Common Specialities
{{speciality.keyWord}}
Common Issues
{{issue.keyWord}}
Common Treatments
{{treatment.keyWord}}

Mental Disorders Tips

Homeopathy And Mental Effect!

Homoeocare Clinics 88% (20 ratings)
Homeopath, Delhi
Homeopathy And Mental Effect!

In the 18th century, most of the diseases were treated by bleeding a patient along with administration of laxatives. These treatments were termed as heroic treatments. The heroism was only of the patients who suffered at the hands of such interventions. 

Homeopathy is an alternative medicine which was created by Samuel Hahnemann, in the 18th century, who was disgusted with the conventional treatment. He postulated homeopathy's "Law of Similars", which states that a substance which can treat the symptoms of a disease can also induce symptoms in a healthy person. This was based on his theory of eating cinchona bark a source of quinine which was used to treat malaria. After he consumed that, he experienced the symptoms of malaria.

Homeopathy is considered to be controversial because of Hahnemann's postulate of the Law of Potentization, which states that homeopathic medicines become strong with more dilution. 

If one must really believe in homeopathy then they need to know that it does not have a placebo effect. This has been proved by some strong examples. As per WHO, homeopathy is considered as the world's second largest point of care for healthcare. England's Royal family is also a strong supporter of homeopathy. Britain has placed homeopathy on their National Health system. In Britain, 45% doctors do not shy away from referring their patients to homeopathic medicine. There are many people across the world that trust only homeopathic medicines over allopathic medicines.

There is an increasing trend in the conventional doctors using homeopathic remedies. Also in European countries the doctors prefer to refer patients to physicians who practice homeopathy. Homeopathy is slowly taking over the world. A random research showed that 45% British conventional physician along with 39% of French family physicians and 20% of German physicians are using homeopathic remedies. Also, 10% of Italian physicians use these remedies.

Despite its increasing trend in Britain, it is not so well accepted in the United States. As per a report by Harvard, homeopathy only accounts for 0.5% of usage in the United States.
 

5 Silent Signs Of A Psychiatric Disorder - Beware!

Dr. Shweta Baliyan 86% (18 ratings)
MD -Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Meerut
5 Silent Signs Of A Psychiatric Disorder - Beware!

Psychiatric disorders like bipolar disorder or schizophrenia do not appear all of a sudden. There are small changes that happen to an individual over a long period of time until the disease fully develops. These signs and symptoms might be too subtle in the early stage for other people to notice until they become obvious. But an early detection of any irregularity proves to be more beneficial for the patient in the long run.

It is important to know the telltale symptoms of mental disorder to distinguish between what is regular and what is not.

1. Withdrawal

Everyone needs some quiet time to cool off and relax but if a person continuously withdraws him/herself from social occasions and avoids meeting or speaking to friends, it could be a sign that something is wrong. Losing interest in life, work and people are symptoms of depression and psychotic disorder.

2. Thinking problems

Having trouble concentrating, remembering, understanding and explaining oneself in a coherent manner are some common signs of mental disorder.

3. Anxiety

Excessive stress and anxious behavior for a prolonged period are not normal. Frequent heart palpitations, headache, shortness of breath, racing mind and restlessness are cries of help that need to be heard.

4. Emotional outbursts

Sudden dramatic outbursts for no apparent reason, frequent mood swings and feeling distressed are potent signs of mental illnesses. These kinds of behavior are seen as part of a person's nature and so they are often unnoticed.

5. Changes in appetite and sleeping patterns

Oversleeping may be a sign of depression and insomnia could be a sign of anxiety. Changes in appetite and not caring about oneself or the world are indicators of a mental problem.

1 person found this helpful

Anxiety Disorders In Youngsters - Ways To Deal With Them!

Dr. Shweta Baliyan 86% (18 ratings)
MD -Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Meerut
Anxiety Disorders In Youngsters - Ways To Deal With Them!

In today's fast paced world, the number of cases of teenagers with serious mental health problems like anxiety disorders have quadrupled. An anxiety disorder affects the thinking, feelings as well as the behaviour of a young person. It's important to seek professional help if one sees any of the warning signs of anxiety disorder in a youngster. Most of the normal anxiety issues are short lived and the feelings may last for few hours.

However, an anxiety problem becomes an anxiety disorder when anxious feelings are very intense, severe and last for weeks or months. They start interfering in a youngster's ability to socialise, learn and daily activities.

Let's talk specific-

Aviophobia: Fear of flying, also known as aviophobia, is an Anxiety Disorder classified as a situational Specific Phobia. The person with fear of flying, heights has a continuing and excessive fear triggered by flying or the thought of flying or heights. Typically, flying is avoided or endured with intense anxiety, which may take the form of a panic attack.

Claustrophobia: Claustrophobia is a fear of being in an enclosed space. Thus, being trapped in a lift scare to those who have such phobia. Also, travelling through a tunnel or metro makes people anxious if you have claustrophobia. Sufferers can often feel distressed just with the thought of being in a bus, train or plane. Usually any small, enclosed space would trigger a panic attack especially if you felt trapped.

The problem with this way of thinking is it spreads to other places. Subways, lifts, small rooms are the classic scenario but the person's intense fear is not restricted just to these places. The fear and the panic can be experienced in any place where the person perceives a confinement, closeness or trapped feeling.

If an anxiety disorder in a youngster is ignored and left untreated, it can have long-term consequences on mental health and hamper development. The first step is to talk with the youngster and others who might be able to help like a general practitioner, school counsellor, family members or other parents. Identification of a teenage anxiety problem is difficult as youngsters are good at hiding their feelings and thoughts. They are able to mask those feelings with aggressive behaviour or withdrawal.

Young people might be diagnosed with more than one type of anxiety disorder. Social phobia or social anxiety disorder occurs when one develops an intense fear of being judged or embarrassed in public. Excessive worry about everyday situations is called as generalised anxiety disorder. Panic disorder is repeated, unexpected panic attacks where one encounters panic in a situation where most people wouldn't be afraid. Excessive fear of being separated from home or a loved one is separation anxiety disorder.

There are many things that one can do to support the youngster mentally and reduce the risk. Strong family support and relationships have shown to help protect youngsters from anxiety disorders. Seeking professional help early for the youngster is the best thing one can do when symptoms are seen or the youngster is experiencing severe anxious feelings which are interfering with his normal activities.

One must not ignore or dismiss youngster's fears. Encourage him gently to do things that make him anxious but do not push him to situations that he does not want to face. Also, praise him for doing things he's anxious about. Refer the youngster as brave and not anxious or shy. Set up a role model for him by managing your own stress and anxiety. A professional help for an anxiety disorder is vital for youngster's healthy development. Psychological treatment concentrates on strategies to help youngsters cope up with anxiety. Anti-depressants drugs are used to reduce the symptoms of anxiety disorders. One should also stop or reduce consumption of caffeine products such as coffee, tea, cola, energy drinks and chocolate.

3787 people found this helpful

Dissociative Amnesia - All You Should Know About It!

Ms. Tanya Jawa 87% (10 ratings)
M.Phil Clinical Psychology, M.A.(H)Psychology, B.A.(H)Psychology
Psychologist, Ghaziabad
Dissociative Amnesia - All You Should Know About It!

In many cases, the body responds to a stressful or traumatic situation by disassociating with it. This can result in the development of a dissociative disorder. A dissociative disorder or dissociative amnesia is a mental illness that involves the breaking down of memory, consciousness, identity and perception. It can interfere with a person's general functioning, social life and relationships. People suffering from dissociative amnesia can have long gaps in their memory of the accident and the time before and after it. 

Women are at a higher risk of suffering from this condition as compared to men. It has also been found to have a genetic link as people suffering from this condition often have other members of their family who experience something similar. Manmade and natural disasters such as wars, floods, earthquakes etc that cause overwhelming stress is said to trigger this disease. 

The inability to recall past events is a primary symptom of this disease. Other symptoms include:

Treatment for this disease is a two step process. The first step involves relieving symptoms and controlling any behavioral changes. The second step aims at helping the person to recall and process their memories. Developing coping skills and rebuilding relationships is also focused on. Depending on the individual and the severity of symptoms showcased a doctor may choose to treat the patient using any of the following forms of treatment. 

  1. Psychotherapy: This form of treatment is designed to encourage communication and give the person insight into their problems. It uses a number of psychological techniques. 
  2. Cognitive therapy: Changing dysfunctional thinking patterns and their resulting emotions and behavior patterns is the focus of this form of treatment.  
  3. Medication: Dissociative amnesia patients who also suffer from depression or anxiety can benefit from medication such as anti depressants and anti anxiety drugs. However, this medication does not treat the dissociative amnesia itself. 
  4. Family therapy: In some cases, along with the patient it is also necessary to counsel the family. Family therapy involves educating the family members about the disorder and symptoms of recurrence. 

Clinical hypnosis: This type of treatment uses intense relaxation and focused attention techniques to access the unconscious part of the mind and allow people to explore their thoughts, emotions and repressed memories.

2484 people found this helpful

Signs You Are Suffering From Attachment Disorder!

Dr. Syed Saquib 92% (121 ratings)
M.B.B.S, D.P.M, M.A (Clinical Psychology)
Psychiatrist, Nagpur
Signs You Are Suffering From Attachment Disorder!

While most children share a strong bond with their parents, especially the mother, some infants are unable to establish lasting relationships with their parents or caregivers. This is known as attachment disorder. It is a rare yet serious condition as it affects the child’s relationships at a later stage and also triggers delinquent behavior. Children, who have been abandoned, orphaned or are victims of abuse are the most vulnerable to this condition.

What causes attachment disorder?
The exact cause for attachment disorder is not yet understood. However, researchers have put together a number of viable hypotheses for this. One such hypothesis suggests that when needs of a child are ignored or when he begins to feel unwanted, the child begins to expect hostility, negativity and rejection. This is a learnt response and the child begins to feel that his needs are unwanted. With time, these responses make the child untrusting and he withdraws into himself to avoid social contact. This affects the development in the brain and causes attachment problems that affect the child’s personality and future relationships.

Risks associated with it
Some children are at a higher risk of attachment disorder than others. This includes

  1. Children living in orphanages or other such institutes
  2. Children whose caregivers are changed frequently
  3. Children who have had prolonged hospitalization
  4. Neglected children
  5. Children who have suffered from physical, sexual or verbal abuse
  6. Children living in extreme poverty
  7. Children born to parents with mental conditions or anger management problems
  8. Children born to a mother suffering from post partum depression

Symptoms
There are two types of attachment disorders; inhibited and disinhibited.

  1. Inhibited attachment disorder: Children suffering from inhibited attachment disorder are likely to be:
    • Detached
    • Withdrawn
    • Unresponsive to comforting ie. they shun all types of relationships and generally do not get along with their peers or caregivers.
  2. Disinhibited attachment disorder: On the other hand, children suffering from disinhibited attachment are likely to:
    • Seek attention
    • Display inappropriate behavior
    • Frequently break social boundaries
    • Be inappropriately familial and attached to selective figures.

Additionally, children suffering from either type of attachment disorder are manipulative, destructive, moody and lack compassion and remorse.
Effects of attachment disorder
If not managed properly in its early stages, this disorder can continue into adulthood. This leads to:

  1. Relationship problems with peers, friends and family members
  2. Low self esteem
  3. Depression
  4. Anger management
  5. Academic problems
  6. Unemployment
  7. They are also at a high risk for drug abuse and alcohol addiction
2728 people found this helpful

Somatic Symptom Disorder - What Should You Know?

Mr. Soumen Mondal 92% (10 ratings)
Master in Clinical Psychology, Dip. in child Psychology, Master in Sociology
Psychologist, Kolkata
Somatic Symptom Disorder - What Should You Know?

Somatic symptom disorder is when you put so much focus on symptoms such as pain or fatigue that you have trouble functioning or experience severe emotional distress. You will be visiting the doctor a lot, completely unnecessarily and will waste a lot of money when you have no major health concerns. However, there are treatments, which can help you cope with this problem. Read further to find out what they are:

Symptoms 

  1. Worrying excessively about an illness, which has not yet occurred
  2. Frequent health care visits
  3. Fear of physical activity damaging your body
  4. Fearing that the evaluation of doctors is not adequate

There are many more symptoms, which may indicate that you are suffering from somatic symptom disorder. However, the most important way of telling whether someone is suffering from somatic symptom disorder or not is to see whether the patient is overly worried about a physical problem, which has not yet occurred. One of the first steps in making sure that this does not happen is finding out what causes the problem and preventing it. Here are the causes of somatic symptom disorder.

Causes: As with other psychological disorders, the exact cause of somatic symptom disorder is not yet known. However, there are a number of factors which may increase the risk of it, such as: 

  1. Genetic and biological factors: These as well as an increased sensitivity to pain are some of the factors, which you have no control over. 
  2. Environment you grew up in: Just like the genes you have, the environment you grew up in and your family influence will have a major impact on whether you develop the condition as well.
  3. Problems processing emotions: When people have problems processing emotions, their physical symptoms seem like a bigger problem than they actually are.

Treatment: Luckily, there are treatments for this disorder as well, which include.

  1. Psychotherapy: Psychotherapy is the most common treatment used to help people with somatic symptom disorder.
  2. Medications: Since depression and pain often occur when a person is suffering from somatic symptom disorder, antidepressants can be given as well.
1 person found this helpful

Mental Health - 5 Reasons You Should Never Ignore It!

Dr. Aarti Midha 90% (13 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Jaipur
Mental Health - 5 Reasons You Should Never Ignore It!

For a fully functional and productive life, a person requires a healthy body and a healthy mind. Mental health issues could range from depressionbipolar disorderanxiety disorder, dementia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophreniaautism and more.

Hence, it is important that a person pays attention to these mental health disorders to avoid further problems in their lives, as well as the lives of the people around them.

Here are a few reasons as to why a person should not avoid or ignore their mental health problems:

  1. Better Physical Health: There is a solid association between the brain and the body. In case you are in physical pain, your work and family life might be influenced or you will be unable to do the activities you might like. This can prompt anxiety, nervousness and depression. People with physical health issues are three times more prone to look for mental health care than those without physical conditions as physical health problems can prompt mental distress and mental health issues can impair your physical health.
  2. Enhanced Productivity and Financial Stability: Stressful situations may trigger reactions that can make a person unproductive and lead to financial problems as well. Some people end up abandoning their homes, going bankrupt or homeless after trying to manage some sort of mental illness.
  3. Less Strain on the Family: Mental sickness or disorders influence families as well. The children of individuals with mental health issues are at more serious danger for misuse, disregard and an extensive variety of emotional and behavioral issues. Since they cannot look up to their parents for help and they frequently isolate themselves from their friends and most of them do not get the required social backing. Much of the time, the impact extends into adulthood, driving children to look for psychological or mental treatment of their own.
  4. Evasion of Crime and Victimization: A few studies recommend that individuals with untreated mental health, particularly in combination with other risk factors, might be at risk of carrying out criminal activities, violence or most probably becoming victims themselves. The danger increases gradually when the individual uses medications or alcohol or has acute symptoms. It could also happen if they are not aware of their mental state or have poor adherence to medication. Usually, acts of violence happen against relatives or somebody in the individual's nearby group of friends or in close proximity to them.
  5. A Longer, Happier Life: Individuals with even a mild mental health issue may have a lower life expectancy and a short lifespan. Those with the largest amounts of depression or nervousness had the danger of death that increased an incredible ninety-four percent, mostly identified with heart diseases.
4107 people found this helpful

Body Dysmorphic Disorder - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment Of It!

Dr. Akshata Bhat 94% (2113 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Mumbai
Body Dysmorphic Disorder - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment Of It!

Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of psychiatric disorder. It is when you cannot think about one or more defects or flaws in your appearance. These flaws are usually very minor and sometimes even unnoticeable.  This is actually a much more serious disorder than many other people may think. This is because people with body dysmorphic disease may avoid many situations and also suffer from severe anxiety or shame. Here is everything you need to know about body dysmorphic disease.

Causes
Just like other psychiatric disorders, there is no known cause of body dysmorphic disease. However, there are a lot of factors, which increases your risk of developing it which include:

1. Brain disorders: Many people with abnormal brain chemistry disorders suffer from body dysmorphic disease. 
2. Genes: People whose blood relatives have this disease or have obsessive compulsive disorder are more likely to develop this disorder as well. 
3. Environment: Cultural and social influences are a major cause of body dysmorphic disorder as well.

Symptoms
There are, however a lot of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, most of which are psychological in nature. They include: 

1. Having a preoccupation with a flaw in the body, which is very minor or perhaps even unnoticeable.
2. Beliefs that people are mocking you in relation to your flaw.
3. Being a perfectionist

It is also worth noting that this obsession can affect any part of the body and can also include several parts of the body or different parts of the body at different times. Here are the possible treatments of body dysmorphic disorder.

Treatments
There are a variety of treatments, which a patient can opt for and a variety of methods of curing the problem. Here are the most common.
1.   Cognitive behavioral therapy: This is when a therapist tries to stop you from thinking about the flaw that you have been focusing on way too much. 
2.   SSRI: SSRI stands for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. They are given in cases, where body dysmorphic disorder is caused by problems related to the brain chemical serotonin. 
3.   Hospitalization: This is a severe measure, but may need to be taken if you are in danger of harming somebody or you cannot perform daily activities. 

4719 people found this helpful

Forensic Psychiatry - More About It!

Dr. Shreyansh Dwivedi 87% (10 ratings)
Diploma In Psychological Medicine, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Varanasi
Forensic Psychiatry - More About It!

Forensic psychiatry is generally identified as a specialized offshoot of psychiatry, dealing with the calculated treatment and evaluation of mentally disordered offenders in secure hospitals, prisons and in the community. This branch of psychiatry requires an in-depth understanding and thorough knowledge of the connection between legality and mental health. Patients are generally those with personality dysfunctions, mental illness, psychopathic disorders, organic brain damage, learning disability and other conditions such as histories of abuse and traumatic experiences as well as substance abuse and misuse.

Nature of the work

The most important prerequisite of this branch of psychiatry is a secure and safe environment where the subjects are liable to legal restrictions. Evaluation and assessment may vary from highly secured hospitals and prisons to low secure units and community based services. Forensic psychiatrists must have a thorough knowledge of civil, criminal and case law because of their frequent dealings with criminal justice agencies and the courts. An important component of forensic psychiatry is risk assessment and evaluation. Forensic psychiatrists must be fluent and adept at handling patients during emergencies or routine situations. Moreover, they should be calm, composed and professional in their dealings especially with patients who display instability or violent and aggressive behavior.

The probation service, the prison service and the courts generally rely on forensic psychiatrists for expert advice, precisely because of their familiarity with preparing reports for mental health review tribunals and criminal justice agencies.

Imperatives 

-       Quintessentially, the obligatory role of a forensic psychiatrist requires:
-       Ability to treat others with understanding and respect
-       Ability to work flexibly
-       Emotional resilience along with the ability to empathize with patients
-       Anticipation and an inherent initiative to work in challenging situations
-       Good communication skills
-       A scientific and analytic approach and assessment
-       Good leadership qualities

2470 people found this helpful

दिमाग की कमजोरी - Dimag Ki Kamzori!

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh 92% (192 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
दिमाग की कमजोरी - Dimag Ki Kamzori!

कई कारणों से दिन-प्रतिदिन हमारी जीवनशैली में लगातार बदलाव का असर हमारे दिमाग पर भी पड़ा है. पिछले कुछ वर्षों में कई लोगों में दिमागी कमजोरी की शिकायतें लगातार बढ़ रही हैं. हमारी जीवन शैली में में आने वाले बदलावों के कारण हमारे सोचने और काम करने की प्रक्रिया में भी परिवर्तन आया है. आजकल हम देखते हैं कि आधुनिक समाज में हर व्यक्ति दूसरे व्यक्ति से किसी भी कीमत पर आगे निकलना चाहता है. आप अपने चारों तरफ देखेंगे तो पता चलेगा कि हर तरफ आगे बढ़ने की होड़ लगी है. इन्हीं सब कारणों से हमारे मस्तिष्क पर अतिरिक्त भार पड़ता है. अब हालत ये है कि कम उम्र के लोग भी तनाव से ग्रसित हैं. कई बार आदमी का दिमाग कमजोर पड़ने लगता है. इसकी वजह से समस्या कई बार इतनी गंभीर हो जाती है कि व्यक्ति के मस्तिष्क में दौरे पड़ने लगते हैं. इस वजह से व्यक्ति अपने हर एक काम के लिए दूसरों पर निर्भर हो जाता है. उसे बोलने, पढ़ने, लिखने, समझने में दिक्कत आती है. साथ ही व्यक्ति की याद्दाश्त भी कमजोर होने लगती है. आइए इस लेख के माध्यम से दिमागी कमजोरी को विस्तारपूर्वक समझें.

1. क्या है दिमागी कमजोरी

दिमाग को सही ढंग से काम करने के लिए पर्याप्त ऑक्सीजन चाहिए होता है. यदि दिमाग की कोशिकाओं तक ऑक्सीजन या अन्य पोषक तत्वों की प्रयाप्त मात्रा नहीं पहुंचती है तो मस्तिष्क की कार्यक्षमता प्रभावित होती है. जो दिमागी कमजोरी के रूप में सामने आता है. यदि दिमाग के किसी प्रमुख हिस्से में रक्त पहुंचाने वाली कोशिका में थक्का जम जाए तो, इस तरह की समस्या होती है. जब भी दिमाग का दौरा पड़ता है, तो एक मिनट के भीतर ही सभी प्रभावित कोशिकाएं दम तोड़ने लगती हैं. ऐसी स्थिति मे मरीज अपनी देखभाल तक करने लायक नहीं रहता. उसमें हिलने की भी शक्ति नहीं रहती.

2. दिमागी कमजोरी के लक्षण
हाथों-पैरों या चेहरे में अचानक झुनझुनाहट महसूस होना या कमजोरी आना. शरीर के एक तरफा हिस्से में लकवा भी आ सकता है. समझने या बोलने में एकाएक रुकावट आना. एक या फिर दोनों आंखों से दिखने में दिक्कत आना. चक्कर आना, चलने में परेशानी होना. शरीर को संतुलित रखने में परेशानी आना. गंभीर मरीज का बेहोशी में जाना. बिना किसी वजह के सिर में तेज दर्द उठना. किसी व्यक्ति में अगर ऐसा कोई लक्षण दिखे तो उसे तुरंत ही किसी न्यूरोलॉजिस्ट से सलाह लेनी चाहिए. ऐसे परिस्थिति में समय की बहुत कीमत होती है. जरा सी भी लापरवाही आपको अपनी जान देकर चुकानी पड़ सकती है.

3. दिमागी कमजोरी के कारण
यह बीमारी किसी भी व्यक्ति को हो सकती है. लेकिन यह ऐसे लोगों में अधिक होती है, जिन्हें धूम्रपान या तंबाकू की आदत होती है और जिन लोग को मधुमेह, उच्च रक्तचाप, डायबिटीज आदि बिमारी होती है. इसके अलावा जो लोग व्यायाम नहीं करते, ज्यादा घी- तेल खाने वालों में, मोटे लोगो में, तली हुई व चर्बीयुक्त पदार्थ अधिक खाने वालों और ज्यादा शराब पीने वाले लोगों में भी यह परेशानी होती है. आनुवंशिकता और तनाव भी इस बिमारी के काफी बड़े कारण है.

4. दिमागी कमजोरी से बचाव
इस बिमारी को दूर करने के लिए मांसपेशियों में होने वाले खिंचाव को कम करके गतिहीनता को दूर किया जाता है. रोज़ाना एक्सरसाइज़ से भी फायदा पहुंचता है. लेकिन यह उपाय मरीज को पूरी तरह ठीक नहीं कर पाते. इसलिए डाक्टर रोगी की हालत व गतिहीनता को देखकर उपचार करते हैं. खानपान की आदतों में भी कुछ बदलाव करके इस बीमारी के जोखिम को घटाया जा सकता है. खाने में फलों और हरी सब्जियां को शामिल करें. अधिक वसा, चिकनाई वाले खाद्य पदार्थो व जंक फूड्स से दूर रहें. चीनी व नमक का कम उपयोग भी सहायता करता है. वजन कंट्रोल करने के लिए सुबह टहलने की आदत डालें.

5 people found this helpful
Icon

Book appointment with top doctors for Mental Disorders treatment

View fees, clinic timings and reviews