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Raghu vamsi sir he is one of great doctor I had a parotid gland problem he did surgery to me last Friday Now am feeling little better now .. Before surgery I was very sacred about surgery but Raghu vamsi sir did very nicely and carefully... I strongly believe I'll be recovery in soon.. Thank you sir Thank you so much... I'll never forget you in my life sir because your not a doctor to me your like god to me... Thank you sir...
We live in an age where every single individual, more or less, is exposed to the risk of cancer. It is probably an unfavorable lifestyle we lead that deprives us of good health. This might alarm many but considerable changes in lifestyle can help you realize cancer as a preventable disease. Cancer does not only make you undergo severe suffering but it also affects your friends and family. The pallor of misery spreads wider than you think.
- Abstain from tobacco: Consuming raw tobacco or smoking tobacco can be equally detrimental to your health. Tobacco increases your chances of contracting the disease. As is known, passive smoking can also affect your health adversely. Tobacco can be the potential cause behind cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx, lungs, oral cavity and even the pancreas. It might harm your kidneys and cervix. It is upon you to quit tobacco at the earliest possible. One should also try and persuade friends and relatives to give up smoking.
- Drink alcohol in moderation: Complete abstinence from alcohol might not be possible if you have already been ushered into your work- life. The society might require you to be an occasional drinker. It is important to drink in moderation. Crossing the limit can propel consequences as serious as cancer of the stomach, pancreas, liver and the heart.
- A balanced and nutritious diet: Deciding on a plant- based diet or a Mediterranean diet can aid your fight against the risk of cancer. A Mediterranean diet will involve green leafy vegetables, lots of fresh fruits, whole grains, mixed nuts, legumes and also the use of extra- virgin olive oil. Fish can be a safe bet but red meat should be avoided. One must also try to avoid processed meat as they tend to make you prone to the risk of cancer.
- Immunization: Hepatitis B and HPV or Human papilloma virus vaccines are extremely necessary to protect you against the sexually transmitted types of cancer.
- Sun protection: Caring for your skin doesn't arise from vanity. Skin cancer is one of the most prevalent kinds of cancer; the chances of this disease can be restricted by remaining in shade especially during midday, by wearing covered clothes and by using a good sunscreen lotion repeatedly while outside.
- Exercise diligently: Did you think it was okay to have weaker muscles and bulging layers of fat? If yes, you probably have grown numb to the inadequacies you face in result. Unchecked fat can lead to obesity which further complicates health conditions. Metabolic activity differs from person to person. Regular exercising can help regulate metabolism according to the needs of your body. Physical exercise protects you against the risk of breast and colon cancer. Moderate or vigorous physical activity for 150 to 75 minutes a week respectively can reduce the risk of cancer.
Ovarian cancer tends to occur in the cells of an ovary. The ovaries are the two glands which are responsible for female reproduction. They produce ova or eggs and also create the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer begins when abnormal cells in the ovary start to multiply rapidly and grow out of control to form a tumour.
Generally, it was believed that ovarian cancer does not deliver any specific side effects until the tumour has spread to a later stage and early indications of ovarian cancer were not recognizable.
Nonetheless, in some of the cases, ovarian cancer may bring about early indications. The most widely recognized symptoms of ovarian cancer are as follows:
- Constant bloating
- Ache in your gut or pelvis
- Inconvenience eating
- Feeling full instantly
- Urinary issues, for example, an urgent need to urinate or urinating more frequently than expected
In case that you have at least one of these side effects and it happens every day for more than two or three weeks, try to see a doctor or a specialist.
These symptoms are basic for a few women. They may not imply that you have ovarian cancer. It is very important for women to understand that these symptoms do not necessarily imply that they have ovarian cancer. The same number of other common and harmless conditions can bring about the same indications. Additionally, different reasons for these symptoms are significantly more common than ovarian cancer. These may include irritable bowel syndrome and urinary tract infections (UTIs). In any case, the early indications of ovarian cancer tend to follow a pattern, which is as follows:
They begin abruptly.
They do not feel the same as your typical stomach-related or menstrual issues.
They happen almost consistently and do not leave.
However, these side effects are also common in a few women who do not have ovarian cancer. Most of the ovarian cancer cases are diagnosed at a later stage after the tumours have spread. Fortunately, around 20% of women are diagnosed early, when the infection might be generally treatable. There is no complete screening test for early ovarian cancer. General pelvic examinations now and then, followed by ultrasound examinations or blood tests for cancer-related markers, have been routinely used for ovarian cancer screening. However, none of these tests are particularly effective when it comes to identifying ovarian cancer.
In case some of these symptoms start to manifest in your body, one should go for a general check-up. This is so because cancers are usually diagnosed at later stages where treatment is very difficult. Hence, the sooner one knows, the better it is.
With the modernization of all economies around the world, one health hazard that has become one of the largest perils within both developed and developing nations is the incidence of cancers of the female reproductive system, especially cervical and breast cancer.
Breast cancer is the formation of malignant tumors within the breast tissues of a woman. Usually, breast cancer affects women in the age range of 40 to 50, but there have been many reports of it occurring earlier. About 48 % percent of the Indian women having breast cancer have been reported to be under 50. This is an almost 17 percent jump compared to figures 25 years earlier.
Alarming Signs of Breast Cancer:
- The most common symptom of breast cancer is a new lump or mass. A painless, hard mass that has irregular edges is more likely to be cancerous, but breast cancers can be tender, soft, or rounded.
- Swelling of all or part of a breast (even if no distinct lump is felt)
- Skin irritation or dimpling
- Breast or nipple pain
- Nipple retraction (turning inward)
- Redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin
- Nipple discharge (other than breast milk)
Screening Guidelines for Breast cancer:
- Mammography: US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends mammography once in every 2 year for females between age group 50-75 years. Women with a family history has a benefit of starting at age 40 years. After 75 years there are insufficient evidence of benefit of screening mammography.
- Breast Self Examination and annual Clinical examination: breast self examination is easy to learn and and any abnormality should be reported to the oncologist.
- For High Risk/ Genetic risk factors: screening should start by age 25 or 10 years earlier of youngest relative affected. Annual mammogram and MRI or Doppler ultrasound alternating at 6 month interval can be considered.
Some of the common treatment options for breast cancers are:
- Breast conservation surgery - This is where the tumors are removed without cutting out too much of the surrounding breast tissue.
- Mastectomy - If the cancer has spread too far then large amounts of breast tissue has to be removed along with the tumor to stop its spread any further.
- Sentinel lymph node Biopsy - it's part of both surgical procedures, it decreases morbidities of lymph node dissection first draining lymph nodes only are removed in patients with clinically negative axilla. If negative on frozen section further axillary dissection is avoided. It avoids the morbidity of complete axillary clearance.
Cervical cancer ( Carcinoma Cervix)
Cervical cancer is the cancer of the cervix, which is the opening of the uterus and connects the uterus to the vagina. Indian women in particular are susceptible to cervical cancer as more than 1/3rd of the cervical cancer related deaths in the entire world happens here in India, which is about 74000 deaths annually. The leading cause for cervical cancer is HPV or Human Papillomavirus infection, which if left untreated and unchecked will result in cancer.
Alarming Signs of Cervical Carcinoma:
- Early lesions and precancerous lesions have no symptoms
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding such as bleeding after vaginal intercourse, bleeding after menopause, bleeding and spotting between periods or longer/heavier periods
- Abnormal vaginal discharge
- Pelvic pain
- Late stage disease may cause lower extremity swelling, problem with urine and/or stool passage
- Cervical cancer screening is most effective screening programme of any cancer disease resulting in significant decrease in mortality from carcinoma cervix
- United state preventive services task force (USPSTF) recommend cervical cancer screening starting at age 21 yrs.
- Between age 21-30 years cytology recommended at 3 year interval and HPV testing is not recommended.
- Between 30-65 years cytology every 3 year or cytology +HPV testing every 5 year.
- If previously adequately screened screening can be discontinued after 65 years.
- Women with prior total hysterectomy and no CIN can discontinue screening.
Apart from breast and cervical cancers, certain other cancers have also reported an alarming increase such as:-
Ovarian cancer (Carcinoma Ovary)
Starting in the ovaries, diagnosis of this type of cancer is usually delayed due to lack of visible symptoms in the initial stages. About 85% to 90% of ovarian cancers are epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Epithelial ovarian cancers tend to spread to the lining and organs of the pelvis and abdomen (belly) first. This may lead to the buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity (called ascites). As it advances, it may spread to the lung and liver, or, rarely, to the brain, bones, or skin. The main treatments for ovarian cancer are surgery and chemotherapy.
Cancer of the endometrium (Carcinoma Endometrium)
Endometrium is the lining of the uterine wall and has along with ovarian, uterine and cervical cancer is also increasing in occurrences throughout India and the world.
The grade of an endometrial cancer is based on how much the cancer forms glands that look similar to those found in normal, healthy endometrium.
- Grade 1 tumors have 95% or more of the cancerous tissue forming glands.
- Grade 2 tumors have between 50% and 94% of the cancerous tissue forming glands.
- Grade 3 tumors have less than half of the cancerous tissue forming glands. Grade 3 cancers tend to be aggressive and have a poorer outlook than lower-grade cancers.
Cervical cancer along with Ovarian, uterine and endometrial cancer can be treated using the following methods:
1. Surgery: Radical Hysterectomy primarily preferred option for early stage disease. Both open and minimal invasive approaches are suitable.
- For precancer high grade lesion conisation is also option for compliant patient.
- In young suitable patient willing for childbearing trachelectomy is also possible in very early lesion.
- Depending on risk factors after surgery adjuvant treatment may be advised.
2. Radiation therapy or Combined Radiation therapy+Chemotherapy: Alternative to surgery in early stage and choice in late stage.
Certain prevention techniques that would be advisable to detect cancer in its early stages would be,
Robot-assisted surgery or robotic surgery is a new age surgical procedure that helps a doctor to perform complicated procedures with better flexibility and more precision. This is essentially a union of high-end technology and the hand-eye co-ordination of a skilled surgeon. It helps a doctor to have a highly magnified, 3D high definition image of the human anatomy. The procedure is performed by making tiny incisions with the help of consoles in the robotic machine. Robotic surgery has found varied application in surgeries, primarily in cancers related to the kidney, colon, rectum, Uterus, stomach, esophagus and so on.
About the robotic surgery procedure:
This process of surgery was approved by the FDA in 2000 in the US. Since then it has been rapidly adopted by hospitals across US, Europe, and Asia. Typically, robotic instruments include a mechanical arm and a camera arm along with surgical instruments attached to it. The surgeon takes control of the mechanical arm and the console gives a 3D view to perform the procedure.
Primary Advantages of Robotic Surgery
For a surgeon, robotic surgery means greater precision, more control, and better outcome. For a patent, robotic surgery essentially means fewer complications, reduced blood loss, less pain, reduced chances of infection at the site, fewer scars etc. The recovery time for a patient also reduces substantially, which in turn implies lesser number of days in the hospital.
How is robotic surgery helpful for cancer patients?
Cancer surgeries are complicated in most of the cases. Having said this, an increased number of surgical oncologists are getting inclined to robotic surgeries for performing cancer-related procedures with greater amount of precision. As many cancer surgeries are technically demanding and take a prolonged time, Robotic surgery helps the surgeon perform a better job due its optics and better precision and control. However, the scope of robotic surgery varies on the type of cancer a patient is suffering from. Not all cancer-related surgeries qualify for robotic surgeries.
What are the risks involved in robotic surgery?
Like any open surgery, robotic surgeries have risks associated with them. The risks invovlved will be related to the organ being operated upon. There are no specific complications due to the Robot per se.
Which kind of patients qualify for robotic surgery?
Not all patients qualify for robotic surgery. This form of invasive surgery is only possible if a doctor feels that there is less amount of complications involved during the procedure. After weighing the risks, a doctor takes a call on whether or not to go ahead with a robotic surgery.
A rare type of cancer (accounting for about 1% of all the cancer types affecting men), testicular cancer is a condition where cancerous outgrowths take place in one or both of the testes (often the germ cells). The incidence of testicular cancer is lower among the African or Asian males as compared to the American males (especially in the age group of 15-35 years).
Testicular cancer can be of two types- Seminomas and Nonseminomas
1) Seminomas: Sensitive to radiation therapy, seminomas are slow growing testicular cancer found to affect men mostly in their 30's and 40's.
2) Nonseminomas: Unlike the seminomas, nonseminomas are fast growing testicular cancer.
However, there is some good news related to testicular cancer. Reports suggest quite a majority of men with testicular cancer have shown remarkable progress and recovered fully. In fact, of all the cancer types, testicular cancer has the highest success rate (more than 90%) when treated on time.
The symptoms characteristic of testicular cancer:
A person with testicular cancer may exhibit the following symptoms and discomfort. In most of the case, the cancerous outgrowth is found to affect only one of the testicles.
1) A lump may appear in one or both the testicles. The testicles may also undergo an enlargement (one or both).
2) In some cases, there may also be a chest/breast(s) enlargement.
3) A person may experience pain and discomfort in the testicle or in the scrotum. At times, the scrotum may also feel heavy.
5) At times, testicular cancer may result in some fluids collecting in the scrotum (the condition may occur suddenly without any previous case history).
People with a family history of testicular cancer as well as those suffering from Klinefelter syndrome (a chromosomal aberration affecting males whereby a person is born with an extra X chromosome) should be careful as incidences of testicular cancer are higher in such men.
Diagnosis and Treatment
In addition to the physical examinations and the associated symptoms, the following tests go a long way in the accurate diagnosis of testicular cancer.
1) Blood tests to determine the level of certain markers (such as Beta-Human chorionic gonadotropin, Alpha-fetoprotein) indicative of testicular cancer. The concentration of these markers in the blood is found to be quite high in the case of testicular cancer.
2) In case a lump appears in the testicle, an ultrasound can play a significant role in understanding the nature of the lump better and diagnosing testicualr cancer.
1)If the diagnosis indicates a cancerous lump (or chances of it being malignant), we perform a Radical Inguinal Orchiectomy to remove the affected testicle for further analysis wich is boht diagnostic and therapeutic.
2)There may also be a need to remove the draining lymph nodes (to prevent testicular cancer from invading the lymph nodes), a procedure termed as Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection.
3)In addition to the above surgical procedures, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy play an instrumental role in increasing the effectiveness of the treatment and curing testicular cancer.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Laparoscopy essentially means a surgical technique that aims at minimizing the trauma of general surgery. This is also known as minimally-invasive surgery. This procedure can take the form of endoscopic and robotic technique as well. The laparoscopic technique involves making small incisions, the involvement of a camera and removing/ operating the affected part with the help of light through machines.
Laparoscopic technique in cancer: Laparoscopic surgeries are being extensively used for removal of the colon, rectum, stomach, uterus, kidney, lymph node removal etc. The laparoscopic procedure helps to reduce the size of the incision, reduce pain related complications, reduce the hospital stay and a quicker recovery period.
How old is the process?
It’s been a couple of decades since the first procedure of laparoscopy was performed. The first procedure was a gallbladder removal followed by a kidney removal. Laparoscopic procedures for cancer surgeries have only come into effect in the last 5-6 years. Since most cancer surgeries are complicated and demand a holistic involvement of a surgeon, this procedure is not followed by too many surgeons. This being said, cancer-related to the kidney, abdomen and gall bladder, laparoscopic treatments are getting more preference among surgeons.
Understanding the benefits of Laparoscopic surgery
The biggest advantage of this procedure is the minimization of pain. Apart from this, some other benefits include less bleeding, shorter duration of stay at the hospital, less scarring etc. Having said this, a lot of these factors depend on the type and location of the surgery. Typically, cancer-related surgeries involve intense pain and high recovery time. A laparoscopic procedure can help in this regard.
Know the risks involved: Every operation has its fair share of risks and complication- be it conventional surgery or laparoscopic surgery and inexperienced hands and complex surgeries can make the matter worse. Some bigger risks involved in laparoscopic procedures include complications related to the anesthesia, injury to other organs, internal infections and the risk of punctures. Patients who have undergone surgeries before runs more risk than the one who has not undergone any operation.
Cost involved: The cost involved for laparoscopic surgeries are comparatively lesser than conventional surgeries. Then again, the location and complication of the surgery also pay a deciding factor of the final cost involved. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Colon cancer as indicative of the name is cancer primarily affecting the colon or the large intestine. While colon cancer is considered the third most common type of cancer affecting people worldwide, it is also one of the most preventable types of cancer, if diagnosed and treated on time.
Colon cancer does not suddenly turn malignant and life-threatening. In quite a few cases, the tumor appears benign, also known as Adenomatous Polyps. With the passage of time, the adenomatous polyps (some, if not all) progress into colon cancer. In this article, I will emphasize upon the causes and proper management of colon cancer.
What acts as the trigger for colon cancer?
Like most of the other cancer forms, the exact cause of colon cancer is hard to decipher. However, in many cases, gene mutations have been found to play a pivotal role resulting in cancer formation in the colon. The mutations, as expected, is often an inheritable trait that can be passed on to subsequent generations. The following inheritable mutations make a person as well as their immediate family more susceptible to developing colon cancer.
1. FAP or Familial Adenomatous Polyposis is characterized by the formation of many polyps within the lining of the rectum and the large intestine. These polyps though start off as a noncancerous mass of cells have the potential to develop into cancerous cells over a time period. Thus, the condition should be treated at the earliest as people (FAP left unattended) stand a near 100% risk of suffering from colon cancer before reaching 40.
2. Lynch syndrome is another inheritable medical disorder that results from the mutation in the gene that is responsible for DNA mismatch repair. With the gene unavailable for the repair, the DNA undergoes damage with deleterious consequences. Also known as Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, the condition often plays a significant role in the development of colon cancer, especially in people below 50 years.
3. Further, an unhealthy diet comprising primarily of high fat and low fiber foods can wreak havoc, with colon cancer being one of the possible consequence. Increased consumption of red meat, processed meat as well as alcohol can also act as a catalyst triggering colon cancer.
4. Obese as well as diabetic patients also stand a higher risk of suffering from colon cancer.
Management and Proper Care
As per reports, colon cancer is one of the least prevented types of cancer worldwide. There can be a myriad of factors responsible for the late detection and treatment. Proper care and management can go a long way to reduce the incidence of colon cancer.
2. People above 40 years and those with a family history of colon cancer should undergo regular health checkups and screenings.
3. Keep a check on your body weight. Drinking and smoking, if at all, should be within limits.
4. Take care of the diet. Avoid eating fatty foods on a regular basis. Consume more dietary fiber.
5. Lead an active and healthy lifestyle. Be involved in any active exercise/sports or at the minimal walking.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!