Doctor in Supriya Diagnostic Center
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Most women attain menopause between the ages of late 40s and early 60s, the average age being about 51. This is an important milestone in a women's gynecological history. One major change is altered female hormone levels, and this leads to a lot of physiological changes. From hot flashes to mood swings, there is also increased predisposition to osteoporosis and uterine cancer.
If you have not had your menstrual cycles for close to 12 months, chances are you are into menopause. So, that means absolutely no vaginal bleeding anymore whatsoever. However, if you experience bleeding, even spotting, be on the alert. It is not normal and needs to be examined, and if required, diagnosed and treated.
Postmenopausal bleeding or PMB, as it is popularly called, can be due to a variety of reasons. While it could be something as trivial as inflammation of the uterine or vaginal lining, it could also be an indication of more severe issues like cancer.
- Atrophic vaginitis: Decreasing hormonal levels lead to increased dryness and therefore inflammation of the vaginal and uterine tissue. This is one of the common causes of bleeding after menopause.
- Endometrial atrophy: Also caused by lower hormone levels, the lining of the body of the uterus gradually thins down and can get inflamed.
- Polyps: Noncancerous growths in the uterus, cervix, vulva, or vagina can also lead to bleeding.
- Infections: General infection of any area along the uterine tract could lead to occasional bleeding.
- Cancers: Though only 1 in 10 PMB cases turn out to be cancers, the prognosis improves with early diagnosis and intervention.
Diagnosis: As repeated above, reach out to your doctor if you notice postmenopausal bleeding. Diagnostic methods could include the following:
- Physical examination
- Transvaginal ultrasound
- Endometrial biopsy
- Dilatation and Curettage
Treatment: Needless to say, this would depend on the diagnosis. For very minor cases with diagnosis like altered hormone levels, no treatment may be required other than modification of the hormone replacement therapy. For endometrial atrophy and atrophic vaginitis, use of estrogen creams and pessaries would be sufficient. Polyps would require removal followed by cauterization (application of slight heat) to stop the bleeding.
Cancer: This would depend on the type and location and require a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. Removal of the uterus also may be required in some cases. So, if you have had bleeding of any sort after a year of menopause, do not ignore it.
Have you been emotionally invested in a relationship for quite some time? Have you faced continual fights and disagreements with your partner? Have these fights resulted into frustration or have they affected the natural course of your respective lives? If yes, it is time for you to reassess the effort or rather the kind of effort you put in to make things work. Quarrels are an integral part of any healthy and serious relationship. However, an overdose may lead to severed ties. It bruises your memory and leaves you too distraught to engage in an emotional attachment. The kind of mindset a person applies to his or her relationship determines the kind of treatment the person receives in the relationship. Hence, you must be very careful.
A healthier mindset can be adopted in the following ways:
- To complain as least as possible: Keep low expectations from your partner. The most common reason for conflict in relationships is the list of expectations, which when left unfulfilled leads to complaining and nagging. What you do for your partner is what 'you think is the right thing', but your partner may not hold the same perspective.
- Respecting and accepting your partner as he/she is: A package deal, will resolve many issues without debate. When pointed out in subtle ways, your partner will understand and try to change for you , if she/he wishes to.
- Try to have a growth oriented mindset: A growth oriented mindset as opposed to a fixed mindset can always help. When you have a fixed mindset you easily give up on your partner or on the relationship. You tend to feel hopeless about future and associate a lack of growth or change with your partner. A growth- oriented mindset endows you with hope. A situation is perceived as an occurrence in the present that need not necessarily be translated into future. Also, such a mindset expects both parties to accept and encourage change and growth of individuals in the relationship. Anything contrary can make your relationship boring.
- Stop using labels: Labeling is an indecent way of identifying the problem with your partner or with the relationship in general. You should neither brand yourself as something or your partner as something else. Associating critical adjectives with one another is a way of demeaning your lover and can dissuade your partner from communicating his or her viewpoint.
- Look for the trigger: Most quarrels result from a trigger. Trying to pinpoint the trigger with a cool head can actually be of use. This will make partners aware of their faults and instead of dodging the situation they will be able to deal with it better.
- Try to rekindle the spark: Time, overburdening responsibilities or workload can make your relationship a routine affair. An element of secrecy and excitement is important. Therefore, desire should never take a backseat in your relationship. Try to fulfill your partner's desire and let him or her know about your expectations as well.
There are different types of orthopedic surgeries available and each surgery has its own benefits and procedures.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos) is seen in approx 30-40% of infertile females. Most of these women are overweight or obese, the severity of the disease is directly proportionate to wt gain. Increased weight causes insulin resistance, rise in male hormone levels leading to pimples and excessive hair growth and irregular cycles. Ultimate treatment should be aimed at weight loss, lifestyle modification, diet and exercise. Medications like oral contraceptive pills, metformin help to reduce insulin resistance and male hormone levels to some extent. But the results will be temporary unless backed by weight loss. Pcos in lean females need to be treated with medicines and is more difficult to treat. These females should seek advice of fertility expert early after marriage, so that simple options like ovulation induction help them. They need to keep it in mind that they have higher chance of miscarriage than females without pcos. So, do not neglect if you are getting irregular periods, consult your gynaec or fertility expert.