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WHY ? CANCER SCREENING- Checking for cancer in people who have no symptoms is cancer screening .Can help doctors find and treat several type of cancers early, before they cause symptoms. Early detection is important because when abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat .By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread and be harder to treat.
In Whom? - In Diseases where following principles can be followed like Disease should be important health problem in terms of frequency .Natural history of disease presents window of opportunity for early detection. Effective treatment should be available that favorably alters natural history of disease. Treatment should be more effective if initiated earlier than during the symptomatic stage .Suitable screening test - Cheap/Easily Available/Reproducible/Socially Acceptable
Caution!! Easier Said than Done due to False positive results - anxiety /unwanted additional tests False negative results - false reassurance, leading to delays in diagnosis
Over-diagnosis - cancer detected was slow growing and would not have harmed that person in his or her lifetime
Some screening tests may cause bleeding or other health problems – Sigmoidoscopy/Colonoscopy Cost burden on healthcare/ Radiation Exposure of some tests / Incidental Lesions
When? & How? - In cancers like Breast,Prostate,Colon and Cervix
The fallopian tubes are a couple of thin tubes that act as a vehicle in transporting a woman’s eggs (ova) from her ovaries (where they are housed) to her uterus (otherwise known as the ‘womb’) where they are either fertilized by the male sperm or disposed off during menstruation. Fallopian tube cancer, otherwise known as tubal cancer, forms in the fallopian tubes that connect the ovaries and the uterus.
It is hard to see a tumour or growth developing within a tube. This makes fallopian tube cancer hard to diagnose and complicated to manage as well.
If you do have fallopian tube cancer, it is vital to get a quick diagnosis as promptly as possible. This will help you to get effective treatment. However, diagnosing fallopian tube cancer can be challenging because of the following:
It is an uncommon kind of cancer.
The indications are vague and like those of different other conditions.
Discovering a tumour inside the Fallopian tube is troublesome.
In case you have symptoms that may point at fallopian tube cancer, your specialist will conduct a thorough physical examination and get some information about your lifestyle and your family history. A pelvic examination will be done to examine your uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes and vagina. If a tumour is found, your specialist will do some more tests.
At least one of the accompanying tests might be utilised to see whether you have fallopian tube cancer and if it has spread. These tests additionally might be used to see whether the treatment is working. These diagnostic tests may include the following:
Ultrasound of the Pelvis: This test is helpful. However, in case that your specialist still suspects fallopian tube cancer, he or she will arrange a transvaginal ultrasound. During this test, a probe will be put into the vagina to deliver a photo of the inner organs. A transvaginal ultrasound is the best method for imaging the fallopian tubes.
CT or CAT (computed axial tomography) scan
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan
Biopsy: A sample of cells is removed from the fallopian tube and examined closely, under a microscope. This is the best way to know for sure whether you have fallopian tube cancer. This will require surgery to extract the sample cells.
CA125 test: This blood test checks the levels of CA125, a known tumour marker for gynecologic cancers. An abnormal state of CA125 may mean you need to have more tests. However, it does not necessarily mean you have fallopian tube cancer. Serum levels of a marker called CA-125 can be unusually high in patients with gynecologic infections in cancer and non-cancer sorts, that is, pelvic inflammatory infection, endometriosis and early pregnancy. CA-125 can be non-specific and might be elevated because of numerous issues that are not cancer related.
I have rough ness in buccal mucosa (inner cheek. Dentist said it is because of teeth rubbing cheek. Can I consult a head and neck oncologist for treatment.
What is the average cost of brain surgery for cancer tumor removal, it is a metastasis of lung cancer. And post care also. I need this info for my father. We live in Mumbai, ok with Mumbai, Navi Mumbai.
My Father has been taking Urimax D for the last the 2.5 Years. He has prostate weight of 39 gms His age is 71. For how long can he take this medicine? Are there any side effects if taken for long time?
I had undergone tongue cancer surgery 4 months back (grade 1 cancer stage totally cleared no radiation or chemo required as per after surgery biopsy) know the question is I can have alcohol or not?
I am diagnosed prostate enlargement and doctor prescribed silodal D8 for 3 months. Whether I will be alright after 3 months.
The bile duct connects the liver, gall bladder and small intestine and plays an important role in the digestion process. Though it is rare, the bile duct may also be affected by cancer, this type of cancer is known as biliary cancer. Biliary cancer can be categorized as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and cancer of the gall bladder. Of these, gall bladder cancer is the most common. Biliary cancer is typically treated with surgery and followed by chemotherapy and radiation. In many cases, this surgery may be performed laparoscopically.
Laparoscopic surgery is also known as keyhole surgery or minimally invasive surgery. This differs from other surgical procedures as it allows a surgeon to operate on an internal organ without making a large incision. There are many advantages to laparoscopic surgery which include minimal bleeding, smaller internal and external scars, reduced chances of infections, lowered pain and discomfort and faster healing. It also reduces the amount of hospitalization required after a surgery and allows the patient to return to his normal lifestyle faster. However, laparoscopic surgery cannot be applied to all procedures.
When it comes to biliary cancer, laparoscopy can be used to treat cancer of the gall bladder. This is known as Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and involves the removal of part of the gall bladder or the whole gall bladder. The lymph nodes around the gall bladder and parts of the liver tissue may also be removed. For this procedure, 3 to 4 incisions may be made in the abdomen. A long flexible tube with a light and camera at one end is passed through one of these incisions. This allows the surgeons to look inside the abdominal cavity. Instruments are used through the other incisions to cut the tumor away and remove it.
Laparoscopy is rarely used to treattumours in the bile ducts. This is because the bile ducts are relatively small and placed deep within the abdomen. However, if a tumor is blocking the flow of bile into the intestines, laparoscopy may be used to create a bypass. It may also be used to remove small stones from the bile duct.
Biliary cancer has very few significant symptoms. Hence, in many cases, it is diagnosed only at an advanced stage. Almost all cases of Biliary cancer are accompanied by the development of gall stones. Laparoscopy is very effective in treating gall stones and increases the chances of detecting biliary cancer in its early stage