Diabetes is one of the most common problems that are caused by obesity, unhealthy and inactive lifestyle. It is a metabolic disorder in which the body is unable to store and use energy from food. Being physically inactive and eating unhealthy food are primary causes of diabetes. It is a long term condition which causes high or unstable blood sugar levels in the body.
When a patient suffers from low blood sugar it is called Hypoglycemia, and if the blood sugar levels are too high, it is called Hyperglycemia. Both are extremely harmful for a patient.
Type 1 and Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes-
In Type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin. The condition has no known cure and is usually hereditary in nature. Approximately 10% of those suffering from diabetes have Type 1 diabetes. Patients with Type 1 diabetes have to take regular medication, including insulin injections as well as take care of their diet.
Type 2 diabetes happens when the body does not produce enough insulin for its proper functioning. 90% of all diabetic people suffer from Type 2 diabetes. It is usually caused by poor lifestyle choices, like physical inactivity and unhealthy food habits. The disease lasts a lifetime and is usually progressive in nature, but can be managed by taking regular medication, choosing an active lifestyle and maintaining proper body weight.
Diabetes during pregnancy is known as gestational diabetes. This has to be managed by taking medication or in extreme cases insulin shots. If undetected or untreated, gestational diabetes increases complications during childbirth, and causes unusual weight gain in the baby. However, gestational diabetes usually ends after the baby is born and women can go back to their normal lifestyle and eating habits post delivery.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Who is at greatest risk for developing diabetes?
What is pre-diabetes?
Pre-diabetes is a condition of elevated blood glucose level that has not yet reached a diabetic level. Along with insulin resistance, pre-diabetes causes no symptoms. An individual may be pre-diabetic for years without knowing it. Pre-diabetes increases your risk of developing Type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
Weight loss and exercise may halt the onset of diabetes from pre-diabetes by returning blood glucose levels to a normal range.
Diabetes is the fifth-leading cause of death by disease. Diabetes leads to the death of many people each year across the globe. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Physician.
What is Type-1 Diabetes?
Type-1 Diabetes, also known as Diabetes Mellitus type-1, is a condition which is characterised by the lack of sufficient amount of insulin in the body. This is a chronic condition and cannot be cured. The insufficient amount of insulin in the blood results in the spike in blood sugar levels, which in turn, can damage various organs in the body. However, with proper therapy and treatment, it can be controlled and the quality of life can be improved for the patient.
The tell-tale signs and symptoms of this type of diabetes are the frequent urges to urinate, increase in appetite, increased thirst and rapid weight loss. It is most commonly diagnosed in children or young adults and thus, it was previously known as juvenile diabetes.
Glucose and other types of sugars are essential for the body cells to absorb energy. The glucose that is present in the blood is taken up with the help of insulin and utilised for energy. The lack of this hormone renders the glucose useless as it is not being able to enter the body cells. This is precisely type-1 diabetes.
What Causes It?
The cause of type-1 diabetes is not known entirely. Although, there are certain theories that explain the cause –
Genetics: The chances of getting type-1 diabetes are increased in children if either of their parents suffers through from this disease. More than 50 genes are involved in diabetes type-1.
Environmental factors: Environmental factors are also thought to play a role in type-1 diabetes.
Viral infection: A theory suggests that viral infections are responsible for type-1 diabetes. According to this theory, the virus activates the auto-immune system of the body which in turn attacks the pancreatic beta cells along with the cells that are infected by the virus. Viruses like Epstein-Barr virus, Mumps virus, rubella virus etc. are considered to be responsible for the same.
How Is It Treated?
Many people with type-1 diabetes live long, healthy lives. The key to good health is to keep your blood sugar levels within the range your doctor gives you. You’ll need to check them often and adjust insulin, food, and activities to make that happen.
All people with type-1 diabetes must use insulin injections to control their blood sugar. Several types of insulin are available. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist and ask a free question.