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Generally identified as a rare and uncommon phenomenon, vaginal cancer most often occurs in the cells present in the outer lining of the vagina, also called the birth canal. Although primary vaginal cancer is rare and unusual, there are various other types of vaginal cancer that originate elsewhere in the body, but have spread over to your vagina.
Depending upon the nature of origin, vaginal cancer can be divided into the following types:
- Vaginal adenocarcinoma, beginning in the glandular cells on the surface of your vagina
- Vaginal sarcoma, developing in the connective tissue cells and multiple cells lining the walls of your vagina
- Vaginal squamous cell carcinoma, originates in the squamous cells lining the surface of the bacteria
- Vaginal melanoma, developing in melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells in your vagina
Symptoms: As vaginal cancer progresses from one stage to the next, you may experience any one of the following signs and symptoms:
- Diluted, watery vaginal discharge
- Painful urination
- Odd cases vaginal bleeding, for instance, after menopause or after intercourse
- Formation of lumps in your vagina
- Frequent and regular urination
- Pelvic pain
Causes: Normally, cancer develops when healthy cells undergo genetic mutations. Cancer cells are known to break off from pre-existing tumors and can easily spread everywhere, in what is referred to as metastasize.
Beyond the natural process of development, here are a few factors, which may further contribute to the growth of cancerous cells:
- Increasing age
- Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
I take silodal-d 8 (Silodosin hard gelatin capsules and Dutasteride capsules) daily after dinner, if I take capsules after breakfast will it be negative effect? Please advise me.
Prostrate treatment, for 72+ person. Healthy habits, health conscious, no BP or diabetes. Weight under control.. Regular Walker, Yoga Practice.
Cancer or the big ‘C’ can affect any part of the body including the female reproductive system. These types of cancer are known as gynaecological cancers. Gynaecological cancers occur when normal cells start growing in an uncontrolled manner. There are many different types of gynaecological cancers which are named as per the organs in which they first develop. These include:
- Ovarian cancer: Cancer that affects the ovaries and ova
- Uterine cancer: Cancer that begins inside the uterus
- Cervical cancer: Cancer that begins in the cervix or the section of the reproductive tract between the uterus and vagina
- Vaginal cancer: Cancer that begins in the vagina
- Vulval cancer: Cancer that originates in the opening of the vagina, labia minora or labia majora, clitoris or mons pubis
- Fallopian tube cancer: Cancer that affects the fallopian tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus
- Placenta cancer: Pregnancy related cancer
Gynaecological cancers are more commonly diagnosed in cases where the woman has a family history of cancer or has mutated genes. Advancing in age, exposure to hormones, and diethylstilbestrol can also increase the risk of suffering from such cancers. Additionally, viral infections such as human papilloma virus, obesity and unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking have also been identified as risk factors for cancer.
However, a woman may suffer from these types of cancer even if she does not fall into any of the above risk factor categories. Hence, it becomes important to focus on the symptoms. The symptoms of gynaecological cancers depend on the organ from where the tumour originated, the size of the tumour and it’s rate of growth.
Some of the symptoms which may be noticed are:
- Abnormal bleeding from the vagina
- Bleeding after intercourse
- Unusual discharge from the vagina
- Pain or discomfort in the abdominal area
- Swelling of the abdomen
- Painful intercourse
- Itching or burning sensations in the genital area
- Lumps, warts or sores in the genital area
- Unusual bladder and bowel habits
Gynaecological cancers can be treated by using chemotherapy, radiation, hormonal therapies or surgery depending on the stage of the cancer and the type of cancer. Hence, the earlier it is diagnosed, the better it is. Keeping the risk factors in mind, if the above symptoms are noticed, the doctor may ask for a number of tests to diagnose gynaecological cancers.
These tests include:
Rectal cancer is the growth of cancerous cells in the rectum, which is the colon’s lower part of the colon, connecting the large bowel and the anus. The basic function of the rectum is to collect the stool that is formed inside the human body before it is eliminated from the body. The cancer starts as a polyp, which is precancerous, and slowly develops and turns cancerous. This cancer will start spreading and penetrates into the walls of the rectum causing rectal cancer.
Surgery is the most common treatment available for rectal cancer. Depending on the location of the cancer and the type of cancer, there are different types of rectal cancer surgeries available. One of the important things that are considered before deciding which kind of surgery is required is the location of the tumor from the anus.
Types of Surgeries for Rectal Cancer:
Here are different types of surgeries available for different stages of rectal cancer.
- Low Anterior Resection Surgery: When the cancer or the tumor is located above the anus, then low anterior resection surgery is the best surgery. The rectal cancer, adjoining rectal tissues and the lymph nodes are removed. This surgery is done by making an incision in the lower part of the abdomen. This surgery is used for stage 1 cancer.
- Abdominoperineal Resection Surgery: Abdominoperineal resection surgery is preferred when the tumor is close to the anus. It can be used for treating stage 1 cancer and also can be used for stage II and stage III as well. The rectal cancer, the anus, adjusting rectal tissues and the lymph nodes are removed.
- Local transanal resection: When the cancer is in its early stage and is not far from the anus, your surgeon will opt for local transanal resection surgery. Usually, the tumor has to be small for performing this surgery.
- Proctectomy with colo-anal anastomosis: You may have to remove the entire rectum if the tumor is present in the middle or lower part of the rectum. This is usually in stage II or stage III. This kind of situation requires proctectomy with colo-anal anastomosis.
- Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: When the tumor is above the rectum and is in its early stage, transanal endoscopic microsurgery is the best method. But for performing this surgery, experts with special equipment are required.
- Pelvic exenteration: When the rectal cancer starts growing to the organs near to rectum, pelvic exenteration is required. This is a time consuming major surgery. Usually, along with the rectum, other organs such as the bladder, uterus or prostate is also removed. The patient will take months to recover from this major surgery.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
According to recent studies, the percentage of people suffering from Bladder Cancer in India has increased by 32.9% since 1990. Smoking is a leading cause of bladder cancer and this has been attributed to the high number of carcinogenic compounds present.
Men are more prone to developing Bladder Cancer than women. It is a condition where abnormal cell growth takes place in the urothelial cells that are positioned at the core of one’s bladder. The disease if left untreated eventually spreads to the other parts of the urinary tract system.
Tobacco abuse or smoking exposes us to harmful chemicals that get absorbed in the urine. While some of the chemicals get excreted through the urine a part of it is retained by the body. It is these retained chemicals that start lining the inner walls of the bladder and results in the development of Bladder Cancer. There is no point of sustaining an addiction that hinders one’s chances of leading a healthy life. Hence, it is better to quit smoking from today itself. For your benefit, we have come up with a few tips that you can use to embrace a tobacco-free life.
- Make a promise to yourself and make sure you commit to it. You can start this regime by throwing away all your cigarettes, and all those accompanying accessories like lighters, ashtrays and cigarette cases. Try to avoid the company of people who smoke.
- Turn around the triggers: The urge to smoke is triggered by certain situations, for example, you might have a habit of smoking after every meal or after working at a stretch. You can utilize these short breaks by going for a walk instead or talking to a friend. In short, you can do anything that lightens you up.
- Keep yourself occupied: Make sure that you keep yourself busy with work so that you hardly find time to smoke. Eventually, your urge to smoke will dwindle and you will find how well you can function without it.
- Reward yourself: Think about all the money you can save if you don’t waste them in buying cigarettes. Keep aside the money that you save as a result of your commitment. After a month, buy yourself an object of value or start making short investments if you wish to.
- Consult a Physician: If your body is addicted to nicotine, quitting smoking can be hard. In that case, you can talk to a physician and opt for nicotine replacements like sugar-free gums, inhalers or nasal sprays as prescribed by the doctor.
You are bound to feel a positive change once you forego this hazardous habit. Resist yourself from a debilitating disease like Bladder Cancer by saying goodbye to tobacco. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!