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Fibroadenoma And Its Treatment!

Dr. Anoop Kumar Sonker 93% (99 ratings)
BHMS
Sexologist, Lucknow


Fibroadenomas are non-cancerous (benign) and harmless tumors which are made up of fibrous tissues of the breast. These are common in adolescent and young women. The incidence of fibroadenoma reduces with increasing age.

Signs and symptoms-

  • Fibroadenomas are smooth, round and easily movable swellings. It is referred as ‘breast mouse’ or ‘floating tumor’ as it easily sleeps away from fingers. Size of the tumor may vary from one to five centimeters.
  • It could be single or multiple. Generally, it is painless and may affect both breasts.
  • Pain and tenderness (pain when touched) may be present especially before periods and subsides after periods. These cyclical changes are because of the hormonal changes. This is the reason why it is less common after menopause.

Causes of fibroadenoma-

The exact cause of fibroadenoma is unknown. It is because of the cyclical hormonal changes that take place in the body of women of childbearing age.

Diagnosis-

  • Clinical history
  • Physical examination
  • Mammography – it is the process of using low amplitude x rays to examine breast.
  • Biopsy – women in their teens do not need a biopsy if the lump dissolves on its own.
  • Dangerous signs
  • Sudden increase in size of tumor
  • Pain in breast not affected by menstrual cycle
  • Hard, immovable tumors
  • Transformation of fibroadenoma into the cancerous tumor is very rare. Only 0.002-0.012% of the fibroadenoma convert into a cancerous growth.

Treatment conventional treatment

1) fibroadenoma can subside on its own.

Cryoablation (use of extreme cold to destroy tissue) is safe and effective and less invasive method of treatment for fibroadenoma.

Surgical removal may be required in case of large fibroadenoma.

Homeopathic treatment

Homeopathy is strongly suggested in the treatment of fibroadenoma. Homeopathy can be given as a baseline treatment in mild and moderate cases whereas it has a good supporting role in advanced cases of tissue changes. The results using homeopathy in the cases of fibroadenoma are very good.

Homeopathic medicines are prescribed after studying patient’s complete case history. It enhances the body’s self-healing mechanism (immunity) thus a further recurrence of fibroadenoma can be prevented.

Bladder Tumor - Types And Treatment

Dr. Irfan Shaikh 81% (10 ratings)
MCh Urology & Transplant Surgeon, MS - General Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery
Urologist, Pune
Bladder Tumor - Types And Treatment

The bladder is a hollow storage organ that collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until it can be passed out of the body through the urethra during the process of micturition or urination. It has a thin inner lining of cells called urothelial cells and a thick muscular wall, which exerts pressure to push the urine out of the body.

Causes of Bladder Tumors

In most cases, the bladder tumour develops on the inner layer due to a combination of some of the following factors.

1. Hereditary: A strong family history of cancer predisposes a person to cancer.
2. Gender: Men are 3 times more prone for bladder cancer than women.
3. Ethnicity: White people are more prone for bladder cancer black people.
4. Smoking: Smokers develop bladder cancer 2-6 times more frequently than non-smokers. Cigarettes contain toxic, carcinogenic substances which reach the kidney and are stored in the bladder, leading to their damage.
5. Occupational hazards: Some workplaces have a higher likelihood of causing bladder cancers, especially dye and rubber industries. The effects can be damaging, and the person may develop cancers years after the exposure has happened.
6. Recurrent bladder infections: In some people, this can also lead to bladder cancer in the long run.

Types of Bladder Tumor

Depending on the extent of the cancerous spread, it can be of two types:

1. Non-muscle-invasive bladder tumours: The tumor spread is limited to the inner part of the bladder (urothelial cells)

2. Muscle-invasive bladder tumour: The tumour has spread to the thick muscular outer layer. This is more advanced and prognosis is poor compared to the noninvasive type.

 

The most common and diagnostic symptom of bladder cancer is the presence of blood in the urine, known as hematuria. This will be intermittent and happens whenever the tumour bleeding happens. Other symptoms include pain in the lower abdomen and frequent urination.

Diagnosis

From the most noninvasive to the most invasive diagnostic test, these include:

1. Urine microscopy to detect cancer cells in the urine
2. Cystoscopy A tube inserted into the urethra to look into the inner wall of the bladder is highly diagnostic
3. Ultrasound, CT Scan, and biopsy can also be further used to identify severity of the tumour.

Treatment

Once the tumour is diagnosed, treatment would depend on the severity of the tumour. For both invasive and noninvasive tumours, definitive therapy is surgery, known as transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). The cancerous bladder tissue is removed through a cystoscope as done for diagnosis. The bladder is then flushed with chemotherapy agent to kill any residual cancer cells in the bladder. This is then followed by BCG vaccine, which is again done 1 to 4 weeks for several months to avoid recurrence. In some cases, radiotherapy may also be included.

2815 people found this helpful

Seizures - Know How Homeopathy Can Help?

Dr. Gauri Kadlaskar Palsule 90% (460 ratings)
MD- Homoeopathy
Homeopath,

Suffering seizures? Homeopathy can help!

It is undoubtedly a disturbing yet concerning experience to watch somebody have a seizure. One-off incidence may not be serious, but epileptic seizures need care; be assured, homeopathy can help!

Before you start reading the blog, please understand epilepsy is not a disease; it is a symptom of a brain disease. A single seizure does not mean epilepsy. It is just an indication of an investigation. A seizure is indeed an abnormal clinical event created by electrical discharges from the brain; however, epilepsy is defined as ‘the tendency to have seizures.' 

Significant numbers, especially for India

Approximately 50 lac people have epilepsy worldwide, and each year 24 lac people are diagnosed with epilepsy. Of these patients, 80% live in the low- and the middle-income countries. Four to 10 people per 1,000 suffer from epilepsy, but certain studies also estimate the incidence as high as between seven to 14 epilepsy patients per 100 persons in low-income countries. One-fifth or about 10 lacs of the global 50 lac epilepsy patients are in India.

I consult many epilepsy cases in my clinic, of which, the majority (60%) are pediatric cases within the age group of two to eight years. The most common type of epilepsy in the clinic is primary generalized epilepsy. Absent seizures account for the rest of the 40% epilepsy cases in the clinic.

Don't be afraid; your awareness helps the patients

I agree, for a common person witnessing or experiencing an epileptic seizure may be scary or traumatic – mentally and sometimes physically too. However, we must understand that a seizure or even epilepsy is not the end of life. With early diagnosis and proper treatment, a patient can lead a normal, independent life. The lack of diagnosis and treatment is often due to the lack of awareness among the patients and the people around them, and also the social and cultural stigma attached to seizures. Depending upon the type of epilepsy, the signs and symptoms may include temporary unconsciousness, confusion, involuntary jerking movements of arms or legs, and sometimes fear and anxiety too.

Many other health conditions may be confused with epilepsy, for example, it may be wrongly diagnosed as a psychological disease and referred to a psychiatrist, or may be diagnosed merely as a fainting spell. Especially among females, the chances of wrong diagnoses of seizures – from hysteria and attention-seeking behavior to even wholly ignoring the symptoms.

Care is essential, not the cover-up or wrong treatment

Epileptic seizures can lead to further complications and emergencies. A sudden fall to the ground during the seizure can lead to minor or major injuries to the patients. An epileptic patient needs to be cleared by the doctor to be able to drive and ride a vehicle; these patients have an unusually high risk of vehicular accidents. These patients need to take regular treatment to avoid seizure incidences that may put their or the lives of the people around them at risk. For example, the patient with epilepsy has a far higher risk of drowning in water, if not supervised or if the help is not quickly available. Status epilepticus is a medical emergency where the patient suffers longer seizures lasting as long as over 30 minutes or has two seizures without gaining full consciousness in between them. In severe cases, epilepsy may cause the death of the patient.

Diagnosis needs advanced investigations

The diagnosis of the causes behind epilepsies requires a thorough neurological examination. The investigations may include the seemingly complicated and expensive, perhaps not easily accessible, imaging technologies. EEG (electroencephalogram) plays a crucial role in the accurate diagnosis of epilepsy. To further investigate and rule out the other causes such as infections and tumors or cysts, specific blood tests and CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) may be advised by the physicians.

Homeopathy helps with patient-centric approach

A homeopathic physician will carefully access and analyze a patient's case history, as with any other patient. I suggest my patients that meticulously maintaining a ‘seizure diary’ helps to describe the exact nature of patient symptoms to the physician. Such minutely detailed information helps in prescribing the most accurate and the most effective homeopathic treatment for the patient. It is a good idea to visit the homeopathic physician with a person who is around the patient so the physician can appraise the patient’s exact condition to the people close the patient.

A 22-year-old young lady described her case to me – she suffered regular seizures since her first period. The episodes occurred before her menses, sometimes leading to her collapse. The twitching of face and extremities was a regular feature. During the six months of the treatment she responded well; however, she soon discontinued the treatment as she got married. She hid condition from her husband and the in-laws. During the two-year lapse of the treatment, her condition aggravated, when she returned to my clinic. She was counseled about the importance of regular medication, and her family was apprised of her condition. They were very supportive, so she continued the treatment. She is leading a normal, symptom-free life with regular homeopathic treatment.

Another success story from my clinic is of a 4-year-old boy. A diagnosed case of partial epilepsy, he developed twitching and jerking movements in his left arm. His seizures would start as soon as he would wake up in the morning with a frequency of about two days. The child was very fearful and timid due to his condition. Considering his medical history, including tonsillitis, he was prescribed a homeopathic medicine for 15 days; his seizure-frequency lowered to once a week. With regular examination at the clinic and treatment compliance for a year, his EEG was completely normal, and the boy lived symptom-free. The child has been assessed once a year since and has grown-up to be a good sportsperson, leading a normal and worry-free life as any young man. 

These representative and many more cases in my clinic underline two things: the lack of awareness and social stigma delay the diagnosis and the treatment for the patients, losing many months and years and increasing complications due to epilepsy; and a timely and quality homeopathic treatment can help you lead a fulfilling life even with epilepsy or help you cure the condition completely.

 

3 people found this helpful

Bone Cancer - Understanding The New Approaches For Treatment!

Dr. Mukul Gharote 87% (35 ratings)
MBBS, DM - Oncology, MD - General Medicine
Oncologist, Nashik
Bone Cancer - Understanding The New Approaches For Treatment!

The human body has 206 bones and bone cancer can affect any of these bones. This condition starts when healthy bone marrow cells mutate and grow out of control to form a tumor. There are many different types of bone cancer. Treatment of bone cancer varies from case to case and depends on factors such as, type of cancer, stage at which it is diagnosed and the patient’s overall health amongst other factors.

Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation are the three most common types of treatments favored for bone cancer. Surgery is usually used for low-grade tumors. This involves the removal of tumor and the surrounding healthy cells and tissues to ensure that that cancer does not recur. For high-grade tumors, surgery may be accompanied by chemotherapy, radiation or a combination of the two.

Chemotherapy involves the delivery of medication to destroy cancer cells orally or intravenously. Radiation involves the use of high energy X rays to kill cancer cells. This is often used to treat patients with a tumor that cannot be surgically removed.

Apart from these standard forms of treatment, bone cancer patients are often advised to take part in clinical trials for their treatment. This can be described as a research study to test the efficiency of new approaches to the treatment of bone cancer. A clinical trial can be used to treat the safety and efficacy of a new drug, the new dosage of standard drugs or a new combination of treatment types. As a member of a clinical trial, you may be one of the first few people to benefit from treatment even before it is available to the general public.

Some of the new options available through clinical trials are:

  1. Immunotherapy: This is also known as biologic therapy. It is designed to boost the patient’s immune system to fight cancer cells. Mifamurtidesi one of the types of immunotherapy being tested. Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as monoclonal antibodies are also being tested for their ability to block specific molecules.
  2. Targeted therapy: This type of therapy targets the genes and proteins that contribute towards the growth and survival of cancer cells. Targeted therapy limits the damage caused to healthy cells and tissues and only blocks the growth of cancer cells.
  3. Myeloablative therapy: This involves an intense regimen of chemotherapy. High doses of chemotherapy aim at destroying all the cancer cells. Unfortunately, in the process, healthy cells may also be killed. This may be followed by introducing stem cells through a bone marrow transplant to the patient’s body to renew blood cells.
  4. Intraoperative radiation therapy: These trials evaluate the use of radiation given inside the patient’s body during a surgery. In cases where tumor is in a distant location of the body, stereotactic body radiotherapy and radiofrequency ablation may be used.
     

Brain Surgery - How To Know If It Is Required?

Dr. Apoorva Pandey 91% (19 ratings)
MS-General Surgery, Mch-Neurosurgery
Neurosurgeon, Bhopal
Brain Surgery - How To Know If It Is Required?

Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.

The complications depend upon the type of surgery being performed and where in the brain lies the problem . There are areas where if surgery done can lead to more damage, so every surgery needs to be planned in a way that minimum damage is done to the existing anatomy and with the best possible outcomes. Sometimes it might be necessary to compromise upon a function of brain to achieve complete excision of tumor or pathology.

Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:

  1. Abnormal blood vessels
  2. Aneurysm
  3. Bleeding
  4. Blood clots in the brain
  5. When the protective tissue or dura is damaged
  6. Epilepsy
  7. Due to nerve damage
  8. Parkinson's disease
  9. Any kind of pressure after an injury
  10. Abscesses
  11. Skull fractures
  12. In case of stroke and tumors

A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.

Types of brain surgeries:

  1. Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires.
  2. Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain.
  4. Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts.

Risks:
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:

  1. Allergic reactions to anesthesia
  2. Bleeding
  3. Blood clot formations
  4. Swelling of the brain
  5. A state of coma
  6. Impairment in speech, coordination and vision.
  7. Problems in memory
  8. Strokes and seizures
  9. Infections in the brain

A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease.

2059 people found this helpful

Bladder Tumour And Its Common Causes

Dr. Rakesh Sharma 89% (10 ratings)
MCh - Urology & Kidney Transplant, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Urologist, Jaipur
Bladder Tumour And Its Common Causes

The bladder is a hollow storage organ that collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until it can be passed out of the body through the urethra during the process of micturition or urination. It has a thin inner lining of cells called urothelial cells and a thick muscular wall, which exerts pressure to push the urine out of the body.

Causes of Bladder Tumors

In most cases, the bladder tumour develops on the inner layer due to a combination of some of the following factors.

1. Hereditar - A strong family history of cancer predisposes a person to cancer.
2. Gender - Men are 3 times more prone for bladder cancer than women.
3. Ethnicity - White people are more prone for bladder cancer black people.
4. Smoking - Smokers develop bladder cancer 2-6 times more frequently than non-smokers. Cigarettes contain toxic, carcinogenic substances which reach the kidney and are stored in the bladder, leading to their damage.
5. Occupational hazards - Some workplaces have a higher likelihood of causing bladder cancers, especially dye and rubber industries. The effects can be damaging, and the person may develop cancers years after the exposure has happened.
6. Recurrent bladder infections - In some people, this can also lead to bladder cancer in the long run.

Types of Bladder Tumor

Depending on the extent of the cancerous spread, it can be of two types:

1. Non-muscle-invasive bladder tumours: The tumor spread is limited to the inner part of the bladder (urothelial cells)
2. Muscle-invasive bladder tumour: The tumour has spread to the thick muscular outer layer. This is more advanced and prognosis is poor compared to the noninvasive type.

The most common and diagnostic symptom of bladder cancer is the presence of blood in the urine, known as hematuria. This will be intermittent and happens whenever the tumour bleeding happens. Other symptoms include pain in the lower abdomen and frequent urination.

Diagnosis

From the most noninvasive to the most invasive diagnostic test, these include:

1. Urine microscopy to detect cancer cells in the urine
2. Cystoscopy A tube inserted into the urethra to look into the inner wall of the bladder is highly diagnostic
3. Ultrasound, CT Scan, and biopsy can also be further used to identify severity of the tumour.

Treatment

Once the tumour is diagnosed, treatment would depend on the severity of the tumour. For both invasive and noninvasive tumours, definitive therapy is surgery, known as transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). The cancerous bladder tissue is removed through a cystoscope as done for diagnosis. The bladder is then flushed with chemotherapy agent to kill any residual cancer cells in the bladder. This is then followed by BCG vaccine, which is again done 1 to 4 weeks for several months to avoid recurrence. In some cases, radiotherapy may also be included.

2975 people found this helpful

4 Major Signs That Indicate Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

Dr. Pooja Choudhary 90% (359 ratings)
MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
4 Major Signs That Indicate Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

Epithelial Ovarian Cancer is a condition in which malignant tumor emerges from the tissue lining in the outer surface of the ovary. Epithelial tumors are usually benign, but this form of malignancy has been found to be the most common type of ovarian cancer. Moreover, it cannot be diagnosed until in its advanced stage. Medical research shows that factors such as multiple pregnancies, delayed childbirth and early menarche seem to raise the risk of ovarian cancer, while dietary and environmental factors also play a significant role in it.

Symptoms
1. A majority of the patients have been observed to have extensive intra-abdominal growth.
2. They may experience discomfort or swelling of the abdominal region.
3. The feeling of being bloated, lack of appetite, unnatural weight alteration, dyspepsia, malaise, and urinary problems are frequently reported symptoms.
4. Patients also experience constipation and other gastrointestinal problems.

Treatment
The first step towards treatment of ovarian cancer is to diagnose the condition. A thorough pelvic examination (consisting of an examination of the vagina, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and cervix) will help to pin point any abnormality of the ovary. If the doctor notes nodularity, firmness or lack of tenderness during the examination, these can be taken as symptoms of malignancy of epithelial ovarian tumors. Ultrasound examination of the abdominal region will also help to locate abnormality in the tissues on the outer surface of the ovary. The next logical step towards treatment is getting a biopsy. During this procedure potentially malignant cells are removed and then diagnosed by a pathologist to conclude if the cells are cancerous or not. The process of removal is known as laparotomy.

Apart from a handful of stage one patients, most women with epithelial ovarian cancer receive chemotherapy. The standard treatment for this type of ovarian cancer is the surgical elimination of tumor. This includes total abdominal hysterectomy, a surgery in which the uterus and cervix is removed through an incision in the abdomen. Post surgical treatment consists of taxane-platinum chemotherapy. Patients with minimal residual cancer undergo external radiation therapy or intraperitoneal chemotherapy (radioactive liquid is channelled into the abdomen with the help of a catheter).

A lot of research has been done in this field and a variety of clinical trials are available for a patient, if he/she wishes to be a part of it. Leading methods are immunotherapy and targeted therapy are also available. Immunotherapy uses the immune system of the patient to battle cancer. Bodily substances or substances created in the lab are used to restore and boost the body’s natural defence mechanisms against cancer. Targeted therapy, on the other hand, uses substances to identify the cancer and attack the malignant cells without jeopardizing non-cancerous cells.

3881 people found this helpful

Liver Cancer - Its Symptoms And Diagnosis!

Dr. Swarup Kumar Ghosh 90% (82 ratings)
MD - Bio-Chemistry, MF Homeo (London), DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery), BHMS
Homeopath, Kolkata
Liver Cancer - Its Symptoms And Diagnosis!

Why and when to do liver cancer test?
The liver is a pyramid-shaped organ in our body that lies just below the right lung. It is the largest organ inside the human body. This vital organ is divided into right and left lobes and performs a number of functions. It makes bile necessary to digest fat, makes various proteins used by the body for a number of other purposes, breaks down toxic materials in the blood that are later removed by the body as waste, helps in blood clotting and stores certain nutrients absorbed from the intestine. Thus liver is primary to the healthy functioning of the human body. Liver cancer test in India when cancerous cells form in the liver, it is known as liver cancer. Primary liver cancer is cancer that starts in the liver tissue; whereas cancer that starts in some other site and spreads to the liver is classified as the secondary liver cancer. Varied methods & techniques are available to treat liver cancer.

Diagnosis: After examining your health and learning about family history, your doctor may tell you to go for one or more of the following tests for diagnosing liver cancer:

  • Liver biopsy: Liver biopsy is done in order to remove a tissue sample from the suspected site in the liver. This tissue sample is analyzed under the microscope to confirm the presence of cancerous cells. Biopsy of liver laparoscopic biopsy, needle biopsy, and surgical biopsy are the different types of biopsies done.
  • Blood tests: You may need to perform some blood tests like liver function tests (LFTs). Besides these, if a suspicion of liver cancer arises, doctors check the level of alphafetoprotein (AFP) in the blood. The level of AFP is usually found higher in people with primary level cancer; although there are cases of people with liver cancer having normal levels of AFP. Again the ratio of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin is also checked.
  • Ultrasound: Imaging tests are done to find suspicious sites that may be cancerous and also to know whether cancer has spread. Ultrasound uses sound waves to create an image on a video screen. This test can show tumors in the liver and these tumors are later tested for cancer if required.
  • Computed tomography (scan): During a ct scan for diagnosing liver tumors, cross-sectional images of the abdomen are taken. Information regarding the shape, size, and location of the tumors in the liver or nearby blood vessels can be known which help the doctors plan certain treatments. Sometimes some contrast material may be used that aims to outline the intestine in order to avoid confusion regarding tumors. You may be given oral contrast or intravenous (iv) contrast.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): The difference between ct scan and MRI is that the latter uses radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-rays used by the former. Through waves and magnetic rays, certain images of the inside of the liver are taken. Your doctor can provide you contrast material if needed.
  • Angiography: During an angiography, a contrast dye is injected into the bloodstream to know about the arteries supplying blood to a liver. This test is used for both surgical and non-surgical purposes.

Symptoms:
Liver cancer does not have any symptoms, of its own. However, the tumor causes some symptoms and these symptoms appear in the later stages of cancer. Sometimes these symptoms may show up in the early stages also. The common symptoms are mentioned below:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fever, yellowing of the skin and eyes (due to jaundice)
  • Itching
  • Feeling full while eating
  • Wasting (cachexia)
  • Increased swelling of the belly and feet
  • Feeling of a mass under the ribs on the right side

Symptoms of liver cancer sometimes some tumors in the liver build hormones that influence other organs. These hormones may cause certain signs like low blood sugar levels, high cholesterols levels, enlarged breasts, high counts of red blood cells and high levels of calcium in the blood. If you have any of the symptoms at any stage of your life, you must consult your doctor right away to avoid unnecessary complications.

Stages:
The stages of liver cancer tell the doctor how far cancer has spread. Once the stage is determined, individualized treatment plans can be designed. There are different staging systems for this cancer, but all doctors across the globe do not follow the same system. The American joint committee on cancer (ajcc) is the commonly accepted method for staging liver cancer. According to this system, the stages can be evaluated on the basis of three main factors like:

  • Tumor (t): It stands for the size and number of the original tumor.
  • Lymph node (n): It describes if there is any cancer present in the nearby lymph nodes.
  • Metastasis (m): It indicates whether cancer has spread to other parts of the body like lungs, bones etc.

Besides these, the letter x and a number (0-4) are also assigned to these factors. For instance, t1, t2, t3 and so on; a higher number refers to increasing severity. And the letter x indicates that no information could be gathered. Liver-cancer-stages-medifee

Usually, the size and number of the tumor (s) and whether cancer has spread to blood vessels or lymph nodes are the important criteria for staging liver cancer. Here a brief description of the 4 stages of liver cancer is described:

Stage 1: In stage 1, there is only one tumor and there is no growth of cancerous cells in the blood vessels, any other organs of the body or lymph nodes.

Stage 2: In this stage, there is a single tumor and it has started growing into the blood vessels. Again there may also be more than one tumor which is less than 5cm and have not grown into the blood vessels. In either of the case, cancer may be described to be in stage 2.

Stage 3: In this stage, 3 things can happen. Stage 3a refers to more than a single tumor and at least one of them is larger than 5 cm. But the cancerous cells have not grown in the lymph nodes or any other part of the body. Stage 3b refers to cancer that has grown either into the portal vein or hepatic vein. Again, there is no growth of cancerous cells in any part of the body or lymph nodes. Stage 3c describes the stage where cancer has spread into organs of the body that are close to the liver, like pancreas but not to lymph nodes or any distant organs.

Stage 4: Stage 4a refers to the phase where there can be more than one tumor of any size in the liver. Also, the cancerous cells may have spread to other organs around the liver and also blood vessels. Cancer has spread to lymph nodes but not to other body parts. Stage 4b is the phase when cancer has spread to another part of the body. The tumor is any size and may be more than one. It may have spread to the blood vessels and other organs around the liver. There may or may not be any presence of cancerous cells into the lymph nodes.

Doctors may follow any of the two staging criteria mentioned above or even go for some other staging processes. 

1 person found this helpful

Bone Cancer - Know Its Symptoms!

Dr. Guru Prasad Mohanty 87% (102 ratings)
MD - Radiotherapy
Oncologist, Vadodara
Bone Cancer -  Know Its Symptoms!

We have more than 200 bones in our body and each of them is susceptible to bone cancer. However, long bones in the arms and legs are most susceptible to this condition. Bone cancer can be primary or secondary. Primary bone cancer involves uncontrolled and abnormal cell division within the bones while secondary bone cancer refers to cancer that originated somewhere else in the body and later spread to the bones. While children and adults are equally at risk for primary bone cancer, adults and elderly people are more susceptible to secondary bone cancer. If diagnosed early enough, bone cancer can be treated and even cured with surgery, chemotherapy or radiation.

Hence it is essential to recognize the signs and symptoms of bone cancer. Here’s what you should look out for.

  1. Pain in Bones: Pain is one the primary symptoms of bone cancer. As the tumour grows larger, this pain can become more intense. In its early stages, the pain may be experienced as a dull ache inside the bone or the affected part of the body. It may also increase or decrease according to your activity level or may be experienced only at night. However, not all bone pains signify ‘cancer’ as this is also a symptom associated with osteoporosis.
  2. SwellingIn some cases, the abnormal growth of bone cells can result in the formation of a lump of mass that may be felt through the skin. In other cases, the affected area may also show signs of swelling.
  3. Breaking of the Bone: Cancer can weaken the bones and make them more brittle. This may make the bones more susceptible to fractures. A bone breaking in an area that has been painful or sore for a long period of time may be a sign of cancer. This is known as a pathologic fracture.
  4. Reduced Flexibility: If the tumour is located near a joint, it may affect the range of movements possible and make simple actions uncomfortable. For example, a tumour around the knee may make walking and climbing stairs a painful exercise.

Other symptoms to look out for are sudden and drastic weight loss, tiredness, excessive sweating at night, fever and difficulty breathing in case cancer has spread to other organs. Since many of these symptoms are common to other medical disorders, you should conduct a doctor immediately if you notice any of them. A physical examination and a couple of tests along with a biopsy will be required to confirm a diagnosis of bone cancer.

Treatment Of Lipoma (Fatty Tumor)!

Dr. Hiral Kumar Rakholiya 90% (1673 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Ahmedabad

When anybody develops lipoma ----they usually consult a surgeon. Homeopathy is usually not thought as an option for lipomas as it is considered as a pure surgical disorder.

But do you know homeopathy can be effective for treatment of lipoma:

  • Homeopathic remedies can prevent formation of new lipoma formation.

  • Growth of existing lipomas can be arrested

  • The size of the existing lipomas can also be reduced (the lipoma is softened and flattened, so that it becomes less noticeable).

  • In relieving the pain and discomfort associated with a lipoma

The results with homeopathic treatment are better if treatment is started earlier - just after the diagnosis. The newly diagnosed lipoma treated with homeopathy in initial stages, can disappear completely. Treatment with homeopathic remedies is slow and continuous process.

According to homeopathy any illness is caused due to disharmony within your body. And the symptoms are just an expression of this disturbance. Hence the imbalance needs to be treated rather than the symptoms of the disease. Hence homeopathy, considers removal of lipoma by surgery as removal of the expression of the disease and not treatment of the cause or disease itself.  Hence recurrence of the lipoma can occur.

Homeopathy treatment aims to cure the cause of lipoma in you and not just treat the existing lipomas by improving the immune system. About 22 homoeopathic remedies are effective for treatment of lipomas. No one single homeopathic remedy is effective for everyone with lipoma. Correct choice of remedy is important to provide lasting relief. Understanding and correct judgment therefore becomes important on the part of the homeopathic doctor. The homeopathic doctor after taking a detailed history and examining you will prescribe any medication.

Some of the homeopathic remedies which are effective for treatment of lipoma include Calc ars, Calc carb, Calc flour, Lapis alb, Radium brom, Silicea, Spigelia and Thuja.

Homeopathic remedies are prescribed primarily with the intention to:

  • prevent formation of new lipoma.

  • Arrest the growth of existing lipomas

  • Reduce the size of the existing lipomas (the lipoma is softened and flattened, so that it becomes less noticeable).

  • Relieve the pain and discomfort associated with a lipoma

Surgery may be considered if homeopathic remedies are not effective in relieving the pain or discomfort associated with the lipoma or for cosmetic reasons. However, lipomas have a tendency to recur after excision.

Advantages of homeopathy for treatment of lipoma It is completely non-invasive

  • Homeopathic remedies are safe for all age groups

  • It is almost free of any side effects.

  • These remedies can be used even after surgical excision of a lesion

 

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