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Vomiting Tips

Kerala Floods Bring Leptospirosis: Understand What It Is!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Faridabad
Kerala Floods Bring Leptospirosis: Understand What It Is!

One of the worst floods ever in Kerala has brought a deluge of Leptospirosis.

The Director of the Health Department issued an alert that there is a sudden increase of Leptospirosis cases from Thrissur, Palakkad, Kozhikode, Malappuram and Kannur districts.

According to the report, 28 cases of Leptospirosis were reported in Kozhikode. Further , DMO reported that there were 64 people who were suspected of suffering from this disease.

What is Leptospirosis?

Leptospirosis is commonly known as “Rat Fever.” It is an infection caused by a bacteria called 'Leptospira interrogans' . The infection is transmitted through the urine of rodents, dogs, and farm animals.

Leptospirosis is the kind of Flu that lasts for one or two weeks but revives again once it is cured.

If left untreated, it can also lead to some more serious problems, like chest pain, swollen legs, and arms. In most cases, doctors recommend hospitalization.

Causes of Leptospirosis:

  • Blood, urine, or tissue transmitted from cattle, pigs, dogs, or animals that carry the bacteria.

  • Direct or indirect contact with water that is contaminated with bacteria.

  • Direct or indirect contact with soil that has bacteria.

Common symptoms associated with Leptospirosis are as below :

How to Prevent Leptospirosis?

Some of the helpful ways to prevent Leptospirosis are:

1. Avoid Contact with Contaminated Water and Soil

Since Leptospirosis is caused by contaminated water or soil, one should avoid drinking contaminated water. Try to limit the contact with contaminated soil as well. Wearing full clothes and drinking filtered water is beneficial.

2. Use Disinfectants

Disinfectants like Lysol, Bleach, Iodine, and Acid Solutions will help to kill the bacteria that cause Leptospirosis. Using these regularly may lower the rate of Leptospirosis.

3. Maintain Hygiene

Maintaining hygiene is one of the best ways to inhibit the bacteria. Washing hands with disinfectants while eating or drinking will help a lot, especially in this worse situation of Kerala.

4. Do Not Eat or Drink While Handling Animals.

One must ensure that they do not eat, drink, or smoke anything while handling the animals, as it increases the chances of bacteria to enter the body.

5. Treat Wounds Immediately

As bacteria can even be transmitted in the bloodstream, it is necessary to treat wounds and injuries immediately. Also, it should be ensured that open wounds do not come in contact with contaminated water or soil, as they will provide a direct pathway for the bacteria.

Since it is difficult to eliminate Leptospirosis in this deteriorating situation of Kerala, these preventive measures may help to inhibit the bacteria. However, consulting a doctor or immediate treatment will always be a great idea to cure the disease.

6 people found this helpful

Homeopathy And Digestive Disorder!

Dr. Sameer Kumar Singh 86% (115 ratings)
B.Sc, BHMS
Homeopath, Lucknow
Homeopathy And Digestive Disorder!

Homeopathy has great proven worth in dealing with many digestive com­plaints. However, be aware of certain warning symptoms which should not be ignored. 
An early medical opinion and diagnosis is important in the follow­ing situations:

1. Sudden severe abdominal pain
2. Vomiting, especially if accompanied by abdominal distension

3. Weight loss which is not from deliber­ate dieting
4. Alteration in the normal bowel habit, either with persistent looseness or constipation
5. Bleeding from the back passage.

3 Ways To Treat Ovarian Cysts!

Dr. Ruchi Malhotra 90% (477 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology, DGO
IVF Specialist, Delhi
3 Ways To Treat Ovarian Cysts!

Ovarian cysts are a common development in many women. Cysts are sacs filled with fluid which are formed in the female ovaries. Most cysts are harmless and do not even show any symptoms. However, some cysts do show outward symptoms like heavy bleeding, clotting, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain during the menstrual cycle, and pain during sex.

If you feel any of the above-mentioned discomforts, it will be in your best interest to book an appointment with your gynaecologist and get a check-up done. Most cysts are manageable unless they are very severe. In fact, it is best that cysts come to light at the right time and are efficiently managed, unless they develop into severe issues in the future.

Management of cysts

  1. Oftentimes, medical practitioners resort to what is called ‘watchful waiting’.
  2. At times, ovarian cysts disappear in a few months.
  3. It is recommended to take a blood test and an ultrasound to see the progress of the cyst.
  4. If you have already experienced menopause, then these tests are carried out every four months. This is because in such cases the risk of an ovarian cancer is at its highest and regular monitoring of the cyst is necessary.

Treatment of cysts
Ovarian cysts can be treated in their earlier stages. Here are some of the most popular treatments.

  1. Laparoscopy is one of the most popular treatments. It is a surgery carried out under general anaesthesia. The tummy is cut to a radius of a key hole and a laparoscope is inserted. This helps the doctor to see the internal organs, which is then used to remove the cyst. This method is less painful and has a quick recovery time.
  2. Laparotomy is the other method used for removing a cyst. In case the cyst is large, then one single large hole is made in the body to access the cyst. At times, the cyst and the ovaries are removed and sent for further laboratory inspection. This inspection is done to detect whether the samples are cancerous or not. This procedure is more complex than the previous one and might need the patient to stay in the hospital for a few days.
  3. In case you have a cancerous cyst, then your reproductive part itself would have to be removed rendering you barren for your life.

Ovarian cyst is very much treatable and is best to be detected at an earlier stage for better and faster treatment. Thus, it is best to go for regular check-ups and report in case of any disturbing symptoms.
 

4 people found this helpful

UTI In Children - Understanding The Ways It Can Be Treated!

Dr. Rishavdeb Patra 88% (39 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Paediatric Surgery
Pediatric Surgeon, Kolkata
UTI In Children - Understanding The Ways It Can Be Treated!

UTI stands for urinary tract infections. In children a urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common condition caused by bacteria. Bacteria that enter the urethra are flushed out through urination. But, when bacteria aren’t excluded out of the urethra, they may grow in the urinary tract and cause infections. The Survey state that up to 8% of girls and 2% of boys will get a UTI at an early age. Sometimes the symptoms of UTI are hard to detect in kids so it is better to get your child treated, as it turn into serious kidney diseases. With a right treatment your child will feel better within few days. 

Symptoms of a UTI include: 

  1. Burning and pain during micturation. 
  2. Urgent need to go, but having a few drops of urine. 
  3. Fever and vomiting commonly occur during UTI. 
  4. Foul smell and cloudy urine. 

Causes 

  1. Bladder outlet obstruction like posterior urethral valve in males 
  2. Vesico ureteric reflux (VUR) 
  3. Uretero pelvic junction obstruction (UPJ Obstruction) 
  4. Constipation: Being constipated makes difficult to empty your bladder, which means trapped bacteria which increases risk of UTI. So in order to reduce the UTI risk, avoid constipation 
  5. Dehydration: Drinking water not only quenches your thirst, but it also avoids the risk of getting UTI. We should drink enough water so that we can flush out bacteria that can cause UTI. Drinking water also avoids the constipation problem. 
  6. Holding urine: Holding urine for 6 hours make UTI more common as bacteria in the bladder has lots of time to grow and cause infection. So ask your child to pass urine after few hours. 

Prevention 

  1. Avoid tight fitting clothes, especially for girl children. 
  2. Drink more and more liquids and eat fibre rich food. 
  3. Change the diaper of young child frequently. 
  4. Ask your child to go for urine immediately rather than holding. 
  5. Don’t give bubble bath to the child as it is a major source of bacteria. 

Investigations: 

  1. USG (KUB
  2. Urine routine examination and culture sensitivity 
  3. MCU (Micturating Cysto Urethrogram) 
  4. Urodynamic study 
  5. DTPA Scan 
  6. DMSA Scan 

Treatments 
The most common antibiotics used for treatment are:Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, Ofloxacin, Cefixime etc Sometimes hospitalization is necessary in younger than 6 months old, if: 

  • The Child has a high fever and not improving. 
  • The child is vomiting and having dehydration.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1936 people found this helpful

Gastrointestinal Perforation - 8 Diseases that Can Lead To It!

Dr. Nitin Aherrao 89% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Gastroenterology, Fellowship in Advanced Endoscopy
Gastroenterologist, Mumbai
Gastrointestinal Perforation - 8 Diseases that Can Lead To It!

When a hole develops in the wall of the gallbladder, rectum, large bowel, small intestine, stomach or oesophagus, it is called gastrointestinal perforation. It is a medical emergency that needs urgent medical attention.

Symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation (GP) usually include
1. Serious stomach pain
2. Chills
3. Fever
4. Nausea
5. Vomiting

Peritonitis (abdominal cavity lining inflammation) can also accompany the abovementioned condition. So in addition to the above symptoms, you may also experience peritonitis symptoms such as:
1. Fatigue
2. Passing less gas, urine or stools
3. Breathing difficulties
4. Fast heartbeats
5. Dizziness

Certain diseases can cause Gastro-intestinal perforation, such as:
1. Appendicitis
2. Diverticulitis (A type of digestive disorder)
3. Stomach ulcer
4. Gallstones
5. Gallbladder infection
6. Inflammatory bowel diseases (inflammation in the small intestine and the colon)
7. Swollen Meckel’s diverticulum (abnormal bulging of the small intestine at birth)
8. Gastrointestinal tract cancer

Besides diseases, the following conditions can also lead to Gastro-intestinal perforation:
1. Blunt abdominal trauma
2. Gunshot or knife wound to the abdomen

3. Abdominal surgery
4. Stomach ulcers caused by excessive consumption of steroids, anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin
5. Ingestion of caustic substances or foreign objects
Other than these, drinking alcohol, smoking and bowel injuries (caused by colonoscopy or endoscopy) can lead to GP as well.

Treatment options available
This condition is mostly treated with surgery. The goal of the surgery is to repair the anatomical problem and cause of peritonitis, along with removal of any foreign object in the abdominal socket, such as food, faeces and bile. However, if your doctor deems surgery unnecessary (in instances where the hole closes voluntarily) you will be only given antibiotics.
In some cases, a section of the intestine might need to be removed. An ileostomy or colostomy is performed where a portion of the large or small intestine is removed, which grants intestinal contents to empty or drain into a bag implanted on the wall of your abdomen.

 

The complications include:
1. Bleeding
2. Sepsis (Critical and fatal bacterial infection)
3. Belly ulcers
4. Wound infection
5. Bowel infarction (impaired supply of blood to the bowels)
6. Permanent colostomy or ileostomy

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3416 people found this helpful

Causes, Symptoms And Treatment For Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome In Children

Rk Singh 88% (60 ratings)
DNB
Pediatrician, Varanasi
Causes, Symptoms And Treatment For Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome In Children

Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is characterized by periodic bouts of nausea and vomiting that happens at cyclical intervals. It affects all ages, but is more common in children. The condition is quite stereotypical in that there are paroxysms or bouts of vomiting that is recurrent and follows days of normal health.

Causes:

There is no definite reason identified, but it is said to have a strong hereditary correlation. Studies have shown mitochondrial heteroplasmies (abnormal growth of mitochondria, which is a cellular component) to be one of the factors that can lead to CVS. The genetic correlation, however, is very difficult to establish, specifically because vomiting and nausea are common symptoms that occur with most conditions in children. And CVS is most commonly noted with conditions like infections and emotional excitement. Infection could be either tooth decay or sinusitis or anything else. Lack of sleep, anxiety, holidays, allergies, overeating, certain foods, menstruation – a host of factors have been shown to induce CVS. There is also a strong association with migraine and conditions that lead to excessive production of stress hormones.

Symptoms:

The syndrome (a group of symptoms) usually has 4 phases:

  1. Symptom-free interval phase: The child is completely normal in this phase, which happens in between bouts.

  2. Prodromal phase: Prodrome is an indication that a disease or a condition is about to happen. In CVS, this is usually nausea and abdominal pain that can last from a few minutes to a few hours. Treatment in this phase can curb the disease. However, there could be some children in whom this may not manifest and the child may directly start with vomiting.

  3. Vomiting phase: Repeated bouts of paroxysmal vomiting happen associated with nausea, exertion, fatigue, and drowsiness.

  4. Recovery phase: As the nausea and vomiting begin to subside, which may take a couple of days, the child returns back to normal slowly. However, the lethargy and energy levels will take a couple of days to return to normal.

Treatment:

Treatment again depends on the severity and the phase at which it is being recognized. If a child has repetitive bouts, then the parent and the doctor would have identified a pattern to it.

  1. If the causative agent has been identified, for instance, infection or migraines, then managing that takes care of the CVS also.

  2. If identified during the prodromal phase, again it can be managed with suitable anti-emetic medications.

  3. If identified after full onset, rest and sleep and medications to control nausea and vomiting are required.

Adequate hydration with electrolyte replenishment and sedatives can provide additional support. However, in most cases of childhood CSV, the pattern will be identified and that helps in better management, both the child/parent and the podiatrist.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2606 people found this helpful

Diarrhea In Children - How Can It Be Treated?

Dr. S. Gupta 90% (40 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, BCH, DNB - Training, PDCC - Pediatric Hepatology & Gastroenterology
Pediatrician, Gurgaon
Diarrhea In Children - How Can It Be Treated?

Diarrhea occurs when the body is expelling germs out of it. An episode of diarrhea can last anywhere from a couple of days to a week. Dehydration, cramps, vomiting, nausea and fever often accompany diarrhea. Usually, children tend to get diarrhoea more than adults.

Diarrhea treatment according to causes behind it

  1. Treating diarrhea due to infectionSome common causes of diarrhea include infection from rotavirus, salmonella (a type of bacteria) and rarely giardia (a type of parasite). In children, virus is a common cause of diarrhea. Besides watery or loose stools, viral gastroenteritis infection symptoms include fever, headache, stomach ache and vomiting. Gastroenteritis diarrhoea can last for 5-14 days. During this time, fluid loss must be prevented. In younger children, oral rehydration solution (ORS) or breast milk is enough. Just feeding them water won’t replenish the potassium, sodium and other nutrients they lose. Older children, to prevent fluid loss, can be given ORS and popsicles to counter dehydration and vomiting.
  2. Treating diarrhea due to medications: Antibiotics or laxatives can cause diarrhea in children. If the diarrhea is mild, make sure your child is hydrated. If the antibiotics are causing diarrhoea, you need to continue medication, but do consult your doctor immediately.
  3. Treating diarrhea due to food poisoningWhen it comes to food poisoning induced diarrhea, the same method as countering infection-induced diarrhea should be followed. Keep your child hydrated and call your doctor.

Diarrhea and children - recognising dehydration

The most serious complication of diarrhea is dehydration, especially if the diarrhea is severe. Severe dehydration is critical as it can cause brain damage, seizure, even death. Your child may need immediate medical attention, if you notice the following symptoms:

  1. Light-headedness and dizziness
  2. Sticky, dark mouth
  3. Dark yellow urine
  4. No or few tears when crying
  5. Dry, cool skin
  6. Loss of energy

When should you visit a doctor

Diarrhea resolves within a few days, but it can have serious complications. Call your doctor if you notice signs such as:
1. Looks very sick
2. Diarrhea has persisted for more than 3 days
3. Your child is less than 6 months old
4. Your child is vomiting bloody yellow or green fluid
5. Seems dehydrated
6. The fever reads above 105 degree Fahrenheit
7. Bloody stools
8. Rashes
9. Stomach pain persists for more than 2 hours
10. Infrequent urination

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3575 people found this helpful

Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome In Children - Ways It Can Be Treated!

Dr. Lata Bhat 89% (172 ratings)
Fellowship In Neonatology, MRCPCH(UK), Diploma In Child Health (DCH), MBBS
Pediatrician, Delhi
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome In Children - Ways It Can Be Treated!

Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is characterized by periodic bouts of nausea and vomiting that happens at cyclical intervals. It affects all ages, but is more common in children. The condition is quite stereotypical in that there are paroxysms or bouts of vomiting that is recurrent and follows days of normal health.

Causes:

There is no definite reason identified, but it is said to have a strong hereditary correlation. Studies have shown mitochondrial heteroplasmies (abnormal growth of mitochondria, which is a cellular component) to be one of the factors that can lead to CVS. The genetic correlation, however, is very difficult to establish, specifically because vomiting and nausea are common symptoms that occur with most conditions in children. And CVS is most commonly noted with conditions like infections and emotional excitement. Infection could be either tooth decay or sinusitis or anything else. Lack of sleep, anxiety, holidays, allergies, overeating, certain foods, menstruation – a host of factors have been shown to induce CVS. There is also a strong association with migraine and conditions that lead to excessive production of stress hormones.

Symptoms:

The syndrome (a group of symptoms) usually has 4 phases:

  1. Symptom-free interval phase: The child is completely normal in this phase, which happens in between bouts.

  2. Prodromal phase: Prodrome is an indication that a disease or a condition is about to happen. In CVS, this is usually nausea and abdominal pain that can last from a few minutes to a few hours. Treatment in this phase can curb the disease. However, there could be some children in whom this may not manifest and the child may directly start with vomiting.

  3. Vomiting phase: Repeated bouts of paroxysmal vomiting happen associated with nausea, exertion, fatigue, and drowsiness.

  4. Recovery phase: As the nausea and vomiting begin to subside, which may take a couple of days, the child returns back to normal slowly. However, the lethargy and energy levels will take a couple of days to return to normal.

Treatment:

Treatment again depends on the severity and the phase at which it is being recognized. If a child has repetitive bouts, then the parent and the doctor would have identified a pattern to it.

  1. If the causative agent has been identified, for instance, infection or migraines, then managing that takes care of the CVS also.

  2. If identified during the prodromal phase, again it can be managed with suitable anti-emetic medications.

  3. If identified after full onset, rest and sleep and medications to control nausea and vomiting are required.

Adequate hydration with electrolyte replenishment and sedatives can provide additional support. However, in most cases of childhood CSV, the pattern will be identified and that helps in better management, both the child/parent and the podiatrist. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4595 people found this helpful

Ways To Treat Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome in Children!

Dr. Kalpesh Patil 89% (66 ratings)
M.Ch - Paediatric Surgery, MNAMS (Membership of The National Academy) (General Surgery), DNB (General Surgery), MBBS
Pediatrician, Pune
Ways To Treat Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome in Children!

Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is characterized by periodic bouts of nausea and vomiting that happens at cyclical intervals. It affects all ages, but is more common in children. The condition is quite stereotypical in that there are paroxysms or bouts of vomiting that is recurrent and follows days of normal health.

Causes: There is no definite reason identified, but it is said to have a strong hereditary correlation. Studies have shown mitochondrial heteroplasmic (abnormal growth of mitochondria, which is a cellular component) to be one of the factors that can lead to CVS. The genetic correlation, however, is very difficult to establish, specifically because vomiting and nausea are common symptoms that occur with most conditions in children. And CVS is most commonly noted with conditions like infections and emotional excitement. Infection could be either tooth decay or sinusitis or anything else. Lack of sleep, anxiety, holidays, allergies, overeating, certain foods, menstruation - a host of factors have been shown to induce CVS. There is also a strong association with migraine and conditions that lead to excessive production of stress hormones.

Symptoms: The syndrome (a group of symptoms) usually has 4 phases:

  1. Symptom-free interval phase: The child is completely normal in this phase, which happens in between bouts.
  2. Prodromal phase: Prodrome is an indication that a disease or a condition is about to happen. In CVS, this is usually nausea and abdominal pain that can last from a few minutes to a few hours. Treatment in this phase can curb the disease. However, there could be some children in whom this may not manifest and the child may directly start with vomiting.
  3. Vomiting phase: Repeated bouts of paroxysmal vomiting happen associated with nausea, exertion, fatigue, and drowsiness.
  4. Recovery phase: As the nausea and vomiting begin to subside, which may take a couple of days, the child returns back to normal slowly. However, the lethargy and energy levels will take a couple of days to return to normal.

Treatment: Treatment again depends on the severity and the phase at which it is being recognized. If a child has repetitive bouts, then the parent and the doctor would have identified a pattern to it.

  1. If the causative agent has been identified, for instance, infection or migraine, then managing that takes care of the CVS also.
  2. If identified during the prodromal phase, again it can be managed with suitable anti-emetic medications.
  3. If identified after full onset, rest and sleep and medications to control nausea and vomiting are required. Adequate hydration with electrolyte replenishment and sedatives can provide additional support.

However, in most cases of childhood CSV, the pattern will be identified and that helps in better management, both the child/parent and the podiatrist.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2512 people found this helpful

11 Signs Your Body Is Giving You And You Must Not Ignore!

Dr. A.K. Bhalla 86% (21 ratings)
DM - Nephrology, DNB (Nephrology), MD, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
11 Signs Your Body Is Giving You And You Must Not Ignore!

Kidney problems, although take a longer time to develop, they end up being silent killers. There are no obvious signs for months and the symptoms crop up when it's rather late.

Many younger people these days are getting diagnosed with kidney problems. This is primarily due to drinking alcohol, smoking, bad eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle. About 60% people who have diabetes or hypertension develop kidney problems eventually.

Therefore, it is advised to be aware of what harms your kidneys and take adequate care to keep them healthy.

Watch out for any of these symptoms early on.

1. Urine Color - This is probably the first symptom and unfortunately affects many people around us. With the way our lifestyles are, this is becoming an increasing concern. Urine becomes dark and there is a need to urinate yet, one is unable to do so.

2. Urine Infection - Second would be when you feel pain or difficulty while urinating. The infections in the urinary tract induce their symptoms of pain or burning during urination. If this infection spreads to the kidneys, one can feel pain in the back.

3. Blood In Urine - If there is blood in your urine, it is a sign of renal illness. While this could be happening because of various reasons, it is advisable to see your doctor soon.

4. Water Retention - The function of the kidney is to take out the extra liquid and the waste from our body. When this process is not smooth, water will stay back and cause your face, limbs and/or ankle joints to swell.


5. Weakness - Severe exhaustion would mean minimized oxygen being delivered to the cells, causing weakness in general. This is also one of the symptoms that your kidney needs medical attention.

6. Temperature Variance - If your kidney is unwell, one of the symptoms is that you will feel the chill even when the temperature is actually warm.

7. Skin Breakout - Since an unfit kidney means waste in the body is piling up, it causes the skin to break out and cause severe irritation and rashes.

8. Rise of Blood Urea Level - When the kidney is unwell, it increases the level of urea in the blood. This causes breakdown of the urea into ammonia in the spit, causes it to smell foul, like urine/metal.

9. Nausea - Waste accumulating in the blood adds up to causing nausea and vomiting.

10. Breathlessness - One can also feel the lack of breath if the condition of the kidney worsens.

11. Discomfort or Pain - Some people have been known to have bodily pains, an instant discomfort that spreads from the lower back to the groin. This usually means that there is a stone in the kidney. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2053 people found this helpful
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