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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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My daughter is 3.5 years old and is on feeding. My wife also wants to leave but my daughter doesn't leave pls help me to leave her feeding as all night she keeps on feeding and doesn't eat anything in evening. Pls help on the same at urgent basis.
Hlo doctor mera baby 15 din ka h or usli chest bhari hui h lmbe lmbe saans leta h or cold b ho rha h.uska weight birth weight se kam b ho gya h.or mera feed krne se wo din m 25-30 bar potty krta h patli pani jesi. Or jb m cow ka milk deti hu din m sirf 7-8 bar krta h ky m usko steam de du. Or uski potty k ly ky kru. Plzz koi solution btao.
My daughter is 5 months 25 days old Please suggest me can I give rotavirus vaccine first dose now in this age.
My baby 19 month's old. Main apne baby ko daily brash karti ho fir bhi uske upar k teeth par yellow nisan ho raha h subah teeth par.
Mera name shashi hai meri age 23 years hai, mera baby sirf 1 month ka hi hai magar mujhe dudh hi nahi aa raha hai mai darti hu ki bahar ka dudh pilane se mera baby kamzor ho jayega so please mujhe medicine bataiye jiska istemal karne se mai apna dudh baby ko pila saku.
My son will turn 2 years old next month. Since his birth, we are noticing that his head, hands & feet are always hot (Both in summers as well as in winters). Sometimes they are too hot that it feels like he is having a fever. We consulted 2 child specialist but they said its normal. Is this thing normal? My son's weight is 10 Kgs. His diet is good & he is very active also. Thanks.
Sir, my baby is 3 month old .now doesn't took FM with spoon and bowel. So can istaet bottle feeding to him? Is it safe? Can it's affect on his teeth n tongue? N which bottal Can I use for him?
Hi doctor my daughter she is turning 2 next month got cold and cough. She won’t split out her cough and 2 days before one mosquito bites her on her lips so it got swelled and she is just taking the lips in her month again and again and because of irritation she take inside mouth with teeth. And blood comes. So what should I do to not to take lips inside or medication should I give to her.
My baby is 8 month old. Is it okay to travel with him in train or car? From birth he never goes anywhere from his birth place. We plan to go our in laws house in kolkata from malda. Its a distance of about 325 km. By road it takes 10 hours and train 7-8 hours. Should I travel or wait until he turns 1 year old. Pls suggest.
Nephrotic syndrome is a type of kidney disorder wherein, the body passes out the excess amount of proteins through urine, owing to the damage caused to the tiny clusters of blood vessels in the kidneys. The symptoms include putting on excessive weight as a result of fluid retention, foamy urine and severe swelling around the region of the feet, ankles and eyes.
The main feature of nephrotic syndrome is that the kidneys leak a lot of protein. Normally, urine contains virtually no protein. In nephrotic syndrome the urine contains large amounts of protein. What happens is that filters in the kidneys (the glomeruli) become 'leaky' and protein, instead of remaining in the blood, leaks out into the urine. Protein in the urine is called proteinuria.
The other key features of nephrotic syndrome are:
- A low level of protein in the blood as a result of protein loss in the urine. Although there is a drop in many of the proteins normally found in the bloodstream, the main protein that leaks from the blood into the urine is called albumin. A low blood level of albumin is main feature of nephrotic syndrome.
- Fluid retention (oedema). This is a consequence of the low level of albumin in the bloodstream, and other complex factors not fully understood.
- A high blood level of cholesterol and other fats (lipids). This is due to the change in the balance of various protein levels in the blood due to the protein leakage.
- Normal kidney function, at least initially. This means that the 'waste clearing' function of the kidneys is not affected - at least not at first. However, some of the conditions that cause nephrotic syndrome can progress to cause chronic kidney disease.
- Other typical symptoms and signs of nephrotic syndrome are discussed later.
Common causes behind it
Minimal change disease (also known as nil disease) leads to the abnormal functioning of the kidneys.. Most common cause almost 90% of children have this entity. No body knows why the Minimal change disease nephrotic syndrome occurs. Other reasons for nephrotic syndrome are infections, autoimmunity mediated and few medications.
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the name given to a collection of kidney-related findings in your child’s body. These include:
- proteinuria—high levels of protein in the urine (based on your child’s age and size)
- hypoalbuminemia—low levels of protein in your child’s blood, since it’s being passed out of his body in his urine
- edema—swelling. This happens because the proteins in your child’s blood act as a sponge to keep fluid in the blood. With fewer proteins to do this, the fluid may leak out of the blood into your child’s tissues, causing them to swell, especially around the stomach area.
- high cholesterol (blood fat) levels—low levels of protein in the blood stimulate the body to overproduce certain kinds of blood fats
- While nephrotic syndrome is not a disease, it can be the first sign of disease that can damage the kidney's tiny blood-filtering unit (glomeruli) where urine is made.
Here’s what you need to know about nephrotic syndrome:
- In the vast majority of children, NS is idiopathic, meaning that doctors don’t yet know what causes it.
- Nephrotic syndrome always affects both kidneys.
- It usually appears between the toddler and elementary school years, although it may appear later.
- There are thought to be two forms of nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD) and focal sclerosis (FSGS).
- MCD is much more common in children, and likely to respond to therapy.
- FSGS is a more aggressive disease, and may lead to kidney damage.
- Most children with NS outgrow it by young adulthood.
Pediatric Nephrotic syndrome is mainly treated by high dose steroids. So we classify Nephrotic syndrome as Steroid sensitive Nephrotic syndrome and Steroid Resistant Nephrotic syndrome. As long as the Nephrotic syndrome is steroid sensitive, kidneys usually do not fail and eventually the child recovers. Other aspect of management of Nephrotic syndrome in kids is, that is a relapsing and remitting disease in more than 2/3 of patients, so parents must be making a Nephrotic diary as suggested by the doctor so that the relapse of disease is picked before the swelling appears. Target of Nephrotic syndrome treatment is to make the child grow normally and using steroid sparing agents in kids with frequent relapses and Steroid dependence else they can develop high blood pressure, short stature, cataract, glaucoma and diabetes which all are irreversible. Never start or stop the steroids on your own considering the side effect profile. All vaccines including oral polio drops are not to be given in children receiving daily dose steroids. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.