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Simple renal cysts are often found even in normal kidneys. In fact, they are so common that they are rarely considered as a disease. Certain lifestyle traits or genetics can be the cause of renal cysts occurring in adults as well as children, though no conclusive reasons have yet been confirmed for the occurrence of the same. Medical imaging technology such as ultrasound, X-ray, and CT scanning are being extensively used to discover these lesions.
In various surveys of people undergoing ultrasound for evaluation of non-kidney-related problems, generally 15% men and 7% women over the age of 50 were detected with renal cysts. Once the radiologic imaging of the cyst is obtained, the doctor can determine what further examination will be required.
There are basically two types of renal cysts, simple and complex.
- Simple cysts are usually round, have a thin outer wall, are filled with fluid and are rarely required to be treated.
- Complex cysts, however, can have thicker walls with solidified mass or can also be a collection of small cysts. These are definitely required to be examined further as they can be cancerous.
With the latest radiological approach to renal cysts, i.e. the Bosniak classification, observation of lesions is preferred to biopsy. Even though biopsies nowadays are largely non-intrusive, they are still recommended under very specific circumstances.
This classification uses a complicated algorithm of CT scan features like size, density and perfusion and places cystic renal masses into one of the five different categories. Categories I and II are generally simple cysts, not requiring further analysis. Still, an ultrasound is repeated at intervals of 6-12 months to ensure that the cyst is not growing. However, Bosniak category IIF cysts indicate complex cysts which are required to be observed. Lack of change with time indicates that the mass is benign, while any increase indicates the possibility of cancer. Through observation, one can prevent unnecessary surgeries.
It is mostly recommended that lesions falling under Bosniak III category should be immediately surgically removed as 40-50% have the possibility of becoming cancerous. However, close follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging can be used to avoid unnecessary surgeries as it is useful for characterizing the internal content of a cyst which may be is indeterminate even after the ultrasound and CT scan. Category IV lesions necessarily require surgical removal of the kidney, as nearly 85-100% of these are cancerous. More than 90% of those diagnosed with renal cancer which is confined to the kidney can hope to become disease-free within five years after diagnosis.
Thus, complex renal cysts have a higher possibility of developing into cancer if they are found to be malignant during the period of observation and steps should be taken for immediate removal. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I have a bad habit of chewing my chicks and lips from very childhood. There are no permanent ulcer for this inside my mouth. But a white bump like has formed in my lower lip horizontally. Is there any possibility to cancer regarding this?
My cousin had noticed that he has cancer at stage of 3. The doctor planned to give radiation therapy. After that, a surgery to keep colostomy bag. He is 23 years old. Doctor asked him to save his sperms for future. Is there any possibility to avoid keeping colostomy bag?how long will he lead his life?
Hi today only my mother received the report and diagnosed with BIRADS category II what does that mean? Her ultrasound report is normal? Is there any chance that she is having cancer or everything is normal! Should we remove the lump that she is having in her breast? Her age is 51 Please tell me.
My father got prostate surgery on 14/12/2016. Nowadays he is facing problem of constipation, is there any remedy for it, is it the side effects of surgery.
What are the symptoms of prostate enlargement and what are the steps to take to overcome it, if I have it?
I am 23 yr old and I am suffering with tb lymph node result in fnac test shows tb cold abscess and afb culture -ve in left side below my ear currently I had surgery and got removed the node but I feel that pus is still getting accumulated inside. Previously I had pleural effusion and taken drugs mahaflox 400 and prd tablets but after 6 months of these medication a lymph node formed. I did xray of chest it shows no pleural fluid after 6 months of mahaflox medication. Currently its been 6months of pleural medication+ 2months forecox medication but I donot what medication is perfect for cure and how can I cure pus formation and was surgery necessary.
My father has diabetes from 11 years. From 2015 he is suffering from prostate problem. Sometimes his prostate weight goes to normal level but sometimes his sonography reports says enlarged prostate Recently, 2 months ago his urine culture report shows uti of klebsiella species but his today's urine culture report shows'specimen found sterile on culture for pyogenic organism after 48 hours incubation During urination he is suffering from pain and burning. Sometimes He is also suffer from low back pain. Please suggest me conclusion. His age is 48 years.
I am 22 years old girl, I had an injury near my left breast 4 years back. But now I feel pain in that area I have painkillers bt no relief I get. I feel the pain while sleeping also. There is no mark but a very small lump I feel in my breast whenever I press that injured area. Please suggest me wht should I do or which specialist should I consult because nowadays m feeling the pain more frequently. Is there any tests required to detect the actual cause behind the pain? Please suggest me what should I do.
I am 28 weeks pregnant nd I have noticed that sweeping in one side of areola on left breast. I have visited my GYN she said that its Montgomery tuberculosis, it itches and sometimes have burning sensation and some times it pains. But I have google it and it shows that its symptoms of breast cancer. I am freaking out now. And that swelling reduced a bit when I compressed steam on it. But it pains on some parts on my breast and three is no lumps but I am freaking out now. I don't know what to do. Can it be possible to diagnosed breast cancer during pregnancy? Can you pls tell me that is this symptoms of breast cancer? Or is it normal in pregnancy?
I am suffering from Benign Prostate Hyperplasia. I underwent two month course of Urimax followed by 6 month course of Finasteride but the frequency of urination is not reduce. I am 68 and have no Diabetes. Walk 10 KMs per day and follow healthy lifestyle. Am a total teetotaler. What is the solution now ? Sonography has revealed only a very minor prostate enlargement.
I am 25 year old guy and from last two days my lower neck is paining. I don't know the exact reason for that. What are all the symptoms for spinal tumor and what can I do for this?
Over 95 percent of malignancies arising in the prostate are adenocarcinoma. The remaining types include urothelial carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, lymphoma and sarcomas.
Core needle biopsy of the prostate is used to determine whether or not cancer is present in men with an elevated serum PSA level and/or an abnormal digital rectal examination.
The recommendation is to take multiple core biopsies under transrectal ultrasound guidance.
Primary diagnosis of prostate cancer by using fine needle aspiration is not acceptable.
When positive, the combined Gleason score, based upon architectural features of the prostate cancer cells, should be reported because it correlates closely with clinical behavior and has been incorporated into the tumor node metastasis (TNM) prognostic group staging system.
One should also report number of positive cores, the percentage (or length) of cancer in the positive core, the presence of perineural invasion or extraprostatic extension, and the presence of histologic types other than conventional adenocarcinoma.
The accuracy of pathological diagnosis of prostate cancer can be improved by using immunohistochemistry markers.
I am suffering from prostate bph since ten years. Size 4.1 4 4.2cm weight 37g residual 5oml.At preset I am taking one urimax d per day .But recently burning sensation of prostate and frequency of urinisation increased. Now I am takiing tab bacstol 100 mg since 5days.But no noticeable releif.L am also suffering from low back pain and neck pain.Is it becauce of prostate.Kindly advice.L cant go surgery because I am an acute heart patient having underwent bypass surgery 17 years ago.
I am 20 years old and I have concern regarding my breasts i. E whatever dress I wear my nipples are popped out to dress and easily visible. Request you to advise me on what measures to be taken to avoid it completely so that I am able to wear any type of dress.
Breast cancer is a type of cancer, which occurs due to the development of cancerous cells in breasts. Women are usually affected by breast cancer and breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer after skin cancer. Usually fatal if not diagnosed in its early stage, breast cancer is a very serious medical ailment. Read on more to find all about the different symptoms, causes, preventive measures and treatment of breast cancer.
Symptoms: Breast cancer has few distinct characteristics and if you have a few or all the following symptoms you could be more likely to suffer from breast cancer.
- The formation of a lump in your breast, which is different from the surrounding tissue and usually more thickened.
- The discharge of bloody fluid material from the nipples.
- Sudden change of the size, shape and appearance of the breast.
- Certain distinct changes to the skin over the breast for example an indentation in the skin similar to that of a dimple.
- Appearance of an extra nipple which is inverted.
- If the darkened area around the nipples known as the areola is flaking or peeling off.
Causes: Studies and researches remain inconclusive on what causes breast cancer. Breast cancer occurs due to abnormal division of the cells located in the breast, which over time accumulate and form lumps. They
might spread to other parts of the body. Breast cancer is caused mainly due to a complex interaction of personal genetics, environment and lifestyle choices. Breast cancer can also be caused due to genetics as about 5% to 10% of cases are due to gene mutations which pass onto generations.
Risk factors: There are certain factors, which increase the probability of contracting breast cancer. Increasing age, personal and family history of breast cancer, obesity, radiation exposure, pregnancy at an older age, postmenopausal hormone therapy are some of the factors that increase the chances of breast cancer.
Treatment: Several forms of surgical methods exist to treat breast cancer. Depending on the condition and spread of the disease a suitable surgery is performed. These include mastectomy, lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection and removal of both breasts. Other forms of treatment include chemotherapy or the use of high doses of drugs to destroy cancerous cells. Radiation therapy where X-rays are used to destroy the cancer cells is also effective.