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A Hernia may be defined as the protrusion of an organ into an adjacent connective tissue or muscle. The protrusion usually occurs through a tear or a weakened area in the muscle (Fascia). Hernia can be an Inguinal Hernia, Umbilical Hernia, Hiatal Hernia or Femoral Hernia. It can also originate from an incision (Incisional Hernia).
The Inguinal Hernia is commonly observed in males. Here, the intestine squeezes through a tear in the abdominal wall into the groin (Inguinal canal). At times, the small intestine bulges through the abdominal wall (weak spot) near the belly button, which results in Umbilical Hernia. In Hiatal Hernia, the upper part of the stomach passes into the chest through the diaphragm, and of all the hernia types, the Inguinal Hernia is the most common.
Severe strain and muscle tear or weakness can result in Hernia. Obesity, chronic constipation, chronic coughing and sneezing, ageing, damage caused by injury, medical conditions like Cystic Fibrosis, contribute to increased incidences of Hernia. In case of Hernia, the affected area tends to protrude or bulge out. If left untreated; Hernia can prove to be detrimental. One needs to consult a physician for proper diagnosis and treatment. Physical examination can help in the diagnosis of Inguinal Hernia. An ultrasound is needed to diagnose Umbilical Hernia. A Barium X -ray or endoscopy can be of great help in the diagnosis of Hiatal Hernia.
The severity of the Hernia depends upon its size. In case the Hernia is rapidly increasing in size, a surgery is needed for the repair. The surgery performed can be open or laparoscopic. In open surgery, Hernia is identified through an incision. Once located, the Hernia is removed from the adjacent tissues. In laparoscopic repair, small incisions are made in the affected region. Through these incisions, specialized instruments are inserted. It is through these instruments that the surgeon visualizes and performs the surgery.
In such repairs, a mesh, held in place by sutures is used as a scaffold. This facilitates the growth of new tissues in the affected person. This technique significantly lowers the chance of a recurrence.
Certain factors must be well addressed, before performing a Hernia operation:
- Hernia operations, laparoscopic in particular, should be performed by experienced surgeons. Inexperienced surgeons will do you more harm than good.
- Laparoscopic Hernia operation should be avoided in case a patient has adhesions from previous surgery.
- Extreme care should be taken while performing a Hernia operation in infants and children.
- In some cases, Hernia surgery might affect or injure the vas deferens in men. This in turn can affect fertility in men.
Sir, please provide the complete cost of package, related surgery of hysteroscopy for fibroid and hysteroscopy cannulation for tubal.
Looking good and feeling good are sometimes one and the same thing which can be achieved with good skin and a fit body. One can turn to many measures to achieve the same, including cosmetic procedures. Cosmetic surgery like liposuction is generally used to remove the excess fat in the body which cannot be treated with normal exercise or diet control measures. This surgery is conducted by a plastic surgeon. Here is everything you need to know about liposuction.
About: Liposuction is a cosmetic procedure. It removes the excess fat present in one’s body with the help of a procedure known as body contouring. This kind of contouring may be carried out in various parts of the body including the calves, knees, buttocks, hips, abdomen, upper arms, breasts and even the neck and chin area. These are the areas that generally end up accumulating excessive fat which does not go away easily. For some people, persistent diet control and exercising may help. But for severe and chronic cases, one will have to make use of measures like liposuction.
Types of Liposuction: Depending on your case as well as the individual system of the patient, one can go in for one of the various types of liposuction. The fluid injection based liposuction is the most popular and common form where a large dose of medicated solution is injected with a local anaesthesia blended into it. This helps in contracting the blood vessels so that the fat can be suctioned out. The next type is the super wet liposuction where the amount of liquid solution injected is the same as the amount of fat that has to be removed. Ultrasound assisted liposuction uses ultrasonic waves in order to transform the fat cells into liquid which can be vacuumed out later. Further, laser assisted liposuction makes use of laser pulses and beams in order to make the fat cells liquid before they are vacuumed out of the system.
The procedure: The plastic surgeon will make use of a special liposuction machine and cannulas or special instruments, so that the surgery may be carried out in a proper manner. Also, depending on the type of procedure you are going in for, you will require local or general anaesthesia. A small incision is made so that the tube may be inserted for the liquefaction process to begin. After this, the fat that has been dislodged will be vacuumed away through the same suction tube. Small drainage tubes will be inserted to remove blood and fluid from the deflated areas and in some rare cases, blood transfusion or fluid replacement may also be required. High blood pressure and cardiovascular cases should not use this option. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dermatologist.
What is a ventral hernia?
A ventral hernia is a bulge of tissues through an opening of weakness within your abdominal wall muscles. It can occur at any location on your abdominal wall.
Many are called incisional hernias because they form at the healed site of past surgical incisions. Here abdominal wall layers have become weak or thin, allowing for abdominal cavity contents to push through.
In a strangulated ventral hernia, intestinal tissue gets tightly caught within an opening in your abdominal wall. This tissue can’t be pushed back into your abdominal cavity, and its blood flow is cut off. This type of ventral hernia is an emergency requiring surgery.
Hernias can occur in other places of your body and are named after the location where they occur — for example, a femoral hernia occurs in your upper thigh.
What are the risk factors of a ventral hernia?
Certain people are born with a congenital defect — one existing from birth — that causes their abdominal wall to be abnormally thin. They are at a greater risk for developing a ventral hernia. Other risk factors for a ventral hernia include:
- history of previous hernias
- history of abdominal surgeries
- injuries to your bowel area
- family history of hernias
- frequently lifting or pushing heavy objects
What are the causes of a ventral hernia?
According to UCSF, incisional hernias may occur in up to 30 percent of those who’ve had an abdominal surgery. Most occur at the site of a surgical scar. The scar tissue weakens or thins, allowing a bulge to form in the abdomen. This bulge is tissue or organs pushing against the abdominal wall.
What are the symptoms of this condition?
Ventral hernias can produce an array of symptoms. Symptoms may take weeks or months to appear.
You may feel absolutely no symptoms. Or you could experience discomfort or severe pain in the area of your hernia, which might grow worse when you try to stand or lift heavy objects. You may see or feel a bulging or growth in the area that feels tender to the touch.
If you experience any of the following symptoms, make sure to consult a doctor right away:
- mild discomfort in your abdominal area
- pain in your abdomen
- outward bulging of skin or tissues in your abdominal area
How is a ventral hernia diagnosed?
For a complete diagnosis, a doctor will ask you about your symptoms and perform a physical exam. They may need to order imaging tests to look inside your body for signs of a ventral hernia. These may include:
What treatment options are available?
Ventral hernias require surgical correction. If left untreated, they continue to grow slowly until they are able to cause serious complications.
Untreated hernias can grow into enlarged ventral hernias that become progressively more difficult to fix. Swelling can lead to trapping of hernia contents, a process called incarceration. This in turn can lead to reduced or no blood supply to the tissues involved, which is referred to as strangulation.
Options for surgical treatment include:
- Mesh placement surgery: A surgeon pushes tissue back into place and then sews in a mesh, which serves as a reinforcing patch, to keep it in place. This is considered safe and reliable, and mesh placement has been shown to reduce risk of hernia recurrence.
- Laparoscopic repair: A surgeon makes multiple small openings and fixes your hernia using guidance with a small camera inside your body to direct the surgery. A mesh may or may not be used.
- Open surgery (nonlaparoscopic): A surgeon makes an incision adjacent to your hernia, pushes the tissues back into place, and then sews the area shut. A mesh may or may not be used.
Benefits of laparoscopic removal include the following:
- much smaller cut site, which lowers chance of infection
- reduced postoperative pain
- reduced hospital stay — generally able to leave day of or day after procedure
- absence of a large scar
- faster overall recovery time
These are a few concerns about open surgery:
- longer stay in the hospital after surgery
- greater amount of pain
- medium to large scar
Are there complications?
Massive ventral hernias are those that have a length or width of at least 15 centimeters (cm) or an overall area of 150 cm2, according to the Journal of American Surgery. They pose a serious surgical risk. The giant hernia fills the abdominal cavity, making it difficult to separate from surrounding organs. As the hernia grows in size, the risk of a reoccurrence also becomes higher.
Other complications of untreated hernias include:
- Incarceration: Your intestine becomes trapped in a weak abdomen wall where it can’t be pushed back inside of your abdominal cavity. This may cause blockage to your intestine or cut off its blood supply.
- Strangulation: This occurs when blood flow to your intestine is blocked. Part of your intestine may die or begin to decay. Immediate surgery is necessary to restore blood flow and save the intestine.
What is the outlook for a ventral hernia?
In the early stages of a hernia, you may be able to “fix” your own hernia. Some people may feel the bulge in their abdomen and push the organs back inside. This is called reducing the hernia. Reducing often works temporarily until you undergo surgery.
The outlook is generally very good after a surgery with no complications. You may need to rest for a few weeks before resuming daily activities, avoiding any heavy lifting or straining to the abdominal area.
Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy
What is a total laparoscopic hysterectomy?
Is the removal of the uterus and cervix through four small (1/2 Abdominal incisions. Removal of the ovaries and tubes depends on the patient).
Why is this surgery used?
To treat disease of the uterus
• Infection in the ovaries or tubes
• Pelvic pain
• Overgrowth of tissue in the lining of the uterus
• Abnormal vaginal bleeding
How do I prepare for surgery?
The lab work for your surgery must be done at least 3 days beforesurgery. Some medications need to be stopped before the surgery. Smoking can affect your surgery and recovery. Smokers may have difficulty breathing during the surgery and tend to heal more slowly after surgery. If you are a smoker, it is best to quit 6-8 weeks before surgery. You will be told at your pre-op visit whether you will need a bowel prepfor your surgery and if you do, what type you will use. The prep to clean your bowel will have to be completed the night before your surgery.
• You will need to shower at home before surgery.
• Do not wear makeup, nail polish, lotion, deodorant, or antiperspirant on the day of surgery.
• Remove all body piercings and acrylic nails.
Most women recover and are back to most activities in 4-6 weeks. Youmay need a family member or a friend to help with your day-to-day activities for a few days after surgery.
What can I expect during the surgery?
Once in the operating room, you will receive general anesthesia before the surgery to keep you from feeling pain. A tube to help you breathe will be placed in your throat. Another tube will be placed in your stomach to remove any gas or other contents to reduce the likelihood of injury during the surgery. The tube is usually removed before you wake up. A catheter will be inserted into your bladder to drain urine and to monitor the amount of urine coming out during surgery. Compression stockings will be placed on your legs to prevent blood clots in your legs and lungs during surgery. After you are asleep the laparoscope is inserted into the abdomen and carbon dioxide gas is blown into the abdomen to inflate the belly wall away from the internal organs. After you are asleep the doctor will remove the uterus, cervix, and possibly the ovaries and tubes through the 4 small abdominal incisions.
What are possible risks from this surgery?
Although there can be problems that result from surgery, we work very hard to make sure it is as safe as possible. However, problems can occur, even when things go as planned. You should be aware of these possible problems, how often they happen, and what will be done to correct them.
Possible risks during surgery include:
Bleeding: If there is excessive bleeding, you will receive a blood transfusion. Conversion to an open surgery requiring an up and down or Bikini incision: If a bigger open incision is needed during your surgery, you may need to stay in the hospital for one or two nights.
• Damage to the bladder, ureters (the tubes that drain the kidneys into the bladder), and to the bowel: Damage occurs in less than 1% of surgeries. If there is damage to the bladder, urete rs, or to the bowel they will be repaired while you are in surgery.
• Death: All surgeries have a risk of death. Some surgeries have a higher risk than others. Possible risks that can occur days to weeks after surgery:
• Hernia:Weakness in the muscle at the incision that causes a lump under the skin.
• Incision opens: The abdominal or vaginal incision.
•Scar tissue: Tissue thicker than normal skin forms at the site of surgery
What happens after the surgery?
• You will be taken to the recovery room and monitored for a short time before going to the observation unit.
• Depending on the length of your surgery, you may not be able to eat or drink anything until the next morning or you will be started on a liquid diet. When you are feeling better you may return to a regular diet.
• You may have a scratchy or sore throat from the tube used for youranesthesia.
• You will be given medications for pain and nausea if needed.
Have the tube in your bladder removed in recovery room.
Have the compression stockings on your legs to improve circulation.
Be restarted on your routine medications.
Be given a small plastic device at your bedside to help expand your lungs after surgery.
Start walking as soon as possible after the surgery to help healingand recovery.
Stay in the hospital for 24 hours.
When will I go home after surgery?
Most women spend one night in the hospital and are ready to go home around noon -time the day after surgery. You should plan for someone to be at the hospital by noon to drive you home.
At home after surgery : If you use a bowel prep before surgery, it is common not to have a bowel movement for several days.
Call your doctor right away if you:
• develop a fever over 100.4°F (38°C)
• start bleeding like a menstrual period or (and) are changing a pad every hour
• have severe pain in your abdomen or pelvis that the pain medication is not helping
• have heavy vaginal discharge with a bad odor
• have nausea and vomiting
• have chest pain or difficulty breathing
• leak fluid or blood from the incision or if the incision opens
• develop swelling, redness, or pain in your legs develop a rash
• have pain with urination
• Your in cision will be closed with dissolvable stitches.
• Spotting is normal. Discharge will change to a brownish color followed by yellow cream color that will continue for up to four to eight weeks. It is common for the brownish discharge to have a slight odor because it is old blood. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
You will continue with your regular diet.
• Pain: Medication for pain will be prescribed for you after surgery. Do not take it more frequently than instructed.
• Stool softener: Narcotic pain medications may cause constipation. A stool softener may be needed while taking these medications.
• Nausea: Anti -nausea medication is not typically prescribed.
• Energy level: It is normal to have a decreased energy level after surgery. During the first week at home, you should minimize any strenuous activity. Once you settle into a normal routine at home, you will slowly begin to feel better. Walking around the house and taking short walks outside can help you get back to your normal energy level more quickly.
• Showers: Showers are allowed within 24 hours after your surgery.
• Climbing: Climbing stairs is permitted, but you may require some assistance when you first return home.
• Lifting: For 4-6 weeks after your surgery you should not lift anything heavier than a gallon of milk. This includes pushing objects such as a vacuum cleaner and vigorous exercise.
• Driving: The reason you are asked not to drive after surgery is because you may be prescribed pain medications. Even after you stop taking pain medication; driving is restricted because you may not be able to make sudden movements due to discomforts from surgery.
• Exercise: Exercise is important for a healthy lifestyle. You may begin normal physical activity within hours of surgery. Start with short walks and gradually increase the distance a nd length of time that you walk. To allow your body time to heal, you should not return to a more difficult exercise routine for 4 -6 weeks after your surgery. Please talk to your doctor about when you can start exercising again.
• Intercourse: No sexual activity for 8 weeks after surgery.
• Work: Most patients ca n return to work between 4 -6 weeks after surgery.
Right up until recently, most gynecologists have shied from carrying out total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) due to the technical challenges and prolonged operating times which are related to it. Instead, they have preferred to do laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH), a comparatively inefficient three-part technique made up of a preliminary laparoscopic phase, then a vaginal phase, and, finally, another laparoscopic phase.
Now it is believed that it has the possibility being the method of choice for any great proportion of hysterectomy cases, specifically in those situations - for example once the pubic angle is narrow, the vagina small, or the uterus high and immobile - in which LAVH includes a reduced chance of success. Simultaneously, however, it is realized that wider adoption of TLH would depend about the growth and development of new tools to facilitate the colpotomy part of the operation, and on the development of a simplified technique that could reduce complications and operative time period.
What is a colonoscopy?
Colonoscopy is a procedure that enables your surgeon to examine the lining of the colon and rectum. It is usually done in the hospital or an endoscopic procedure room on an outpatient basis. A soft, bendable tube about the thickness of the index finger is gently inserted into the anus and advanced into the rectum and the colon.
Why is a colonoscopy performed?
A colonoscopy is usually done:
1) as part of a routine screening for cancer,
2) in patients with known polyps or previous polyp removal,
3) before or after some surgeries,
4) to evaluate a change in bowel habits or bleeding or,
5) to evaluate changes in the lining of the colon known as inflammatory disorders.
What preparation is required?
The rectum and colon must be completely emptied of stool for the procedure to be performed. In general, preparation consists of consumption of a special cleansing solution or several days of clear liquids, laxatives and enemas prior to the examination. Your surgeon and his or her staff will provide you with instructions regarding the cleansing routine necessary for the colonoscopy. Follow your surgeon’s instructions carefully. If you do not complete the preparation, it may be unsafe to perform the colonoscopy and the procedure may have to be rescheduled. If you are unable to take the preparation, contact your surgeon. Most medications can be continued as usual. Medication use such as aspirin, Vitamin E, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, blood thinners and insulin should be discussed with your surgeon prior to the examination as well as any other medications you might be taking. It is essential that you alert your surgeon if you require antibiotics prior to undergoing dental procedures, since you may also require antibiotics prior to colonoscopy. You will most likely be sedated during the procedure and an arrangement to have someone drive you home afterward is imperative. Sedatives will affect your judgment and reflexes for the rest of the day. You should not drive or operate machinery until the next day.
What can be expected during colonoscopy?
The procedure is usually well tolerated, but there is often a feeling of pressure, gassiness, bloating or cramping at various times during the procedure. Your surgeon will give you medication through a vein to help you relax and better tolerate any discomfort that you may experience. You will be lying of your side or your back while the colonoscope is advanced through the large intestine. The lining of the colon is examined carefully while inserting and withdrawing the instrument. The procedure usually lasts for 15 to 60 minutes. In rare instances the entire colon cannot be visualized and your surgeon may request an additional test such as a barium enema or a CT colonography.
What if colonoscopy shows an abnormality?
If your surgeon sees an area that needs more detailed evaluation, a biopsy may be obtained and submitted to a laboratory for analysis. A biopsy is performed by placing a special instrument through the colonoscope. Most polyps can be removed at the time of the colonoscopy. The majority of polyps are benign (non-cancerous), but your surgeon cannot always tell by the appearance alone. They can be removed by burning
(fulgurating) or by a wire loop (snare).
It may take your surgeon more than one sitting to do this if there are numerous polyps or if the polyps are very large. Sites of bleeding can be identified and controlled by injecting certain medications or coagulating (burning) the bleeding vessels. Biopsies do not imply cancer, however, removal of a colonic polyp is an important means of preventing colon and rectal cancer.
What happens after colonoscopy?
Your surgeon will explain the results to you after your procedure or at your follow up visit. You may have some mild cramping or bloating from the air that was placed into the colon during the examination. This should quickly improve with the passage of the gas. You should be able to eat normally the same day and resume your normal activities after leaving the hospital. Do not drive or operate machinery until the next day, as the
sedatives given will impair your reflexes. If you have been given medication during the procedure, you will be observed until most of the effects of the sedation have worn off (1-2 hours). You will need someone to drive you home after the procedure. If you do not remember what your surgeon told you about the examination or follow up instructions. Call your surgeon’s office that day or the next to find out what you were supposed to do.
If polyps were found during your procedure, you will need to have a repeat colonoscopy. Your surgeon will decide on the frequency of your colonoscopy exams.
What complications can occur?
Colonoscopy complications include bleeding from the site of a biopsy or polypectomy and a tear (perforation) through the lining of the bowel wall. Other complications of the procedure include the possibility of missed polyps or other lesions.
Should a perforation occur, it may be necessary for your surgeon to perform abdominal surgery to repair the intestinal tear. Blood transfusions are rarely required. A reaction to the sedatives can occur. Irritation to the vein that medications were given is uncommon, but may cause a tender lump lasting a few weeks. Warm, moist towels will help relieve this discomfort.
It is important to contact your surgeon if you notice symptoms of severe abdominal pain, fevers, chills or rectal bleeding of more than one-half cup. Bleeding can occur up to several days after a biopsy.
45 years old lady and having a very bad ulcer problem not only in my mouth but also in the stomach. Most of the time feel something warm in the mouth and stomach. I have completely avoid spicy food from 4 month but nothing improve. Pls let me know what should I do and what is exactly this problem called? My test report shows: observation scope passed till D2 D1, D2: duodenitis at D1, Normal D2 stomach- Antral gastritis, normal body and fundus of the stomach. GE Junction - 35 cm with hiatus hernia. Esophagus - esophagitis Impression- Antral Gastritis and duodenitis with hiatus hernia.
Obesity is a serious, chronic disease that can have a negative effect on many systems in your body. People who are overweight or obese have a much greater risk of developing serious conditions, including:
- Heart disease
- Type 2 diabetes
- Bone and joint disease
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically over the past few decades, and obesity during adolescence is associated with significant medical morbidity during adulthood. Eating disorders and obesity are usually seen as very different problems but actually share many similarities. Eating disorders (EDs) are the third most common chronic condition in adolescents, after obesity and asthma.
In fact, eating disorders, obesity, and other weight-related disorders may overlap as girls move from one problem, such as unhealthy dieting, to another, such as obesity. Understand the links between eating disorders and obesity and promote healthy attitudes and behaviors related to weight and eating.
What is an Eating Disorder?
Eating Disorders describe illnesses that are characterized by irregular eating habits and severe distress or concern about body weight or shape. Eating disturbances may include inadequate or excessive food intake which can ultimately damage an individual’s well-being. The most common forms of eating disorders include Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder and affect both females and males.
Signs & Symptoms of an Eating Disorder:
A man or woman suffering from an eating disorder may reveal several signs and symptoms, some which are:
- Chronic dieting despite being hazardously underweight
- Constant weight fluctuations
- Obsession with calories and fat contents of food
- Engaging in ritualistic eating patterns, such as cutting food into tiny pieces, eating alone, and/or hiding food
- Continued fixation with food, recipes, or cooking; the individual may cook intricate meals for others but refrain from partaking
- Depression or lethargic stage
- Avoidance of social functions, family and friends. May become isolated and withdrawn
- Switching between periods of overeating and fasting
What are the health risks associated with these disorders?
- Stunted growth.
- Delayed menstruation.
- Damage to vital organs such as the heart and brain.
- Nutritional deficiencies, including starvation.
- Cardiac arrest.
- Emotional problems such as depression and anxiety.
What is Obesity?
Obesity means being overweight by the accumulation of excess fat within the body. Obesity is defined to some extent by measuring Body Mass Index (BMI). People become obese by consumption of excess calories, imbalance between calories intake and calories outgoing, leading a sedentary life, lack of sleep , disturbances in lipid metabolism and intake of medications that put on obese.
What are the risks associated with obesity?
Obesity increases the risk for:
- High blood pressure
- Cardiovascular disease
- Gallbladder disease
- Respiratory problems
- Emotional problems such as depression and anxiety
How eating disorder and obesity are related?
Eating disorders and obesity are part of a range of weight-related problems.
- Body dissatisfaction and unhealthy dieting practices are linked to the development of eating disorders, obesity, and other problems.
- Binge eating is common among people with eating disorders and people who are obese.
- Depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders are associated with both eating disorders and obesity.
- The environment may contribute to both eating disorders and obesity.
Help adolescents develop healthy eating habits:
- Help children learn to control their own eating.
- Offer children a variety of healthy foods at meal and snack times.
- Eat dinner together as a family most days of the week.
- Be aware of your child's emotional health or else consult a psychologist
- Encourage children to participate in sports, dance, swimming and other physical activities.
- Counteract harmful media messages about body image.
The splendid approach:
The approach should be quite simple. A proper diet plan, nutritious foods and fruits with proper exercise can do a world of good to you. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dietitian/Nutritionist.
Cancer can affect even small glands like the adrenal glands. Adrenal glands are responsible for the production of hormones like cortisol and aldosterone. These glands are located above the kidneys and have two parts; the cortex and the medulla. Adrenal cancer generally affects the cortex of the adrenal glands. This type of cancerous tumour is rare and can be difficult to diagnose.
Most adrenal cancer symptoms are triggered by an excessive production of estrogen and androgen. Symptoms can also be caused by the pressure put on other organs by the tumour. Adrenal cancer symptoms are most easily noticeable in children as this is the stage where the body is changing and developing. Some of these symptoms are:
- Facial hair growth
- Excessive pubic and underarm hair
- An enlarged penis or clitoris
- Early onset of puberty in girls
- Development of enlarged breasts in boys
Symptoms of adrenal cancer in adults includes:
- Excessive weight gain in the abdomen and above the collar bone
- High blood pressure
- Irregular menstruation
- Easy bruising
- Frequent urge to urinate
- Muscle cramps
Additionally, men with adrenal cancer that causes excessive estrogen production may notice an enlargement of breast tissue and tenderness in the area. Women suffering from excessive androgen production triggered by adrenal cancer may notice their voice deepening and facial hair growth. In most cases, adrenal cancer symptoms in women do not appear until the tumour presses on other organs. This includes symptoms like pain around the tumor, a feeling of fullness in the abdomen and difficulty eating because of this feeling.
The cause of adrenal cancer has not yet been determined, but conditions such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis and multiple endocrine neoplasia can increase a person’s risk of suffering from this disease. A thorough physical examination and a detailed medical history is required to diagnose this disease. The doctor will also need a blood test and urine test. Additional tests that may be required include:
- Biopsy of the tumor
- CT scan
- MRI scan
- PET scan
- Adrenal angiography
Adrenal cancer can be cured if diagnosed in its early stages. There are three types of treatment for adrenal cancer; surgery to remove the adrenal gland, chemotherapy and radiation. However, adrenal cancer can recur and hence it is important to schedule and maintain regular check-ups with a doctor.
Hi I am 17 years male boy I have acute appendix surgery before 5 days ago now I have to recover my stich is not removed .So doctor I am pain sensitive so is how to reduce pain while removing the stich (not stapler only twin) and what are the food I have to eat .my motion was not passed.
Living with a renal transplant constantly exposes you to the risk of organ rejection. Although it might sound scary, it usually happens because the medication needs to be tuned according to the requirements of your body. A change in medication usually solves the problem of a possible rejection, and a rejection becomes less likely if it doesn't happen within a year of the transplant. Some obvious signs of rejection are a pain on the region of transplant, fever, change in weight or low urine discharge.
The causes behind a renal rejection vary on the basis of the type of rejection that takes place. Here are three different types of renal rejection and their causes:
- Hyperacute Rejection - Hyperacute rejection occurs within 24 hours of the transplant. It can have an immediate effect and occurs as the existing antibodies act against the grafted material, causing irreversible destruction. The immune system may recognize it as a foreign body and destroy it. Hyperacute rejection is common for patients who have received multiple blood transfusions or have suffered from transplant rejection earlier. The tissue must be removed immediately before it becomes fatal for the recipient. This type of rejection can generally be avoided if the doctors type or match both the receiver and the organ donor. The organ is less likely to be rejected if there are similar antigens between donor and receiver.
- Acute Rejection - Acute rejection generally occurs after the first week of transplantation. Acute rejection is common in most recipients. Since a perfect match of antigens is rare to find, except in the case of identical twins, some amount acute rejection occurs in the case of all recipients. It can cause complications like bleeding and inflammation. The risk of acute rejection is highest in the first three months of the transplant.
- Chronic Rejection - Chronic rejection occurs months later after the transplantation. This happens over time when the immune system of the body reacts against the transplanted tissue and slowly damages the organ. In such a case, the kidneys can suffer from scarring or fibrosis and damaged blood vessels. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general surgeon.
Can any one tell me about the risk involved inbariatric surgery .because I hope that I need it as my bmi is nearly 48.
What is Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal Surgery (Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy)?
Gallbladder removal is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Gallbladder removal surgery is usually performed with minimally invasive techniques and the medical name for this procedure is Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy or Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal.
The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ that rests beneath the right side of the liver. Its main purpose is to collect and concentrate a digestive liquid (bile) produced by the liver. Bile is released from the gallbladder after eating, aiding digestion. Bile travels through narrow tubular channels (bile ducts) into the small intestine. Removal of the gallbladder is not associated with any impairment of digestion in most people.
What Causes Gallbladder Problems?
Gallbladder problems are usually caused by the presence of gallstones which are usually small and hard, consisting primarily of cholesterol and bile salts that form in the gallbladder or in the bile duct.
It is uncertain why some people form gallstones but risk factors include being female, prior pregnancy, age over 40 years and being overweight. Gallstones are also more common as you get older and some people may have a family history of gallstones. There is no known means to prevent gallstones.
These stones may block the flow of bile out of the gallbladder, causing it to swell and resulting in sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, indigestion and, occasionally, fever. If the gallstone blocks the common bile duct, jaundice (a yellowing of the skin) can occur.
- Ultrasound is most commonly used to find gallstones.
- In a few more complex cases, other X-ray test such as a CT scan or a gallbladder nuclear medicine scan may be used to evaluate gallbladder disease.
Gallstones do not go away on their own. Some can be temporarily managed by making dietary adjustments, such as reducing fat intake. This treatment has a low, short-term success rate. Symptoms will eventually continue unless the gallbladder is removed. Treatments to break up or dissolve gallstones are largely unsuccessful.
Surgical removal of the gallbladder is the time-honored and safest treatment of gallbladder disease.
What are the Advantages of Performing Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal?
- Rather than a five to seven inch incision, the operation requires only four small openings in the abdomen.
- Patients usually have minimal post-operative pain.
- Patients usually experience faster recovery than open gallbladder surgery patients.
- Most patients go home the same day of the surgery and enjoy a quicker return to normal activities.
Are you a Candidate?
Although there are many advantages to laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy), the procedure may not be appropriate for some patients who have severe complicated gallbladder disease or previous upper abdominal surgery. A thorough medical evaluation by your personal physician, in consultation with a surgeon trained in laparoscopy, can determine if laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy) is an appropriate procedure for you. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general surgeon.
What is the main reason of ovary egg not rupture Follicular study 12 Th day size is 20x19 20x18 mm endo size 6.9 14 day size is 24x25 24x26 mm endo size 9.8 Ovary size increase but not rupture it becomes a cyst Please reply.
Feeling acidic after eating a heavy meal can often make you regret those last few morsels. This acidic sensation is known as acid reflux or Gastroesophageal reflux disease, better known as GERD. GERD occurs when the functioning of the lower oesophagus muscles is restricted. This makes the undigested food in the stomach and stomach acids leak back into the oesophagus.
Thankfully, this is not something you have to live with and a few simple lifestyle changes can help resolve the situation.
- Do not lie down after eating: When your body is in a horizontal position, there are higher chances of food being regurgitated into the oesophagus. To avoid this, finish your meals at least 3 hours before going to bed. Sit upright while eating and do not lie down or slouch immediately after eating. This gives the food time to be digested and move out of the stomach.
- Limit your food intake: Overeating is one of the most common triggers of GERD. Cutting down your portion sizes can instantly reduce the number of GERD occurrences. Instead of eating large, heavy meals, shorten the duration between meals and have more frequent small meals.
- Avoid foods that trigger acidity: With time, you will soon realise which types of foods trigger an acidic reaction. Some common triggers are onions, peppermint, caffeine, citrus fruits etc. Keeping a diary can help identify such foods and ease your problem.
- Quit Smoking: Nicotine not only harms your lungs, but can affect your digestive system as well. It is responsible for weakening the muscles that control the opening between the stomach and oesophagus. This allows stomach acids and food from the stomach to re-enter the oesophagus. Alcohol can also worsen GERD symptoms and hence it is better to avoid alcohol is you suffer from frequent bouts of acid reflux.
- Lose weight: Overeating, obesity and acid reflux go hand in hand. Being overweight can put extra pressure on your stomach and abdomen, thus pushing food and gastric juices into the oesophagus. Losing this extra weight should effectively resolve your acid reflux problem if you are overweight.
- Look at your medications: Some types of medication too can cause acid reflux by interfering with the digestive system and irritating the oesophagus. These types of medication include blood pressure medication, asthma medication, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, bisphosphonates, sedatives and painkillers. Do not simply stop taking these medications, but talk to a doctor about replacing them with something else.
The prostate is a small gland positioned around the urethra and is responsible for creating the fluid to be ejaculated that contains semen. Commonly described as the shape and size of a walnut, the prostate has many important functions within the male reproductive system. Reports of cancer of this organ have become very frequent. Ayurveda has very effective treatments that not only stop the spread of the cancer, but can actually cause partial or full remission.
Some Ayurvedic treatments for Prostate cancer:
- Haritaki and Terminalia Chebula: When mixed with honey and ghee, this medication is known to be very effective in treating anemia. However, it is also very effective in fighting tumors and cancer cells and thus is both a supplement to the body as well as fighter of illnesses.
- Amalaki or Emblica Officinalis: One of the most used and go to remedies within Ayurveda is amalaki which is frequently used to cure digestive problems. It is also an antioxidant and quickly drains out free radicals from within the body. This helps in cancer treatment, immunity boosting and improving metabolism.
- Vibhitaki or Terminalia Belerica: This is an excellent medication, which is very beneficial in purifying blood and removing toxins from the body. It is very good in increasing red blood cell count, which is very important when the body is fighting any form of cancer. Thus it is effective in the case of prostate cancer as well.
- Guduchi or Giloy: This medication is very good to fight calcium deficiency and is very effective at fighting infections as well. This is necessary to ensure that the body is protected while it is fighting the cancerous cells.
- Curcumin or Curcuma Longa: This is one of the wonder drugs being touted around as the next big thing in fighting cancer. Curcumin is the primary chemical in turmeric and is known to be very effective in the prevention of growth and spread of cancer cells.
- Punarnava or Boerhavia Diffusa: This is a great medication, which helps improve blood flow to and from the kidneys and also helps in increasing the count of red blood cells. All these properties make this particular species of flowering plant an absolute master when it comes to preventing prostate cancer. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ayurveda.
I got pain in left side of lower abdomen after ultra sound consulting with with doctor in report 3.5 mm stone in gallbladder please advise me how can I treat this.
The kidneys are responsible for the elimination of waste from the body. The blood is filtered in the kidneys and all toxic wastes are filtered out and excreted through urine. When this filtration does not happen effectively, a lot of waste can be found in the blood, which affects normal body function.
Kidneys may lose their functioning either due to age, injury, or disease conditions. Whatever the reason, when kidney function is hampered, the body suffers. If there was an injury or congenital problem, it could be unilateral and the non-affected kidney could still do the function. However, if it is infection or old age, normally both kidneys are affected and then replacement should be looked for externally. This is where a kidney transplant comes into the picture.
What is it?
It is a surgery where a healthy, functioning kidney is placed into the body. The donor could be
- Living: These donors have to be related or unrelated. Related is often termed someone, who is a family member and is willing to donate one kidney (one kidney is sufficient for normal, healthy individuals) to the diseased person.
- Cadaver: If a person is willing to donate kidneys post death, these are used for transplant, within a specified time.
Identifying the right donor and recipient:
- Blood type and tissue type should be matched; a good tissue type match improves the chances of success
- Overall health of the donor to ensure there is no heart disease, lung disease, or diabetes
- The recipient also should be healthy
What to expect during surgery?
- Once a donor is identified, in living donors, the surgery to remove the kidney and to transplant it are done simultaneously
- The surgery usually takes about 3 to 4 hours
- Antibiotics are given prior to the surgery to prevent infection
- The blood vessels and ureter are connected back to the kidney after the transplant
- Hospital stay can range from 5 days to 2 weeks, depending on the overall health of the patient and the anticipated risk of rejection.
- Most transplanted kidneys work effectively almost immediately. A kidney stored from a cadaver may take a little longer compared to a fresh kidney from a living donor
- People who have had transplants are put on immunosuppressants on a chronic basis to reduce chances of rejection. The new kidney will always be recognised by the body as a foreign body, and so this is essential.
Kidney transplant success rates are quite high, and more and more people are opting for transplants as opposed to dialysis. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a nephrologist.