- If you possess good physical health.
- If you are a non-smoker or have recently quit smoking.
- If you have a stable health and realistic expectations about the outcome of the surgery.
- If you have been pregnant previously and now need to lose weight and fat deposits.
The surgery is not suitable for the following cases:
- If you are planning to get pregnant, then it is recommended to perform the surgery after delivery. This is due to the fact that your muscles can be stretched again after the surgery.
- If the appearance of scars after tummy tuck is a problem, consult your doctor about the scar replacement procedure.
- If you still smoke or are absolutely unable to quit.
There are two procedures of tummy tuck. These are decided by the surgeon during your consultation and some pre-surgery medical tests. The procedures are: a) Complete Abdominoplasty and b) Partial or mini abdominoplasty.
In Complete Abdominoplasty, the surgeon cuts the abdomen from hipbone to hipbone and your skin, tissue and muscle will be operated. In the case of partial or mini abdominoplasty procedure, the fat deposits are usually located below the navel region and the surgeon may not move your belly button. The entire procedure may take around two to three hours.
Proper nutrition and healthy meals are required for this surgery. You must follow a balanced diet and focus on post-operative care.
What is ECMO?
Like dialysis for unfunctional kidney, Ecmo for unfunctional lung.
Ecmo stands for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. It is a method of giving oxygen for the body when icu pateint lungs and/or heart are not able to supply oxygen on their own.
Why ICU pateint put on ECMO?
Doctors place ICU patients on ECMO when patients are not able to supply oxygen to the body.
ICU patients’ lungs fail for a number of reasons including pneumonia, lung cancer, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and COPD.
When a patient’s lungs fail, he/she first is intubated (breathing tube) and hooked up to a ventilator (breathing machine).
However, sometimes lungs are so damaged that providing oxygen through intubation is not enough.
This is when doctors turn to v-v ecmo.
A heart can fail for many reasons including heart attack, pulmonary embolism, bad valve disease, or worsening heart failure. When a heart fails, doctors try to fix the underlying problem. They may also start medications (called ionotropes) to help improve the pump function of the heart. If medications are not enough, doctors will turn to v-a ecmo.
How long can someone stay on ecmo?
That is a complicated question. Due to the risks of ecmo discussed above, doctors try to keep patients on ecmo for as short a time as possible. Often patient will be on ecmo for several days up to 1-2 weeks. Every day, several blood and imaging tests are done to determine if a patient is ready to come off ecmo. As the technology of ecmo improves, hopefully side effects will decrease and patients can remain on ecmo for longer periods of time.
What is the difference between ecmo and a ventilator (breathing machine)?
Both ecmo and a ventilator aim to provide oxygen to the body when the patient’s own lungs and breathing are failing. The ventilator assists the patient’s own lungs by pushing oxygen with pressure into the lungs. Ecmo instead provides oxygen directly via a catheter placed in a patient’s vein or artery. We almost always try oxygenating a patient with a ventilator first. However, when a patient’s lungs are too sick for this, we turn to ecmo to assist in providing oxygen to the body. V-v ecmo provides oxygen through a vein. This blood then has to travel to the heart and be pumped around the rest of the body through arteries. Therefore, with v-v ecmo or with a ventilator, a patient must have a well-functioning heart to get the oxygen pumped throughout the body. V-a ecmo has the additional advantage of pumping blood directly to arteries. This “by-passes” the heart and is therefore the method of ecmo we use when a patient’s heart is failing.
Tummy tuck surgery or Abdominoplasty is a cosmetic plastic surgery procedure which tightens the muscles of your tummy. Loose skin and fat from your abdomen are also removed and as a result, the abdomen gets flat and toned. This surgery is common among women after pregnancy who want to restore their figure. This surgery also assists patients who have lost a large amount of weight in a short time period. Most tummy tuck surgeries are carried out for cosmetic reasons. However, there are certain medical benefits, which are gained after an abdominplasty is carried out. They are enlisted below.
- Stress urinary incontinence is reduced: After giving birth, many women develop Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI). This is a bladder control disorder that causes leakage of urine without control when you sneeze, cough or laugh loudly. Usually, this disorder can be treated without having a surgery, but in certain cases a tummy tuck enables speedy recovery in patients who did not have a caesarian section. A slight amount of bladder obstruction is created, which reduces the SUI.
- Gives you a better posture and enhanced abdominal tone: The stomach muscles sometimes become distended due to extreme loss of weight or because of pregnancy. A tummy tuck surgery helps in tightening of the weak muscles, removes excess fat and skin and the abdomen gets flattened. After carrying out a tummy tuck, people get an improved posture as the tightened muscles provide better support to the vertebrae.
- Correction of ventral hernia: A ventral hernia occurs due to the breake down of intestinal or abdominal tissues through the abdomen walls, and a sack is formed. The causes include abdominal weakness as a result of huge weight loss or previous surgeries.
The symptoms that lead to a ventral hernia correction are similar to the symptoms of a tummy tuck, as both the surgeries rectify abdominal muscles. Once you have a ventral hernia correction, you may need to repeat it again. In case you have this type of surgery, it is recommended that you should also have a tummy tuck done. This might prevent future occurrence as the combined methods leave you in a much safer condition. Medical expenses and recovery time are also reduced.
Tummy tuck surgery is becoming increasingly popular these days. It is a major surgery which requires almost five hours to be completed successfully. A tummy tuck can remove up to ten pounds of fat from a person’s abdomen. It takes several weeks to recover after having a tummy tuck surgery. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Hernia surgery is performed for the correction of a hernia which refers to the bulging of internal organs or tissues through an abnormal opening. It is easy to detect hernia through any pain or discomfort while lifting heavy objects, cough and strain during urination or bowel movements or during prolonged standing or sitting. It can be found in both men and women. The Hernia can be congenital or can be developed over a period of time. If it doesn’t get better over time and also does not go away by itself, then surgery becomes the only option.
Types of Surgery
There are two types of surgery for hernia treatment. One is the conventional open method, which requires an incision in the skin directly over the hernia. The other one is the Laparoscopic hernia repair in which surgery is performed using a small telescope known as a laparoscope. In this type of surgery minimal invasions are made and the hernia is repaired with only small incisions adjacent to the hernia. Most hernia operations are performed on an outpatient basis, which means that you can go home the very same day.
Tips for early recovery
- Wear comfortable clothing with expandable waistbands.
- Keep yourself active by moving around as much as you can as it increases circulation, which further speeds up healing.
- Eat a diet rich in fibre, fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Drink lots of water and other fluids to avoid constipation.
- Do not lift any objects even if it is very light as it can bring back pain.
- Do not to pick up things from the floor as it will be difficult to bend.
- Hold a pillow against your stomach while sneezing or coughing to lessen the pain.
- Use stool softener for a few days before and after surgery to help you with your bowel movements.
- Avoid driving till the time you feel any pain and as long as you are taking narcotic pain medicines.
- Band-Aids which cover the incisions should be changed as and when needed.
- Refrain yourself from intercourse as it can be painful.
- Check with your doctor when to take a shower so as not to hurt your incisions, and make sure to gently dry your incisions and replace the Band-Aids after taking a shower.
- Do not consume any alcoholic drinks for at least 24 hours.
The tips mentioned above will definitely provide help to cope up with post surgery blues. However, in case of fever, excessive sweating, difficulty in urinating, bleeding or any prolonged pain consult your doctor immediately.
First of all, I developed chest pain with heartburn in 2015 and doctor told it's GERD and anxiety. I used to take medicines for it. Then I recovered for at least six months. Again it I was same situation in 2016. Again I got medicines and recovered. Today, I am though the same. While feeling breathless. Usually it happened in even hours. I feel urge of dying when I was returning to room from the office. It seems a sudden outbursts. I recognized feeling stomach squeezing tight at times, burning sensation, and something moving in my body especially stomach (the feeling when ant moves on your body) I also had feet burning and burning sensation in my urine and seems a sex loss at times. Please help me in this regard.
Complete, permanent, easy, safe, fast & cost effective kidney failure
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Bladder cancer refers to a cancer, which arises from the epithelial lining or the urothelium of the urinary bladder. In the most common form of bladder cancer, the normal histology of the urothelium is recapitulated. It is called transitional cell carcinoma. Bladder cancer is a serious form of cancer that leads to many deaths too.
There are several modes of treatment for bladder cancer. They are:
Bladder cancer surgery: Surgeries are common for treating bladder cancer. The types of surgeries include:
1. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor or TURBT: This mode is used for determining the presence of bladder cancer and to find out if it has invaded the bladder wall muscle layer. This treatment mode is generally used in the early stages of bladder cancer.
2. Cystectomy: A cystectomy is undertaken when bladder cancer is very invasive and parts of the bladder or the whole of it has to be removed. There are two types of cystectomy.
- Partial cystectomy is used when the cancer invades the bladder muscle layer in a small area. It can be removed without the whole bladder being taken out.
- A Radical cystectomy is undertaken in case the cancer affects a large area and is present in multiple areas of the bladder. This surgery removes the bladder entirely and all its nearby lymph nodes.
3. Intravesical therapy: In intravesical therapy, a liquid drug is put directly into the bladder via a catheter instead of injecting it or consuming it orally. The cells lining the bladder are affected without causing any harm to other body parts. This therapy is usually used after TURBT in non-invasive cases of bladder cancer to prevent recurrence.
4. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is an effective treatment for bladder cancer. Chemotherapy may be used in two ways:
- Intravesical chemotherapy, where the chemo drug is put directly into the bladder and is applicable only for early treatment stages.
- Systematic chemotherapy, which involves the injection of chemo drugs into the vein or muscle and can also be administered in the form of pills. The drug reaches all parts of the body via the bloodstream and affects all cancer cells.
5. Radiation therapy: This treatment procedure for bladder cancer involves the use of high energy radiation for killing cancer cells. It is used in early phases of treatment and is the primary remedy for people who cannot have a surgery. It is combined with chemotherapy to make the radiation effective. The most common type of radiation therapy for treating bladder cancer is called external-beam radiation therapy where radiation occurs from an outside source.
Bladder cancer is a severe form of cancer. Proper and ideal treatment is required among the several treatment methods available.