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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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The hip joint is a ball and socket joint made up of the round head of thigh bone (femoral head) with the cup shaped socket (acetabulum) of the pelvis and Perthe’s Disease is an affliction of the hip joints in growing children. It is much more common in boys than girls, and occurs most commonly in children aged between 4 to 10 years. The cause of this problem is still unidentified.
In Perthes disease, changes affect the femoral head which can be seen on X-ray. These changes occur in three stages over 18 months to 2 years:
- The blood supply to part of the femoral head is disturbed, causing loss of bone cells.
- Softening and collapse of the affected bone
- Re-establishment of the blood supply, repair and remodeling of the femoral head.
- Limping is the most common symptom. The limp may become more persistent and pain may develop. Examination of the child by the orthopaedic surgeon generally shows restriction of hip movement. The nature of Perthes disease is variable. Severity depends on the child’s age, and the extent of femoral head involvement. Older children, girls, and those with greater involvement of the femoral head are likely to require more complex treatment. Treatment aims to reduce pain and stiffness, and prevent femoral head deformity.
- All children need regular review by the orthopaedic surgeon through the duration of the disease. Not all children require active treatment. Many will make a good recovery with only symptomatic treatment. This may involve restriction of activity such as running and high impact sports. Swimming is encouraged. Some children may require exercise in slings and springs, or the application of plaster casts to the lower limbs. Some children will require surgical management.
- Children with Perthes Disease are otherwise healthy, but may be affected by physical restrictions. By middle age, one third of those affected have no symptoms, one third have intermittent hip pain, and one third would develop arthritis requiring treatment.
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Epilepsy is a form of chronic disorder and it is characterized by recurrent seizures. The episodes of epileptic seizures may differ from person to person. These seizures could be a result of genetic disorder or a result of trauma or stroke. During a seizure, a patient may also experience symptoms of neurological disorders and sometimes lose consciousness.
Medical help for epilepsy
Epilepsy itself cannot be cured using medication, but proper medicines help in eliminating recurrent seizures. These medicines stabilize the electrical activity within the brain preventing seizures.
How effective is the medication for epilepsy?
The success of controlling seizures using medicines depends on the type and severity of the epilepsy. Medicines for epilepsy are usually very effective and may fully keep seizures under control. However, controlling seizures caused due to brain problems may be more difficult. Usually, epilepsy medicines can control seizures for a long period of time when they are taken regularly.
When is medical help needed?
The decision about when to start medicines for epilepsy is a tricky one. This is because a first seizure cannot confirm whether a person has an on-going epilepsy problem. A second seizure may occur after many years or may not happen at all. Prediction of seizures is also quite difficult.
The severity of seizures also indicates when to start medicines for treatment. In case a first seizure is quite severe, medication should be started at once. Some people have very mild seizures even though they may be recurring in nature, and medication can be avoided in this situation.
All the pros and cons must be thought over before starting medications for the treatment of epilepsy. It is advisable to wait for a second seizure and then start medications for treatment. In most cases, medication is started after a second seizure occurs, twelve months within the first seizure. You should always consult a doctor to know when you need to start taking medicines to treat the condition.
For making the most out of the medicines to control seizures, you should follow certain steps:
- You must take medications exactly as your doctor has prescribed.
- Before switching to generic versions of your medicines or before taking other prescribed medicines, you must consult your doctor.
- You should never stop taking the medicines.
- In case you experience enhanced depression, mood swings and suicidal thoughts, you should talk to your doctor immediately.
- In case you have migraine, you should let your doctor know so that he can prescribe you anti-epileptic medicines, which also prevent migraines.
Medicines cannot treat the underlying cause of epilepsy, but these help in controlling seizures and this is the most common symptom of epilepsy. Medication should be started at a proper time and must be continued without stopping.
I am 28 years old. I have a baby. He is 3 years old. My baby is suffering from cough. I give some medicine. But it is not cure.
My 8 year old daughter has suddenly started burping a lot in the past few months. It started happening over past 8 to 9 months. She is also having gastric problems. Please advise. Thanks.
Hi my son is 1 month old and he vomit milk frequently after every mother feeding. Kindly give me solution sir.
I am 29years old suffering female, suffering from back pain since 4month. I am a breastfeeding mother. I applied pain relief ointments and anti inflammatory ointment not getting any relief. So kindly suggest any medical advice.
Having good non decayed milk teeth with spacing between them is good for the child. There is a probability that if there are no spaces between milk teeth ( before 6 years of age) - the chances of having irregular teeth become more later on when the permanent teeth erupt. If there is crowding/ irregularity on the eruption of permanent teeth, it is better to show it to a Pedodontist ( Child Dental Specialist), by 7 to 8 yeras of age - who will help you and the child get the teeth into alignment without having to go through braces later on. This way there will be less chances of decay in child's milk and permanent teeth.
Raising a child with dyslexia can stir up a lot of emotions. You may look ahead and wonder if this learning issue will affect your child's future. But dyslexia is not a prediction of failure. Dyslexia is quite common, and many successful individuals have dyslexia.
Research has proven that there are different ways of teaching that can help people with dyslexia succeed. There's a lot you can do as a parent too.
What are the symptoms of dyslexia?
Because dyslexia affects some people more severely than others, your child's symptoms may look different from those in another child. Some kids with dyslexia have trouble with reading and spelling. Others may struggle to write or to tell left from right.
Dyslexia can also make it difficult for people to express themselves clearly. It can be hard for them to structure their thoughts during conversation. They may have trouble finding the right words to say.
Others struggle to understand what they're hearing. This is especially true when someone uses nonliteral language such as jokes and sarcasm.
The signs you see may also look different at various ages. Some of the warning signs for dyslexia, such as a speech delay, appear before a child reaches kindergarten. More often, though, dyslexia is identified in grade school. As schoolwork gets more demanding, trouble processing language becomes more apparent.
Here are some signs to look out for:
- Warning Signs in Preschool or Kindergarten
- Has trouble recognizing the letters of the alphabet
- Struggles to match letters to sounds, such as not knowing what sounds b or h make
- Has difficulty blending sounds into words, such as connecting C-H-A-T to the word chat
- Struggles to pronounce words correctly, such as saying 'mawn lower' instead of 'lawn mower'
- Has difficulty learning new words
- Has a smaller vocabulary than other kids the same age
- Has trouble learning to count or say the days of the week and other common word sequences
- Has trouble rhyming
Warning Signs in Grade School or Middle School-
- Struggles with reading and spelling
- Confuses the order of letters, such as writing 'left' instead of 'felt'
- Has trouble remembering facts and numbers
- Has difficulty gripping a pencil
- Has difficulty using proper grammar
- Has trouble learning new skills and relies heavily on memorization
- Gets tripped up by word problems in math
- Has a tough time sounding out unfamiliar words
- Has trouble following a sequence of directions
Warning Signs in High School-
- Struggles with reading out loud
- Doesn't read at the expected grade level
- Has trouble understanding jokes or idioms
- Has difficulty organizing and managing time
- Struggles to summarize a story
- Has difficulty learning a foreign language
Skills that are affected by Dyslexia-
Dyslexia doesn't just affect reading and writing. Here are some everyday skills and activities your child may be struggling with because of this learning issue:
- Appears bright, highly intelligent, and articulate but unable to read, write, or spell at grade level.
- Labelled lazy, dumb, careless, immature, "not trying hard enough," or "behavior problem."
- Isn't "behind enough" or "bad enough" to be helped in the school setting.
- High in IQ, yet may not test well academically; tests well orally, but not written.
- Feels dumb; has poor self-esteem; hides or covers up weaknesses with ingenious compensatory strategies; easily frustrated and emotional about school reading or testing.
- Talented in art, drama, music, sports, mechanics, story-telling, sales, business, designing, building, or engineering.
- Seems to "Zone out" or daydream often; gets lost easily or loses track of time.
- Difficulty sustaining attention; seems "hyper" or "daydreamer."
- Learns best through hands-on experience, demonstrations, experimentation, observation, and visual aids.
Vision, Reading, and Spelling Skills:
- Complains of dizziness, headaches or stomach aches while reading.
- Confused by letters, numbers, words, sequences, or verbal explanations.
- Reading or writing shows repetitions, additions, transpositions, omissions, substitutions, and reversals in letters, numbers and/or words.
- Complains of feeling or seeing non-existent movement while reading, writing, or copying.
- Seems to have difficulty with vision, yet eye exams don't reveal a problem.
- Extremely keen sighted and observant, or lacks depth perception and peripheral vision.
Reads and rereads with little comprehension:
- Spells phonetically and inconsistently.
- Hearing and Speech Skills
- Has extended hearing; hears things not said or apparent to others; easily distracted by sounds.
- Difficulty putting thoughts into words; speaks in halting phrases; leaves sentences incomplete; stutters under stress; mispronounces long words, or transposes phrases, words, and syllables when speaking.
Writing and Motor Skills:
- Trouble with writing or copying; pencil grip is unusual; handwriting varies or is illegible.
- Clumsy, uncoordinated, poor at ball or team sports; difficulties with fine and/or gross motor skills and tasks; prone to motion-sickness.
- Can be ambidextrous, and often confuses left/right, over/under.
- Math and Time Management Skills
- Has difficulty telling time, managing time, learning sequenced information or tasks, or being on time.
- Computing math shows dependence on finger counting and other tricks; knows answers, but can't do it on paper.
- Can count, but has difficulty counting objects and dealing with money.
- Can do arithmetic, but fails word problems; cannot grasp algebra or higher math.
Memory and Cognition:
- Excellent long-term memory for experiences, locations, and faces.
- Poor memory for sequences, facts and information that has not been experienced.
- Thinks primarily with images and feeling, not sounds or words (little internal dialogue).
- Behavior, Health, Development and Personality
- Extremely disorderly or compulsively orderly.
- Can be class clown, trouble-maker, or too quiet.
- Had unusually early or late developmental stages (talking, crawling, walking, tying shoes).
- Prone to ear infections; sensitive to foods, additives, and chemical products.
- Can be an extra deep or light sleeper; bedwetting beyond appropriate age.
- Unusually high or low tolerance for pain.
- Strong sense of justice; emotionally sensitive; strives for perfection.
What can be done at home for dyslexia?
Helping your child with dyslexia can be a challenge, particularly if you're never been confident in your own reading and writing skills. But you don't have to be an expert to help work on certain skills or strengthen your child's self-esteem.
Keep in mind that kids (and families) are all different, so not all options will work for you. Don't panic if the first strategies you try aren't effective. You may need to try several approaches to find what works best for your child. Here are some things you can try at home:
- Read out loud every day
- Tap into your child's interests
- Use audiobooks
- Look for apps and other high-tech help
- Focus on effort, not outcome
- Make your home reader-friendly
- Boost confidence
What can make the journey easier?
Dyslexia can present challenges for your child and for you. But with the proper support, almost all people with dyslexia can become accurate readers. Your involvement will help tremendously.
Wherever you are in your journey, whether you're just starting out or are well on your way, this site can help you find more ways to support your child. Here are a few things that can help make the journey easier:
- Connect with other parents. Remember that you're not alone. Use our safe online community to find parents like you.
- Get behavior advice. Parenting Coach offers expert-approved strategies on a variety of issues that can affect children with dyslexia, including trouble with time management, anxiety and fear, frustration and low self-esteem.
- Build a support plan. Come up with a game plan and anticipate what lies ahead.
Understanding dyslexia and looking for ways to help your child is an important first step. There's a lot you can do just don't feel you have to do everything all at once. Pace yourself. If you try a bunch of strategies at the same time, it might be hard to figure out which ones are working. And do your best to stay positive. Your love and support can make a big difference in your child's life.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!