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Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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I am associated with Dr.Kabita Mondal from the past one years and I have never come across a doctor like her.She is very co-operative and understanding ,The Dr. Should be like this.My entire phase of pregnancy was under her and it was because of her that the journey was more smooth and memorable. I have always been open to her about all my problems and she has dealt with them not professionally but as an elder sister.Thank you madam being not only my doctor, but my mentor as well.. I would recommend others too. Riya Pal,VIP Road, Kolkata-700052.
Dr. is very caring and friendly give nice advise
It was a nice experience
It was a nice experience
Also known as tubal sterilization, tubectomy is a permanent method of contraception in women. It is a surgical procedure in which a portion of the fallopian tubes are blocked to prevent an egg that is released from the ovaries, from reaching the uterus. In case an egg is present in the uterus, it carries with it the risk of fertilization, thus, can lead to pregnancy. Sometimes the patient may change her decision and ask for a reversal of the process. However, it should also be kept in mind that the surgery is a complex one. The results are often not guaranteed.
- Tubectomy refers to cutting or blocking a small portion of the fallopian tubes that prevent the released eggs from reaching the uterus.
- The surgeon reaches to the fallopian tubes by cutting open a portion of the abdomen in case of an open surgery.
- Laparoscopic techniques are also available to conduct the surgery.
- The fallopian tubes are blocked by an artificial clip to prevent the passage of eggs.
- Tubectomy may create a number of health complications in the long run.
- Tubectomy is not advised for patients who have previously undergone abdominal surgeries.
- Major risks of injury such as perforation surrounding blood vessels, internal haemorrhage or a severely life-threatening situation such as ectopic pregnancy may occur later on. Ectopic pregnancy is when fertilization and implantation occur within the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
- Tubectomy is even more challenging than vasectomy and has higher chance of giving rise to health complications.
Although the procedure is complex, it has a few advantages as well. Minimally-invasive surgeries help in quicker recoveries. It is almost 99% effective as a measure of birth control and thus provides a permanent solution. This surgery can even be done immediately after delivery. Sometimes, in rural areas, family welfare departments, government hospitals and primary health care centres offer free surgery and care to aid and educate about family planning.
Pregnancy is that wonderful and beautiful phase that most women rejoice about. However, many may find it hard to believe that pregnancy can bring with it a condition known as ‘antenatal depression’. This is a common condition in expecting mothers and should not be ignored.
Depression during pregnancy like regular depression is a clinical condition and requires further investigation and management. Pregnancy is related to the female hormones and therefore, mood swings are common (as during PMS and menopause). However, depressed pregnant women would typically have the following associated symptoms too.
Altered eating habits
Altered sleeping patterns (too much or too less)
Loss of attention/ability to focus
Losing interest in activities which usually interest the person
Feeling very anxious
Constant feeling of sadness
Uncertainty about the future
Feeling of worthlessness
It has been noted about 25% of women can get depressed during pregnancy for varying periods of time. Some potential reasons for this are as below.
Strained relationships: One of the most important factors for a healthy pregnancy is a happy relationship, not just with the partner, but with immediate and close family members with whom there is a high level of regular interaction.
Work stress: For working women, a stressful office environment could take a toll on their moods.
Previous miscarriages: This can cause anxiety and depression about possible repeat incident.
Potential complications: If the periodic examinations showed up possibility for complications in pregnancy, the chance of depression in the mother increase.
How it affects pregnancy?
A depressed mother would not be able to care for herself and therefore, the baby may not get adequate nutrition for its development. Additionally, the potential for nicotine and alcohol abuse increases, which also negatively impacts the baby’s growth. There could be low birth weight, premature birth and developmental delays after birth.
While the hormonal changes during pregnancy causes mood swings, diagnosing if it is depression is important. A consultation with a psychiatrist may be required for some women.
Some of the options available for treatment include support groups, individual counseling, and medications.
It is important to understand that this is a common condition and you are not the only one going through this. Talking to other women who feel depressed can help in mood uplifting of all involved.
If you are too shy about it, individual counseling could be the next best thing.
Stress management including light exercise, music, meditation, rest, diet, and support from close friends and family are highly recommended.
- Since most antidepressants would reach the baby, it is advisable to avoid these less you need them as a last resort.
Diabetes is a condition wherein one suffers from high blood sugar levels. Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes which occurs only during pregnancy. It is certainly possible to bear a healthy child, provided certain lifestyle modifications are adhered to. Once the baby is born, the condition usually tends to disappear. However, this does make you prone to Type 2 diabetes (a condition wherein the body is unable to utilize the insulin effectively).
High blood sugar levels during pregnancy can affect the baby. It usually gives rise to complications such as high blood sugar levels in the baby, impaired functioning of the pancreas in order to produce insulin, and excess sugar deposits in the form of fats. The baby might also become predisposed to jaundice and other breathing difficulties.
Pregnancy causes the placenta to produce hormones that impair the functioning of insulin. The pancreas too does not produce the required amount of insulin. Both these factors contribute to the rise of sugar levels in the body.
There are certain factors which may put you at risk of being affected by gestational diabetes –
A family history of diabetes
Past history of the condition
There are measures one can adopt to reduce risks of this disorder. Shed the extra pounds and maintain optimal weight levels. An active lifestyle would ensure proper utilization of the insulin by the body. The main goal of treating gestational diabetes is to get the blood sugar levels back to normal. This can be done by:
Insulin Shots: Insulin shots help normalize and regulate high blood sugar levels. Another advantage is that these shots do not affect the baby.
Diet: A healthy eating plan helps prevent sudden surge in blood sugar. You have to be conscious of the type of foods you eat and be mindful of the portions you eat. Processed foods should be avoided; instead the focus should be on natural foods.
Being Physical Active: Pregnancy does put certain restrictions on your mobility and your ability to perform certain exercises. Hence, an exercise plan should be designed accordingly. In times such as these, cardio vascular exercises, such as brisk walking, swimming or Yoga should be enjoying maximum priority in your list of the doable exercises.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a condition, which is born due to an imbalance of hormones within the female body. When this happens, the female body faces anumber of problems as far as her periods or menstrual cycles goes, besides finding it difficult to conceive naturally and easily. Let us find out more about this condition.
PCOS and hormones
To begin with, let us understand what hormones are. These are chemical impulses that send messages to various parts of the brain and rest of the body to signal the release of other kinds of hormones that may be vital for various functions. In PCOS, it is normally seen that the sex hormones are thrown out of balance, due to which the ovaries start producing a small dose of some male hormones. This creates problems as far as ovulation is concerned and also, it gives rise to the growth of facial hair, acne and changes in the overall appearance of the patient. Insulin resistance is another cause that may also trigger PCOS. It is also an inherited issue in many cases.
From irregular periods to an increase in acne and facial hair, there are many symptoms that may point at the existence of this condition. Fertility problems and issues related to normal ovulation are also often seen in women who are suffering from this condition due to the irregular periods. Additionally, depression may be seen in many patients who are suffering from this condition on a chronic basis. Thinning of hair and excess weight gain with difficulty in losing extra pounds may also be indicative of PCOS.
The diagnosis of PCOS is usually done with the help of a physical examination as well as a blood test that will primarily help in determining the sugar levels and insulin. The doctor will also conduct other hormone tests so as to understand which hormones are not in balance and which ones may be triggering changes in the body. Apart from all this, the doctor will also study the body mass index (BMI) of the patient to find out if there has been a sudden and drastic change on the weight of the patient. During the lab tests, where the blood and urine are examined, the doctor will also seek to rule out any anomalies in the thyroid gland. An ultrasound of the ovaries will also be conducted.
Weight loss programs as well as diet tweaks that remove excess dairy and meat may be recommended by the doctor. Further, the doctor may also put the patient on birth control pills so as to bring better balance of hormones. Moreover, moderate exercise will be required for the patient so that the normal production of hormones may be resumed eventually.
Gynecological cancer is any tumor that begins in a woman’s reproductive organs. Cancer is usually named after the part of the body where it begins. Gynecologic cancer starts in different areas within a woman’s pelvis, which is the territory beneath the stomach and in the middle of the hipbones. There are different types of gynecological cancers and these are as follows:
- Cervical cancer starts in the cervix, which is the lower, narrower end of the uterus. The uterus is also called the womb.
- Ovarian cancer starts in the ovaries, which are situated on each side of the uterus.
- Uterine cancer starts in the uterus, the pear-shaped organ in a woman's pelvis where the child develops when a lady is pregnant.
- Vaginal cancer starts in the vagina, which is the empty, tube-like channel between the base of the uterus and ends as the vaginal opening.
- Vulvar cancer starts in the vulva, the external part of the female genital organs.
Signs and symptoms of the above-mentioned gynecologic cancers can be very vague; however, there are a few issues each lady needs to know about and look for. The following are some of the common symptoms of different gynecological cancer:
- Swollen leg (ordinarily happens in one leg and comes with pain or discharge)
- Irregular vaginal bleeding (particularly in a lady who has experienced menopause)
- Unexplained weight loss
- Consistent bladder weight or increased urination
- Loss of appetite, while always feeling full
- Pelvic or stomach pain
- Bloated stomach
- Consistent weakness
- Compelling, sudden onset bloating
- Trouble eating or feeling full rapidly
- Urinary indications (urge or recurrence)
- Vaginal draining or spotting after menopause
- New onset of heavy flow during periods or bleeding between two-period cycles
- A watery pink or white discharge from the vagina
- Two or more weeks of steady pain in the lower abdomen or pelvic region
- Pain during sex
- A red, pink or white bump that has a crude or wart-like surface
- A white area that feels unpleasant and rough
- Continuous itching
- Pain or a smoldering feeling while urinating
- Bleeding and discharge not connected with monthly cycle
- An open sore or ulcer that lasts over a month
A large portion of the symptoms connected with gynecologic cancers may occur due to other reasons every once in a while, which may make us ignore them. It is vital to be tuned into your body and pay consideration on any progressions. In case you see new side effects that are happening every day for more than a couple of weeks, this can be an indication of gynecological cancer. Try not to worry. Make sure to go for regular check-ups at your gynecologist.
What is Bacterial Vaginosis?
Bacterial Vaginosis is an infection that occurs in and around the female genitalia. It does not usually pose a major health threat and is a mild infection that can be controlled and cured with timely medical intervention. Although it is believed to be sexually transmitted, it can also affect women who are not sexually active.
In some cases, pelvic surgeries, which include caesarean, hysterectomy, abortion or other abdominal surgery, bacterial vaginosis can be contracted during the surgical procedure. This can further complicate the condition of the patient.
Bacterial Vaginosis is a common complaint among women who have physically reached the child bearing age and symptoms of this physical problem can become prominent at any time of the menstrual cycle.
Causes of Bacterial Vaginosis
Dirty, unwashed underwear
Multiple sexual partners
Change in the vaginal pH, causing the reduction in the protective acidic secretion that prevents the growth of other harmful bacteria
It can also arise from the placement of Intrauterine device (IUD), a contraceptive device placed to prevent the eggs released by the ovaries, from reaching the uterus.
The most common sign of bacterial vaginosis is a foul smelling vaginal discharge.
The discharge increases after sexual activities.
Discomfort during urination
In some rare cases, there is itching and dryness
In most cases, bacterial vaginosis does not reveal too many symptoms and does not even cause intense irritation.
Bacterial Vaginosis can be treated with antibiotics that are generally to be continued for a course of 7 days.
Symptoms and discomfort of bacterial vaginosis generally recede within 2-3 days. However, it is recommended that the medicine should not be stopped even after the symptoms disappear.
- Only in rare cases, certain antibiotics may lead to a vaginal yeast infection. In case of redness, inflammation, irritation and undesirable discharge, you must seek medical attention immediately.
Infertility is characterized by the inability to get pregnant even after unprotected intercourse for over a year. Repeated miscarriages along with other factor can often be the reason behind infertility in women.
Probable causes of Infertility in Women:
The most common cause of infertility in women is an abnormal uterus. Congenital flaws, such as septate uterus can lead to repeated miscarriages. The normal pH level of the uterus is approximately in the range of 6.6 to 7.6. So a pH level below or above this range can lead to an abnormal uterus.
Ovulation defects (such as the eggs not properly maturing in the ovaries or the ovaries not releasing mature eggs) are other causes as well.
Another possible cause is Endometriosis, a condition wherein the tissues which line the inner walls of the uterus start to grow on the outsides of the uterus, such as in the pelvis or the abdomen.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), a condition wherein the ovaries become enlarged with tiny cysts growing on them, is another important cause for infertility. Hormonal imbalances are at the root of this condition.
A block or damage to the fallopian tubes can prevent the sperm to properly fertilize the egg thus, leading to infertility.
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After carrying the baby for nine months and delivering it, the next big step for the mother is to learn to breastfeed. For a woman who has had her first delivery, this could be a thing that can scare her and put her at discomfort. In addition, some mothers can also experience physical pain, which is even more worrisome.
In the initial stages of breastfeeding, it is normal to have pain as the baby and the mother have not yet identified the correct method i.e. the mother in terms of holding the baby, while the baby in terms of latch correctly to get milk. However, in most cases, the mother detaches and repositions the baby. This often helps in relieving the pain and after some repetition of this exercise, both the mother and the baby would know the correct position.
Let down reflex, also called milk ejection reflex, is set off by hormone oxitocin which is released whenever your baby feeds, it stimulates muscle cells in your breast to squeeze milk and may cause pain. Oral thrush, which is a yeast infection, in baby's mouth, can cause sore nipples and pain. The baby’s oral features like a short mouth, short tongue, small chin, high palate, etc., can lead to improper suction and cause pain. However, this pain from suctioning will disappear within a couple of days. Another cause for breast pain could be engorgement. When the breasts are engorged, due to feeding after a long break, there is too much milk, which can cause pain as soon as the baby latches on. Pressing out some milk before the baby latches on can help reduce the pain. lmproper size of bra, too tight or too loose, can be a cause of breast pain.
Nipple pain, when exposed to cold weather, is another condition. This occurs due to constricted blood vessels and is known as Raynaud’s phenomenon. If required, pain medication can be taken, but this type of pain usually subsides.
Allergies such as poison ivy and eczema can also lead to nipple soreness. Even topical issues like use of creams, soaps and deodorants can cause soreness. These require no intervention and minute changes would usually suffice. It is important to remember that any medication taken can reach the baby during the breastfeeding and unless absolutely essential, it is best to avoid any medication for the mother. If a baby is being fed well after the 6th month of life, teething begins and this can be a cause for pain during breastfeeding.
In most cases, proper breastfeeding techniques usually take care of the issue. However, if there are other issues, for instance, the child’s oral features, they may require correction as they not only need to be addressed because of this problem, but also otherwise.
Using warm moist compresses is useful in soothing the pain. Empty the breast properly after feeding the baby. Try to avoid chemicals like Linolin, hydrogel, as far as possible, if applied to cracked nipples, clean it properly before feeding the baby. Applying freshly squeezed milk from the breast is another wonderful option, given its antibacterial properties. The warmth of wet tea bags may also give a soothing effect. Remember to avoid chemicals like lanolin or hydrogel, as this pain is a temporary issue and usually disappears over a period of time.