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Overview

Urinary Cancer- Procedures, Side effects, Recovery time, Costs and alternatives

What is Urinary Cancer? How is the treatment done? Who is eligible for the treatment?(When is the treatment done ?) Who is not eligible for the treatment? Are there any Side Effects? What are the post-treatment guidelines? How long doesit take to recover? What is the price of the treatment in India? Are the results of the treatment permanent? What are the alternatives to the treatment?

What is Urinary Cancer?

Bladder is a flexible hollow pouch like structure present within the pelvis and ‎it stores the urine prior to its excretion. Urine is prepared by the kidneys and ‎is carried to the bladder through the ureters. This urine is stored in bladder ‎and it is later discharged through a tube like structure known as the urethra.‎

This cancer is defined as a condition in which there is rapid and uncontrolled ‎growth of cancerous cells within the urinary bladder. This condition usually ‎starts from the lining of the bladder and later it spread into the muscular wall ‎of the urinary bladder. Moreover, invasive urinary bladder cancer can spread ‎to lymph nodes, kidneys, lungs, liver and other organs present in the pelvis.‎

Urinary bladder cancer, though rare (accounting only about 5% of all ‎cancers), it affects males more frequently than females. The possible risk ‎factors leading to such a condition include genetic or family history, chronic ‎inflammation of the bladder, smoking, some medications for treating ‎diabetes, exposure to harmful chemicals, prior chemotherapy or radiation ‎treatment and others.‎

Some of the common symptoms of urinary bladder cancer involves pelvic ‎pain, pain during urination, blood in urine. The patients also experience ‎symptoms like frequent urination, sudden weight loss, swollen feet, appetite ‎loss, back pain. People having such symptoms to consult their doctor, as soon ‎as possible.‎

A systematic diagnosis is a required before starting the treatment of urinary ‎bladder cancer. The patient’s medical history and family history is also asked ‎by doctor regarding cases of bladder cancer. After this several laboratory ‎tests and imaging tests are done. Once a patient is diagnosed as having ‎bladder cancer, he/she is accordingly treated depending upon the severity of ‎the condition.‎

Some of the treatments for urinary cancer are as following:-‎

    • Surgery- In surgery the tumour and some surrounding healthy tissue ‎is removed during an operation. There are different types of surgery ‎for urinary bladder cancer. Surgical options to treat urinary bladder ‎cancer includes:‎
    • Transurethral bladder tumour resection (TURBT). This ‎procedure is used for diagnosis and staging, also as treatment. ‎During this procedure the surgeon inserts a cystoscope through ‎the urethra into the bladder. Then the surgeon removes the ‎tumour using a tool with a small wire loop, a laser, or fulguration. ‎The patient is given an anaesthetic medication to block the ‎awareness of pain, before the procedure begins.
    • Cystectomy and lymph node dissection. In radical cystectomy, ‎the whole bladder is removed and possibly nearby tissues and ‎organs. In men, the prostate and urethra also may be removed. In ‎women, the fallopian tubes, uterus, ovaries, and part of the ‎vagina may be removed. For all patients the lymph nodes in the ‎pelvis are also removed. This is called a pelvic lymph node ‎dissection. An extended pelvic lymph node dissection is the ‎accurate way to find cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes.‎
    • Urinary diversion. When the urinary bladder is removed, then ‎the doctor will create a new way to pass out urine from the body. ‎One of the way to do this is to use a section of the small intestine ‎or a colon to divert the urine to a stoma or ostomy (an opening) ‎on the outside of the body. Then the patient must wear a bag ‎attached to the stoma to collect and drain urine.‎
    • Chemotherapy- In chemotherapy the drugs are used to destroy cancer ‎cells, usually by ending the cancer cell’s ability to grow and divide. A ‎chemotherapy schedule, typically consists of a specific number of ‎cycles given over a set period of time. A patient receives 1 drug at a time ‎or a combinations of different drugs given at the same time. There are ‎two types of chemotherapy used to treat bladder cancer. The doctor ‎recommends the type and when it is given depends on the stage of the ‎cancer.‎
    • Intravesical chemotherapy. Intravesical chemotherapy is ‎usually given by urologist. During this therapy, drugs are ‎delivered through a catheter that has been inserted through the ‎urethra into the bladder. Local treatment only destroys the ‎superficial tumour cells that come in contact with the ‎chemotherapy solution. Mitomycin and thiotepa are the drugs ‎used mostly for intravesical chemotherapy. Other drugs that are ‎used include cisplatin, doxorubicin, gemcitabine, and valrubicin.
    • Systemic chemotherapy- Systemic chemotherapy is usually ‎prescribed by a medical oncologist, a specialist doctor in treating ‎cancer with medication. This chemotherapy gets into the ‎bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Common ‎ways to give chemotherapy include an intravenous tube placed ‎into a vein using a needle or in a pill or capsule that is orally ‎swallowed.‎
  1. Immunotherapy- Immunotherapy, also called as biologic therapy. It is ‎designed to boost the body’s natural defence to fight against the cancer. ‎This therapy uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory ‎to improve or restore immune system function.
  2. Radiation therapy- In this therapy high-energy x-rays or other ‎particles are used to destroy cancer cells. The most common type of ‎radiation treatment is called external-beam radiation therapy, which is ‎given from a machine outside the body. When it is given using ‎implants, it is called internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy.‎

How is the treatment done?

The treatment of urinary bladder cancer requires proper diagnosis in the ‎first place. The doctor may check the medical history and family history of ‎the patient to be sure whether the cause of this condition is due to genetic ‎reasons.‎

A systematic diagnosis is a required before starting the treatment of urinary ‎bladder cancer. The patient’s medical history and family history is also asked ‎by doctor regarding cases of bladder cancer. After this several laboratory ‎tests and imaging tests are done. Once a patient is diagnosed as having ‎bladder cancer, he/she is accordingly treated depending upon the severity of ‎the condition.‎

Diagnosis of bladder cancer involves pelvic examination and digital rectal ‎examination. If the doctor finds any tumour then he/she may recommend or ‎further laboratory and imaging tests. Such laboratory tests include urine tests ‎and cystoscopy. If the doctor finds a tumour during such a test, then he/she ‎may recommend for a surgery known as (TURBT) transurethral resection of ‎bladder tumour, where the tumour and also a part of the bladder muscle ‎near it is removed. A sample of the tumour is sent for biopsy in order to ‎check whether it is cancer. The various imaging tests used for the diagnosis of ‎bladder cancer include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed ‎tomography (CT) scan, ultrasound imaging, bone scan, chest scan, ‎intravenous pyelogram and retrograde pyelogram. Once the patient is ‎diagnosed after physical examinations as having bladder cancer, he/she is ‎treated depending upon the severity of the condition.‎ The treatment of bladder cancer involves surgery, immunotherapy, ‎chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery involves removal of the ‎tumour and a part of the muscles near it and this method is referred to as ‎transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). Another method called ‎‎“cystectomy” involves partial or complete removal of the bladder. Other ‎treatments like immunotherapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy aim at ‎killing the harmful cancerous cells. It is important to remember that there is ‎no complete cure for bladder cancer. Treatment can be done only to prevent ‎or reduce the possible symptoms that the patient suffers from, during this ‎condition.‎

The doctor will work with the patient to decide what treatment to provide ‎based on the type and stage of the bladder cancer, the symptoms, and overall ‎health.‎

  • Treatment for stage0 and stage1‎
    Treatment for stage0 and stage1 urinary bladder cancer may include surgery ‎to remove the tumour from the bladder, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy, ‎which involves taking a medication that causes your immune system to attack ‎the cancer cells.‎
  • Treatment for stage 2 and stage 3‎
    Treatment for stage 2 and stage 3 bladder cancer includes removal of part of ‎the bladder in addition to chemotherapy, also may be removing whole ‎bladder which is called radical cystectomy, after the surgery the doctor ‎creates a new way for urine to exit the body. Radiation therapy , ‎chemotherapy or immunotherapy that can be done to shrink the tumour ‎before surgery, to treat the cancer when surgery isn’t an option, to kill ‎remaining cancer cells after surgery, or to prevent recurring of cancer.‎
  • Treatment for stage 4 bladder cancer Treatment for stage 4 bladder cancer includes chemotherapy without ‎surgery to relieve symptoms and extend life of radical cystectomy and ‎removing of the surrounding lymph nodes, following a surgery is done to ‎create a new way for urine to exit the body. Radiation therapy, ‎Chemotherapy and immunotherapy after a surgery is done to kill remaining ‎cancer cells or to relieve symptoms and extend life clinical trial drugs

Who is eligible for the treatment?(When is the treatment done ?)

Persons having symptoms like blood in urine (haematuria), pelvic pain, pain ‎during urination, frequent urination, swelling of feet, loss of appetite, sudden ‎weight loss, back pain and is diagnosed to be suffering from bladder cancer, is ‎considered to be eligible for this treatment. Persons, having such symptoms, ‎should inform the doctor as soon as possible and should take treatment ‎procedures.‎

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Anyone, who is normal and is not suffering from the symptoms of urinary ‎cancer, is not eligible for this treatment.‎

Are there any Side Effects?

The treatment for urinary cancer also has its side effects as similar to other ‎cancer treatments. The intensity of these side effects varies according to the ‎treatment procedure. The side effects for surgical treatments like radical ‎cystectomy and segmental cystectomy involve interruption of the patient’s ‎sexual function, sudden menopause and inability to get pregnant (in women), ‎increased frequency in urination and inability to hold urine for a long time.

‎The side effects of treatment involving immunotherapy, chemotherapy and ‎radiation therapy includes vomiting, nausea, discomfort during urination, ‎vaginal dryness in women, diarrhoea, erectile dysfunction in men, hair loss, ‎appetite loss, weakness, soring of mouth, fever and others. It is ‎recommended that the patients should consult with the doctor, if they ‎happen to suffer from any of these side effects, during the course of ‎treatment.‎

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

The treatment for urinary cancer requires few months or even years for the ‎completion of treatment. After treatment the patient still needs to go through ‎several follow up examinations in interval of every few months for a number ‎of years.

The patient should attend all the follow up treatments and go for ‎regular chemotherapy and radiation therapy along with other treatments. ‎This is to check the possibilities of reoccurrence of cancer, and also the ‎probable side effects of such treatments. Almost all the cancer treatments ‎have their side effects and so it is important that the patient must inform the ‎doctor regarding this issue and seek the necessary remedial measures.‎

How long doesit take to recover?

Unfortunately, there is no cure for urinary cancer, but the symptoms of this ‎can be managed by surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The ‎patients, who have been diagnosed as having this problem, their life span ‎mainly depends upon the severity of the condition and the type of treatment ‎that the patient is undergoing. On an average, the treatment for bladder ‎cancer may take few months or years for its completion.‎

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The price of the treatment for urinary cancer varies in different parts of India ‎country. The treatment cost also vary depending upon the severity of the ‎condition and the type of treatment that the patient is undergoing. On an ‎average, the price of treatment for urinary cancer ranges from Rs.12,50,000 ‎to Rs.27,50,000.‎

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

No, the results of the treatment for urinary cancer are not permanent and ‎there are chances that the cancer may reoccur after a certain period of time. ‎Complete cure for this cancer is not available, therefore it is highly ‎recommended that the patient should go for regular check-ups, radiation ‎therapy, chemotherapy and other tests to check the progress of such a ‎cancer.‎

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Till date, there are no alternatives for urinary cancer. Surgery, ‎immunotherapy, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the best methods ‎of treatment for bladder cancer. However, after surgery, treatment done with ‎mistletoe extracts has been proven to be effective in reducing tumour ‎recurrence. Mistletoe extracts act upon the proteins that affect cancer and it ‎can be used for patients with malignancies, during the initial stages. Later ‎stages of such cancers can be quite complicated and cannot be effectively ‎cured.‎

Popular Questions & Answers

My age is 27, weight 82 kg, unmarried.i was in uttar pradesh. I came to my home on 21st march and from 23rd I was feeling light increase of temp in head i.e was 99f. Then on 27 march you got sore throat (like something stuck in throat) and also my sternum sides are paining on body movement. U went to government hospital many times and they did xray and xray was normal and also took antibiotics for sore throat but still not resolved. On 29 may I got high fever 104f for 3 days and was having burning in penis after urination and also pain at tip of penis ,it was continued for 3 days and fever was not coming down with paracetamol. My urine report on 1 june was pus cell 18-25, rbc 10-12, bacteria 1+,albumin 1+ and blood report on 1st june was lymphocyte 10%, platelet 1.25thou/cumm (range 1.5 to 4, tlc was 4.then doctor gave me mefenamic acid and some antibiotics like nitrofurantoin and ofloxacin for 15 days. But after that I was feeling like shooting pain radiating from penis to rectum. On 1 july I visited urologist again, there junior resident ordered usg abdomen and it shows normal study and prostate size 21 cc. Then he sent to me general surgeon to check piles but it was normal as they checked with metal probe .on 7 july and 13 july I got bleeding in semen. Semen was fully mixed with blood. And I was also having hips pain, hips connecting to femur point pain, femur pain, thighs pain and legs pain, feet frontal part pain and hands frontal part pain, leg pain and also getting chills many times. On 14 aug, my vitamin d was 75 (range 74 to 215) but it is same since 2015. And blood report show lymphocyte 26%,platelet 2.34lakh and tlc 5 (range 5 to 10. On 14 aug 2020, my serum psa came 2.06 ng/ml but in 2016, it was 0.77 ng/ml. within 4 years it has increased 3 times. On 26august I went to urologist but my maine issues were to go to him to interrelated the cause of my bones pain as I saw blood in semen as first sign of problem. He did semen analysis showing 10-12 pus cell, and trus prostate showing "prostate volume 14. 8 cc. The prostate is normal in size, shape and shows ill defined parenchymal areas if increased echogenicity mainly limited to the anterior stromal zone and transitional zone of the prostate. The echogenic areas are seen extending and surrounding the opening of ejaculatory ducts on both side and there is preserved zonal differentiation noted in both lobes elsewhere" possibility of chronic prostatitis needs to be ruled out" I also had trus prostate in 2017, at that time prostate was normal having 13. 5 cc size (it was done in 2016 due to frequent urination problem. He gave me antibiotics for 21 days i.e oflox 400 mg (bd), alfuzosin 10 mg (od. 8 days after taking these antibiotics again I got blood in semen on 2 sep and 3 sep. My mai problem is that my whole body bones are paining i.e hips bone ,femur bone ,back of hips where it connect to femur near rectum, thighs pain, legs pain, feet pain (not able to walk properly, rib cage pain, chest frontal part pain ,teeth pain, having too much weakness in thighs and legs ,shoulder joints also started to pain since 6 days, hands pain above elbow, I get chills sometimes in these hot summer at back of lungs. My weakness intensity increasing on daily basis. Withing these two months pain acquired my whole body. My feet are paining too much and having weakness in hands too like somebody get tired after too much work. My sore throat (like something stuck in throat) not going even after showing to ent 2 or 3 times, they are saying it might be due to acid reflux without checking anything, they are not seeing properly. I do not feel they I have that much acid reflux to cause problem. With the intensity of increasing problem and sudden onset of whole body bone pain and burning sensation and specially too much weakness in femur and bone pain in hips bone connecting point, I assumed that I became prostate cancer patient though it is very rare at this age but I am not getting any solution to my problem even after showing to good urologist. Please guide me sir what to do?

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Gynaecologist, Shimla
I am sorry to hear about your concern but will be happy to assist you. A burning sensation is a type of pain that's distinct from dull, stabbing, or aching pain. A burning pain is often related to nerve problems. However, there are many other poss...

Mam mere cyst k course complete hone k bad meee cyst nhii h hmne 6 month tak normoz lye or 3 month tk krimson 35li uske bad cyst remove nhi guy fur doc ne mere solution l start krayu wo 3 month khane k bad sub shi ho gya per mere period cycle irregular ho gye to kya ye medicine k side effect h ya doc ko dikhana chahiye.

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Senior residency Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Ludhiana
Dear Lybrate user, cyst formation occurs due to hormonal imbalance in some cases and its very common to see asymptomatic cysts accidentally noticed while getting routine ultrasound done. For small (<3 cm) simple cysts, no treatment needs to be don...
1 person found this helpful

Sir madam yesterday I have done colonoscopy procedure. Aur cea b kiya 2.68 aya caecum single polypoidal mass occluding whole of the circumference. Overlying mucosa is erythematous and edematous. Surrounding mucosa is norma. Impression: polypoidal cecal mass-? Nature biopsy done. It means cancer.

MBBS, MS - Oncology, MCh-Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, MCh - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery, MCh (Gyneco-oncological oncology), FRCS - Thoracic Surgery
Oncologist, Mangalore
Biopsy suggestive of cancer, but we need to know what type of cancer it is. As treatment depends on type of cancer in caecum. Need to do cect abdomen and thorax/pet ct depending on feasibility and affordability for staging purpose (pet ct is not m...
1 person found this helpful

My mother got cervical cancer last year done total hysterectomy stage 1b2. Now after a year its comes back locally advance in bladder wall rectum bladder neck don't know what to do. Is total pelvic exoneration is an option?

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, FMAS, DMAS, Fellowship in Assisted Reproductive technology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Gynaecologist, Burhanpur
Hello, she may require a second look laparoscopy and exenteration followed by ccrt possibly. Please meet an onco-surgeon and medical oncologist for the same.
1 person found this helpful

I am 30 years old .i had endometriosis prior. I am given novelon for a cycle of three months but my period flow is heavy. I have also taken cervical cancer vaccines in the months prior .kindly suggest.

M.B.B.S, Post Graduate Diploma In Maternal & Child Health
Gynaecologist, Bokaro
For heavy periods some blood tests are required. Normally novelon should control the heavy bleeding but if it persists you should ask your doctor or contact me online.

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