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Body Dysmorphic Disorder - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment Of It!

Dr. Akshata Bhat 97% (2108 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Mumbai
Body Dysmorphic Disorder - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment Of It!

Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of psychiatric disorder. It is when you cannot think about one or more defects or flaws in your appearance. These flaws are usually very minor and sometimes even unnoticeable.  This is actually a much more serious disorder than many other people may think. This is because people with body dysmorphic disease may avoid many situations and also suffer from severe anxiety or shame. Here is everything you need to know about body dysmorphic disease.

Just like other psychiatric disorders, there is no known cause of body dysmorphic disease. However, there are a lot of factors, which increases your risk of developing it which include:

1. Brain disorders: Many people with abnormal brain chemistry disorders suffer from body dysmorphic disease. 
2. Genes: People whose blood relatives have this disease or have obsessive compulsive disorder are more likely to develop this disorder as well. 
3. Environment: Cultural and social influences are a major cause of body dysmorphic disorder as well.

There are, however a lot of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, most of which are psychological in nature. They include: 

1. Having a preoccupation with a flaw in the body, which is very minor or perhaps even unnoticeable.
2. Beliefs that people are mocking you in relation to your flaw.
3. Being a perfectionist

It is also worth noting that this obsession can affect any part of the body and can also include several parts of the body or different parts of the body at different times. Here are the possible treatments of body dysmorphic disorder.

There are a variety of treatments, which a patient can opt for and a variety of methods of curing the problem. Here are the most common.
1.   Cognitive behavioral therapy: This is when a therapist tries to stop you from thinking about the flaw that you have been focusing on way too much. 
2.   SSRI: SSRI stands for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. They are given in cases, where body dysmorphic disorder is caused by problems related to the brain chemical serotonin. 
3.   Hospitalization: This is a severe measure, but may need to be taken if you are in danger of harming somebody or you cannot perform daily activities. 

952 people found this helpful

Forensic Psychiatry - More About It!

Dr. Shreyansh Dwivedi 87% (10 ratings)
Diploma In Psychological Medicine, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Varanasi
Forensic Psychiatry - More About It!

Forensic psychiatry is generally identified as a specialized offshoot of psychiatry, dealing with the calculated treatment and evaluation of mentally disordered offenders in secure hospitals, prisons and in the community. This branch of psychiatry requires an in-depth understanding and thorough knowledge of the connection between legality and mental health. Patients are generally those with personality dysfunctions, mental illness, psychopathic disorders, organic brain damage, learning disability and other conditions such as histories of abuse and traumatic experiences as well as substance abuse and misuse.

Nature of the work

The most important prerequisite of this branch of psychiatry is a secure and safe environment where the subjects are liable to legal restrictions. Evaluation and assessment may vary from highly secured hospitals and prisons to low secure units and community based services. Forensic psychiatrists must have a thorough knowledge of civil, criminal and case law because of their frequent dealings with criminal justice agencies and the courts. An important component of forensic psychiatry is risk assessment and evaluation. Forensic psychiatrists must be fluent and adept at handling patients during emergencies or routine situations. Moreover, they should be calm, composed and professional in their dealings especially with patients who display instability or violent and aggressive behavior.

The probation service, the prison service and the courts generally rely on forensic psychiatrists for expert advice, precisely because of their familiarity with preparing reports for mental health review tribunals and criminal justice agencies.


-       Quintessentially, the obligatory role of a forensic psychiatrist requires:
-       Ability to treat others with understanding and respect
-       Ability to work flexibly
-       Emotional resilience along with the ability to empathize with patients
-       Anticipation and an inherent initiative to work in challenging situations
-       Good communication skills
-       A scientific and analytic approach and assessment
-       Good leadership qualities

2469 people found this helpful

दिमाग की कमजोरी - Dimag Ki Kamzori!

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh 91% (192 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
दिमाग की कमजोरी - Dimag Ki Kamzori!

कई कारणों से दिन-प्रतिदिन हमारी जीवनशैली में लगातार बदलाव का असर हमारे दिमाग पर भी पड़ा है. पिछले कुछ वर्षों में कई लोगों में दिमागी कमजोरी की शिकायतें लगातार बढ़ रही हैं. हमारी जीवन शैली में में आने वाले बदलावों के कारण हमारे सोचने और काम करने की प्रक्रिया में भी परिवर्तन आया है. आजकल हम देखते हैं कि आधुनिक समाज में हर व्यक्ति दूसरे व्यक्ति से किसी भी कीमत पर आगे निकलना चाहता है. आप अपने चारों तरफ देखेंगे तो पता चलेगा कि हर तरफ आगे बढ़ने की होड़ लगी है. इन्हीं सब कारणों से हमारे मस्तिष्क पर अतिरिक्त भार पड़ता है. अब हालत ये है कि कम उम्र के लोग भी तनाव से ग्रसित हैं. कई बार आदमी का दिमाग कमजोर पड़ने लगता है. इसकी वजह से समस्या कई बार इतनी गंभीर हो जाती है कि व्यक्ति के मस्तिष्क में दौरे पड़ने लगते हैं. इस वजह से व्यक्ति अपने हर एक काम के लिए दूसरों पर निर्भर हो जाता है. उसे बोलने, पढ़ने, लिखने, समझने में दिक्कत आती है. साथ ही व्यक्ति की याद्दाश्त भी कमजोर होने लगती है. आइए इस लेख के माध्यम से दिमागी कमजोरी को विस्तारपूर्वक समझें.

1. क्या है दिमागी कमजोरी

दिमाग को सही ढंग से काम करने के लिए पर्याप्त ऑक्सीजन चाहिए होता है. यदि दिमाग की कोशिकाओं तक ऑक्सीजन या अन्य पोषक तत्वों की प्रयाप्त मात्रा नहीं पहुंचती है तो मस्तिष्क की कार्यक्षमता प्रभावित होती है. जो दिमागी कमजोरी के रूप में सामने आता है. यदि दिमाग के किसी प्रमुख हिस्से में रक्त पहुंचाने वाली कोशिका में थक्का जम जाए तो, इस तरह की समस्या होती है. जब भी दिमाग का दौरा पड़ता है, तो एक मिनट के भीतर ही सभी प्रभावित कोशिकाएं दम तोड़ने लगती हैं. ऐसी स्थिति मे मरीज अपनी देखभाल तक करने लायक नहीं रहता. उसमें हिलने की भी शक्ति नहीं रहती.

2. दिमागी कमजोरी के लक्षण
हाथों-पैरों या चेहरे में अचानक झुनझुनाहट महसूस होना या कमजोरी आना. शरीर के एक तरफा हिस्से में लकवा भी आ सकता है. समझने या बोलने में एकाएक रुकावट आना. एक या फिर दोनों आंखों से दिखने में दिक्कत आना. चक्कर आना, चलने में परेशानी होना. शरीर को संतुलित रखने में परेशानी आना. गंभीर मरीज का बेहोशी में जाना. बिना किसी वजह के सिर में तेज दर्द उठना. किसी व्यक्ति में अगर ऐसा कोई लक्षण दिखे तो उसे तुरंत ही किसी न्यूरोलॉजिस्ट से सलाह लेनी चाहिए. ऐसे परिस्थिति में समय की बहुत कीमत होती है. जरा सी भी लापरवाही आपको अपनी जान देकर चुकानी पड़ सकती है.

3. दिमागी कमजोरी के कारण
यह बीमारी किसी भी व्यक्ति को हो सकती है. लेकिन यह ऐसे लोगों में अधिक होती है, जिन्हें धूम्रपान या तंबाकू की आदत होती है और जिन लोग को मधुमेह, उच्च रक्तचाप, डायबिटीज आदि बिमारी होती है. इसके अलावा जो लोग व्यायाम नहीं करते, ज्यादा घी- तेल खाने वालों में, मोटे लोगो में, तली हुई व चर्बीयुक्त पदार्थ अधिक खाने वालों और ज्यादा शराब पीने वाले लोगों में भी यह परेशानी होती है. आनुवंशिकता और तनाव भी इस बिमारी के काफी बड़े कारण है.

4. दिमागी कमजोरी से बचाव
इस बिमारी को दूर करने के लिए मांसपेशियों में होने वाले खिंचाव को कम करके गतिहीनता को दूर किया जाता है. रोज़ाना एक्सरसाइज़ से भी फायदा पहुंचता है. लेकिन यह उपाय मरीज को पूरी तरह ठीक नहीं कर पाते. इसलिए डाक्टर रोगी की हालत व गतिहीनता को देखकर उपचार करते हैं. खानपान की आदतों में भी कुछ बदलाव करके इस बीमारी के जोखिम को घटाया जा सकता है. खाने में फलों और हरी सब्जियां को शामिल करें. अधिक वसा, चिकनाई वाले खाद्य पदार्थो व जंक फूड्स से दूर रहें. चीनी व नमक का कम उपयोग भी सहायता करता है. वजन कंट्रोल करने के लिए सुबह टहलने की आदत डालें.

4 people found this helpful

Mental Health - Ways To Maintain It!

Dr. Archana Nanduri 88% (10 ratings)
M.Sc - Psychology
Psychologist, Hyderabad
Mental Health - Ways To Maintain It!

Mental Health is mental/emotional wellbeing. Being mentally healthy means being peaceful from within, being able to deal with life's challenges and being able to manage emotions and relationships, etc.

There is a lot of misunderstanding about "mental health" and 60% of mentally sick or disturbed people are not taken to doctors or other mental health professionals. Instead, they are taken to astrologers, or tantriks. Some are even punished for being crazy.

In today's highly stressful world people do not have time to think and plan their lives. Because of modern lifestyles and nuclear families people do not have outlets to share their feelings and express their intense emotions.

Sometimes emotional wounds like deep hurts, insults, neglect, shaming, physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood, may cause Personality or Behavioural disorders.

A person who loses temper for any small thing, or who is suspicious all the time or the one who breaks down or cries at slightest provocation, or who is jealous and possessive to the extent of being obsessed, or who is anxious all the time etc. needs to understand his/her feelings and find out the root cause of such feelings and behaviours.

Here are a few tips to develop/improve your mental health:

  1. Learn to express your feelings assertively
  2. Become aware of your own feelings and emotions
  3. Understand how to manage your emotions on day to day basis (anger, fear, jealousy etc)
  4. Review and nurture your relationships and infuse new life into them
  5. Periodically get rid of past baggage, deep hurts, spoilt relationships, unresolved issues, by resolving them in your mind
  6. Have a daily routine where your own needs and others' needs are balanced
  7. Reward yourself
  8. Develop positive attitude: focus on good events in life and positive affirmations.
  9. Introspect how often you succumb to negative emotions.
  10. Keep company of positive people
  11. Devise own methods for de-stressing
  12. Keep away from any kind of substance abuse.
  13. Have some routine exercise regime.
  14. Do not hesitate to seek professional help from - Counsellor/Psychiatrist/Psychologist

Pay attention to your Mental Health and enjoy life!

1 person found this helpful

Problems Related To Mental Health - How To Take Care Of Some One?

Dr. S. Gopinath 93% (16 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Chennai
Problems Related To Mental Health - How To Take Care Of Some One?

Mental illness affects the patient as well as the immediate family. Once the affected member has been diagnosed with a mental illness, his family members find it difficult to accept this situation. They are in a state of denial. This state later gives way to feelings of frustration, resentment, anger and helplessness.

To overcome these feelings, it is important for the family to move beyond the mental illness of its relative and not away from him. The family members must accept the reality that someone among them is ill and it is their duty to help him recover from his mental illness.

Effect of social stigma

  1. Unfortunately, mental illness draws social stigma. Many relatives of mentally ill people who are afflicted do not discuss their predicament with others. The reason is not too hard to discover- large sections of society think that mental illness is something very horrible. Very few people know that psychiatric disorders are treatable and they are as good or bad a disease as others.
  2. Strangely, while the society comes out in support of people suffering from cancer and other life-threatening diseases, in cases of mental illness it adopts a position of aloofness. The underlying thought in the minds of people is that there must be something wrong in the family of the mental illness patient.
  3. The net result is that the family withdraws from the society and gets into a shell. Guests are not invited over on social occasions and it often happens that the family gets into depression.
  4. Coping with frustration and helplessness
  5. Psychiatrists also point out to another range of emotions affecting the family members of a mentally ill person- feelings of frustration, helplessness and anger.
  6. Imagine a situation where a schizophrenic child is unable to perform even normal tasks, such as eating food. The parent will try to convince the child to have her food but the mentally ill child cannot perform even that basic function. Unless the parent understands that this is not a normal child, she will continue to try to feed it. The child will, on the other hand, resist. This will continue till the time when the parent gets frustrated and angry at her child’s behaviour. The parent will wonder why her child is not having the food by herself.
  7. This situation will not arise if the parent and other family members accept that the child is ill and needs medical intervention.
  8. This feeling can later lead to a sense of resentment and anger. Family ties can be ruptured because the members would begin to think that their social activities depend upon the medical condition of their sick family member who needs constant attention.

How To Deal With Emotional Problems?

Dr. Juhi Parashar 94% (5949 ratings)
Masters In Clinical Psychology
Psychologist, Lucknow
How To Deal With Emotional Problems?

Emotional problems make direct tasks and simple errands harder. High feeling, bubbling disappointment and hurt emotions motivate the person. Certain people become very protective. Protectiveness causes us to pry on others. Others might want to disconnect completely and resolve issues in a different manner. A great many people manage their emotional issues by opposing, quelling and overlooking them. At this point, your brain feels uneasy and you end up making rash decisions.

However, there are ways to deal with emotional problems. These are as follows:

  1. Be aware: Try to stay active and be aware of solid feelings and sentiments. Work on improving them as they show up and quickly misidentify with them. Advise yourself that you are not your feelings and that they are only temporary.
  2. Use labeling: Utilize naming. Research has demonstrated that naming and surveying a feeling changes the feeling into a subject of examination and consequently diminishes its power on you. So in case you are feeling furious, essentially let yourself know that this is you being angry and you will in all probability see that the force of the inclination instantly drops.
  3. Get curious: Rather than opposing the emotions and sentiments, get inquisitive about them. Focus on how they affect you. Where in the body do they show? How do the diverse muscles in your body feel? How is your breath? Hold your emotions and sentiments in present mindfulness and simply let them do their thing without judging or sticking to them. Utilise the possibility of your brain as the sky and your emotions and sentiments as clouds that are passing by.
  4. Face-to-face interaction: Up close and personal social interaction with somebody who thinks about you is the best approach to quiet your nervous system and calm anxiety. It additionally relieves stress-busting hormones, so you will feel better regardless of the possibility that you cannot change the upsetting circumstance itself. The key is to collaborate with somebody who is a decent audience or someone you can consistently talk with face to face, or who will hear you out without a prior motivation for how you need to think or feel.
  5. Exercise and meditation: The brain and the body are inherently connected. When you improve your physical well-being, you will consequently encounter more prominent mental and enthusiastic betterment. Physical movement likewise discharges endorphins, intense chemicals that lift your state of mind and make you happy. Normal exercise or action can majorly affect mental and enthusiastic medical issues, mitigate stress, enhance memory, and help you to rest better.

In case that you continue facing this frequently, you will soon find that your relationship with your mind will begin to change. You will build up an intense metacognition (the capacity to face your reasoning) which helps you to handle your emotions and feelings in a great manner.

3107 people found this helpful

How Social Stigma Affects The Recovery Of Mental Illness Patients?

Dr. Jaydeepsinh Gohil 92% (14 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Vadodara
How Social Stigma Affects The Recovery Of Mental Illness Patients?

Mental health disorders have always been misunderstood and misrepresented in India. It is a general misconception that mental illness is not something that needs treatment. Such misconceptions have given rise to social stigma for the mentally ill, which further obstructs the smooth recovery of patients.

A recent survey revealed that around 1.35 Lakh people in India commit suicide every year. The stigma involved with mental illnesses may be stopping some of them from seeking the help they need.

Adverse effects of social stigma surrounding mental illnesses

  1. People are reluctant to seek help and treatment for their mental ailments.
  2. Lack of support from friends, family and others.
  3. Fewer professional opportunities if word of the mental illness gets out.
  4. Health insurance policies with almost no coverage for mental ailments.
  5. Bullying or being outcast by society
  6. Patients start feeling hopeless as if they have no way to come out from their miserable situation.

A few steps in the right direction is all it takes to create awareness regarding mental illnesses and health. Here is a look at some ways in which you can create awareness about this important subject.

Steps to create awareness regarding mental illnesses

  1. Communication is one of the best ways to deal with stigma of any kind. Listen to what people with mental illnesses have to say about their struggles. You will come to appreciate that these people are ordinary souls suffering from a condition.
  2. Educate people around you on how to openly speak about mental illnesses. Ensure that you never associate the words ‘mad’, ‘crazy’ and ‘insane’ with people who suffer from such mental conditions.
  3. Read books on psychiatry and psychology to get a better understanding of the conditions afflicting mentally unwell people. In such a way, you would be prepared to deal with them and help them out.

Educating children is also important in order to create awareness regarding mental illnesses. Not only will this reduce the stigma, but will also help them seek appropriate treatment, if they are affected by mental ailments in the future.

Change The Habit Of Your Mind!

Dr. Stuti Pardhe 89% (162 ratings)
MSW, Certificate in Clinical Psychopharmacology , Certificate in Treatment Planning and Progress Notation, Certificate in Neuro-Linguistic Programming, Doctor of Naturopathy
Psychologist, Jaipur

Unfortunately, nowadays, since the time 'Mental Disorders' or Awareness is at its peak, we tend to use 'Mental disorders' as an excuse. However, mental disorders are nothing but the 'Habit and pattern of mind' with time it keeps getting worse. So the objective is to work on 'changing the habit of mind' rather than treating a disorder. We are what we believe, and so when you are labeled with a 'disorder' you start living and believing that disorder, and this only makes matter worse. 

Rather your first step is to take a course of action:

1. Change your attitude, believe that your mind has formed a negative pattern in the mind which needs to be reversed by thinking and doing things contrary to the negative pattern of thoughts. 

2. In order to stay positive you need to fight against the odds of your mind to use your time doing constructive of positive things.

3. Distract your negative energy by starting a new Hobby like: Singing, dancing, exercise, painting, craft, crochet, blogging, making valuable content on youtube etc. 


2 people found this helpful

Reducing Stigma Towards Mental Health Disorders!

Dr. D. S. Poonia 93% (152 ratings)
MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Jaipur
Reducing Stigma Towards Mental Health Disorders!

People with mental health issues claim that the social stigma associated with mental health disorders and the discrimination that they face every day make their difficulties even worse and make it tougher to recover.

Mental disorder is common. These days, it impacts millions of people across the globe, and their families, friends, colleagues, and society. One in 10 Indians lives with severe mental disorders including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or depression. When we concentrate on the mental health of a person, we look at the means in which it affects their moods, emotions, thoughts, the capability of relating to others, effectiveness at school and work, and their social choices. In a nutshell, when their mental health is negotiated, it affects all aspects of their lives and the lives of their dear ones.

The World Health Organization or WHO has crystallized a few troubling facts about mental illness and they draw our attention:

  • Suicide is the leading reason for death in 15-29 years old.
  • Eight lac  people every year commit suicide.
  • For every accomplished suicide, there are at least 20 others which are attempted.
  • The leading reason for disability is the combination of mental disorders and substance abuse.
  • Mental illness doubles after a trauma like being victimized by a natural disaster or participating in or being a victim of a war.
  • There is a higher connection between mental illness and an augmented risk of getting ill from many other diseases including diabetes, self-harm, unintentional injury, and HIV.

Regardless of the fact that we are capable of talking openly about mental illness, unfortunately, people continue to escape seeking treatment because of discrimination and stigma. Our culture still spreads the belief that those who suffer from mental disorders are extremely violent, unintelligent, or unable to make decisions which impact their lives profoundly.

Whether we approach all these complications as the loved ones of family members, friends who struggle or somebody who has been spotted with a mental illness, we all have to speak up to challenge the prejudices and stigma related to mental disorders. We have an ethical and social duty to advocate for their right to get suitable treatment and to be provided with equal rights in the society. Living with a mental disorder can be really challenging, and we have to acknowledge the resiliency and courage that exists in individuals who are working harder to lead meaningful and productive lives.

Let’s challenge ourselves to make a change and transform the world’s observation of mental disorder.

1 person found this helpful

मानसिक रोग के लक्षण - Symptoms Of Mental Illness!

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh 91% (192 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
मानसिक रोग के लक्षण - Symptoms Of Mental Illness!

मानसिक रोग भी आज के भागदौड़ से भरे जीवन की एक कड़वी सच्चाई है. इस रोग की सबसे हैरान करने वाली बात है इससे इनकार करना या इसे लेकर जागरूकता की घोर कमी. दरअसल हमारे यहाँ ऐसी मानसिकता निर्मित हो गई है कि मानसिक बिमारी को हम शर्मिंदगी से जोड़ कर देखते हैं. जबकि इस चक्कर में न जाने कितना नुकसान हो जाता है. कई लोग तो इसके लक्षणों को भी नहीं जानते हैं जिससे कि इसकी पहचान करके इसका इलाज करा सकें. आज का हमारा लेख मानसिक रोग के प्रकारों और उसके लक्षणों को ही चिन्हित करेगा.

1. मनोभ्रंश रोग

लक्षणों में भूलना, सीमित सामाजिक मेलमिलाप और सोचने की कमज़ोर क्षमता शामिल हैं, जिससे रोजमर्रा के कामकाज प्रभावित होते हैं. याददाश्त जाना, समय के साथ दिमाग का कम काम करना, ठीक से बोलने और समझने में परेशानी, बातें बनाना, भटकाव, शाम के समय भ्रम की स्थिति, सामान्य चीज़ें न पहचान पाना, या सुध-बुध खोना.

2. अवसाद

उदासी या दिलचस्पी खोने की सतत भावना जैसी गंभीर अवसाद की विशेषताएं कई व्यावहारिक और शारीरिक लक्षणों की ओर ले जा सकती हैं. इनमें नींद, भूख, ऊर्जा स्तर, एकाग्रता, दैनिक व्यवहार, या आत्मसम्मान में परिवर्तन शामिल हो सकते हैं. अवसाद आत्महत्या के विचार के साथ भी जुड़ा हो सकता है.

3. ध्यानाभाव एवं अतिसक्रियता विकार के लक्षण

लक्षणों में किसी बात में कम ध्यान दे पाना और अति-सक्रियता शामिल हैं. व्यवहार संबंधी: अतिसक्रियता, अत्यधिक संवेदनशीलता, आक्रामकता, खुद पर नियंत्रण में कमी, चिड़चिड़ापन, बिना सोचे-समझे जल्दबाज़ी में काम करना, बेचैनी से शरीर हिलाना-डुलाना, या शब्दों या क्रियाओं को लगातार दोहराना.

4. जुनूनी बाध्यकारी विकार के लक्षण

ओसीडी अक्‍सर कीटाणुओं के डर या चीज़ों को रखने के एक ख़ास तरीके जैसे विषयों पर केंद्रित होता है. लक्षण आमतौर पर धीरे-धीरे शुरू होते हैं और जीवन भर बदलते रहते हैं. लगातार कुछ करने से खुद को रोक न पाना, किसी काम को करने के अपने तरीके से हटकर काम ना कर पाना, खुद के शब्दों को बेमतलब दोहराना, गतिविधियों को दोहराना, चीज़ें जमा करने से खुद को रोक न पाना, बिना सोचे-समझे जल्दबाज़ी में काम करना, व्याकुलता, शब्दों या क्रियाओं को लगातार दोहराना, सामाजिक अलगाव, या ज़रूरत से ज़्यादा सतर्कता बरतना.

5. द्विध्रुवी विकार

उन्मादी होने पर रोगी में अत्यधिक ऊर्जा, नींद की ज़रूरत महसूस न होने, वास्तविकता से नाता न रखने जैसे लक्षण होते हैं. अवसाद से घिरने पर रोगी में ऊर्जा की कमी, खुद को प्रेरित न कर पाना और दैनिक गतिविधियों में रुचि न होने जैसे लक्षण मिल सकते हैं. मिज़ाज बदलते रहने की ये प्रक्रिया एक बार में कई दिनों से लेकर महीनों तक चलती है और इसमें आत्महत्या करने जैसे विचार भी आ सकते हैं.

6. स्वलीनता के लक्षण

अलग-अलग लोगों में लक्षणों की सीमा और गंभीरता बहुत ज़्यादा अलग हो सकती हैं. आम लक्षणों में शामिल हैं बातचीत करने में कठिनाई, सामाजिक रूप से जुड़ने में कठिनाई, जुनूनी दिलचस्पियां और बार-बार दोहराने का व्यवहार. अनुपयुक्त सामाजिक संपर्क, आंखों से आंखें कम मिलाना, खुद को नुकसान पहुंचाना, गतिविधियों को दोहराना, बिना सोचे-समझे जल्दबाज़ी में काम करना, लगातार कुछ करने से खुद को रोक न पाना, या शब्दों या क्रियाओं को लगातार दोहराना.

7. मनोविदलाता

स्किज़ोफ्रेनिया के लक्षणों में सच्चाई से परे दिखाई देने वाले विचार या अनुभव होना, अव्यवस्थित बोलना या व्यवहार करना, और दैनिक गतिविधियों में कम भाग लेना शामिल हैं. ध्यान केंद्रित करने और बातें याद रखने में कठिनाई भी मौजूद हो सकती है. बेतरतीब व्यवहार, सामाजिक अलगाव, अत्यधिक संवेदनशीलता, आक्रामकता, खुद को नुकसान पहुंचाना, खुद पर नियंत्रण में कमी, गतिविधियों को दोहराना, दुश्मनी, लगातार कुछ करने से खुद को रोक न पाना, या व्याकुलता.

8. दुश्चिंता

लक्षणों में मामूली घटना के लिए भी बहुत ज़्यादा तनाव होना, चिंता करना छोड़ न पाना और बेचैनी शामिल हैं. थकान, पसीना आना, या बेचैनी. चिड़चिड़ापन या ज़रूरत से ज़्यादा सतर्कता बरतना. अनचाहे खयाल या विचारों का बहुत जल्दी-जल्दी आना या बदलना. चिंता सताना, अत्यधिक चिंता, कमजोर एकाग्रता, धकधकी, निकट भविष्य में विनाश की आशंका, नींद न आना, भय, मतली, या विकंप.

9. अभिघातज के बाद का तनाव विकार के लक्षण

लक्षणों में बुरे सपने या पुरानी यादों की अनुभूति, आघात में वापस ले जाने वाली स्थितियों से दूर रहने की कोशिश, उत्तेजित होने पर ज़रुरत से ज़्यादा प्रतिक्रिया, चिंता या फ़िर खराब मूड शामिल हो सकते हैं. चिड़चिड़ापन, व्याकुलता, खुद का विनाश करने वाला व्यवहार, दुश्मनी, सामाजिक अलगाव, या ज़रूरत से ज़्यादा सतर्कता बरतना. पहले हुई किसी घटना को अचानक, बिना इच्छा के, फिर से अनुभव करना, गंभीर रूप से चिंता करना, डर, या संदेह. गतिविधियों में रुचि न होना या आनंद न आना, अकेलापन, या अपराधबोध. अनिद्रा या बुरे सपने, अनचाहे विचार या संवेगात्मक अनासक्‍ति.

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