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Cocaine Addiction Tips

Science Says: Drinking Vodka and Caffeine Together as Bad as Cocaine

Dr. Prakhar Singh 92% (730 ratings)
MBBS, Basic Life Support (B.L.S), Advanced Cardiac Life Support, Fellow of Academy of General Education (FAGE)
General Physician, Bangalore
Science Says: Drinking Vodka and Caffeine Together as Bad as Cocaine

Many of us need that jolt of coffee to kick-start our day. Science has backed caffeine since ages for its antioxidant properties but sadly it also increases blood pressure and affects the kidneys.

Today's generation is all about taking risks to a whole new level. Many pubs and lounges offer caffeinated alcoholic beverages, and many health drink companies are making energy drinks aimed for the fun loving youth. Though they may be a good idea for a fun night, but a concoction of booze and caffeine together may not be such a good idea says a new study.

Consuming such mixtures is extremely harmful to the brain. Energy drinks contain almost 10 times the amount of caffeine that is approved by the fda to be allowed for consumption by adolescent teens. Mixing them with alcohol alters the brain activity forever that even lasts into adult life.

In a study conducted by the purdue university lead by Dr. Richard van rijn and his team, experiments were conducted on mice that were fed coke mixed with alcohol. Researchers saw significant changes in the parts of the brain that are related with addiction. Similar changes were seen in the mice that were given cocaine. Studies conducted on mice brain produces similar results on human brain.

When one consumes only alcohol, it gives a feeling of happiness. However, when you drink too much, the body knows that you have overconsumed and starts to shut itself down - you feel sleepy so that you don't harm yourself too much.

The stimulatory effect of an energy drink mixed with booze seems obvious. This study published in alcoholism: clinical and experimental research can provide some refreshing insight into it. Lead author and psychologist cecile marczinski showed how the body shuts down any in-built pathways when one overindulges. For research purposes, volunteers divided into groups were asked to drink plain alcohol, energy - alcohol beverages, energy drinks alone and a non-alcoholic beverage assuming that the group who drank energy- alcohol drinks would also show symptoms of sedation. Much to the surprise of the research team, participants who had energy- alcohol beverages showed twice as much stimulation than with plain alcohol alone.

Also, the researchers discovered that it was not only the caffeine found in the energy drink that was the culprit, but the activation of other ingredients in the beverages as well e. G. Glucose, taurine and ginseng which are all stimulatory for the human brain.

The reason a concoction of alcohol and caffeine gives such an intense reaction is because both alcohol and caffeine release dopamine - the ‘feel good hormone’ in the brain.

Teenage brain is weak & subtle and if it is flooded with high levels of dopamine, they may need higher amounts of it to experience the same #x2018 high #x2019; later in life due to development of tolerance which makes quitting also more tough.

The heightened stimulation along with impulsivity makes energy-alcohol drinking quite dangerous especially for teenage drinkers who think they can hold their alcohol or still have control over the steering wheel after heavy boozing at a party.

Next party, choose your poison carefully

5 people found this helpful

All About Sugar Addiction

Dr. Sunil Kumar 86% (25 ratings)
Ph.D - Psychology, M.Phil - Clinical Psychology, MA - Psychology
Psychologist, Chennai
All About Sugar Addiction

Scientists have concluded that sugar stimulates the exact same centers of the brain, which derive pleasure out of heroin or cocaine. For those who are addicted to sugar, getting off it leads to intense cravings and withdrawal symptoms. If you have an uncontrollable urge to devour something sweet, you probably have sugar addiction too. Sugar is known to release dopamine and opioids, which not only makes it addictive, but makes it extremely difficult for you to overcome the withdrawal symptoms. 

Mentioned below are 5 signs to figure out if you are addicted to sugar: 

  1. Despite being full or not hungry, you consume certain foods due to cravings
  2. You worry about consuming certain foods and cutting down on them 
  3. You overeat and then feel fatigued or sluggish 
  4. Despite negative consequences that affect your health and cause social problems, you continue eating or overeating certain foods
  5. You try to eliminate any negative emotion by consuming the foods you crave and experience pleasure. 

If you suffer from the aforementioned problems, you should seriously consider sugar detox or food rehab. Sugar and foods containing high levels of sugar causes behavioral changes, nutrient deficiency or imbalance, impairs your body and immunity system leading to an increased risk of illnesses and diseases. Sugar is also known to feed cancer cells and obesity. Fungi, which are living organisms, thrive on sugar and feed on it to reproduce and function properly leading to most infections. However, it is never too late to break your sugar habit. 

Mentioned below are 5 ways to fight your sugar addiction:

  1. Substitute sweets with whole foods
  2. Ditch artificial sweeteners 
  3. Clean your house
  4. Create a backup plan 
  5. Manage your magnesium levels 

Although, sugar withdrawal symptoms vary from individual to individual, they usually last for about 3 to 4 weeks. Withdrawing from sugar can be extremely difficult and causes the following symptoms in you, which will sorely tempt you into giving in to your cravings: 

  1. Feeling lightheaded
  2. Craving for sugar 
  3. Binge eating 
  4. Anxiety 
  5. Depression 
  6. Headaches
  7. Irritability and moodiness
  8. Fatigue and tiredness
  9. Muscular aches
  10. Flu symptoms
4543 people found this helpful

Throw Away The Addictions Without Any Side Effects!

Dr. Sajidurrahman.C 88% (33 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Malappuram

The most commonly abused drugs include:

* marijuana
* lsd
* cocaine
* heroin

Marijuana 

Marijuana is a plant indigenous to asia, and is commonly consumed in three forms:

* hashisha the resin of the plant,usually reddish brown to black in colour
* ganjaa refers to the leaves and stem, and is usually greenish in colour
* bhang a dark brown or black preparation of marijuana leaves and flowers and other additives such as herbs and spices

Common terms and definitions:

* hashish is also known as hemp, hash, charas, cream, malana cream, afghan snow, kasa, bombay black
* other terms for ganja are pot, grass, dope, mary jane, weed, blunt, herb
* spliff: marijuana cigarette
* bong: water pipe for smoking
* joint / bob: marijuana cigarette made of rolling paper
* ganga-jamuna: marijuana-hash combination

How is it consumed?

Bhang is usually eaten or mixed with a cold drink of milk and dry fruits. Hashish and ganja are crushed and mixed with tobacco. The mixture is rolled in a cigarette and smoked.

Visible signs

* bloodshot eyes
* extreme form of anxiety or fear
* uncontrollable bouts of laughter
* lack of clear and orderly thought or behaviour
* sluggish speech
* eating binges
* peculiar herbal smell in hair, clothes, or in the area where the drug was consumed
* presence of marijuana seeds, smoking devices (chillums and bongs), smoking paper'roaches' (rolled-up cardboard to create an artificial filter)

Health risks

* it is estimated that one marijuana cigarette is equivalent to five tobacco cigarettes in terms of damage to the body.
* a marijuana abuser risks all the dangers of smoking and many more, including brain damage, infertility, and loss of memory.
* marijuana is a gateway drug, which means that prolonged abuse of marijuana leads to a higher tolerance to the drug, resulting in the abuser trying dangerous drugs such as heroin and cocaine.

Lsd 

Lysergic acid diethylamide (lsd) is a popular party drug, which is extremely potent even in small quantities. This odourless, tasteless, and colourless drug can induce strong hallucinations where the user sees different colours and has strange experiences.

Common terms and definitions: acid, stamp, lucy, sunshine, microdots

How is it consumed? lsd is usually licked or swallowed. It is sold as tablets, capsules, or in its liquid form added to sugar cubes, postage stamps'windowpanes' (gelatine or cellophane), blotters (small pieces of paper).

Visible signs
* high body temperature
* dilation of pupils
* increased heart beat and blood pressure
* sweating
* loss of appetite

Health risks

* the worst effect of lsd is what is known as a'bad trip' in which users develop extreme forms of paranoia and fear.
*'flashback' or a sudden recurrence of the user's experience can trigger traumatic or strange experiences, even after many hours or months of abstaining from the drug.
* fatal accidents can occur with lsd usage, especially while driving.
* schizophrenia and severe depression may occur with long-term use.

Cocaine 

Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca plant. It is usually a white crystalline powder. Crack, a cheaper form of cocaine, is even more addictive and dangerous than cocaine. Even a single dose is enough to trigger addiction. Cocaine abusers typically develop a tolerance to the drug, and take in higher doses to maintain the same high.


Common terms and definitions: coke, namak (salt in hindi), coca, flake, snow, heaven dust, crack

How is it consumed?

Cocaine is either snorted or dissolved in a liquid and then injected. Some also mix cocaine with cannabis and tobacco and smoke it.

Visible signs

* fast speech or talkativeness
* increased heart rate and blood pressure
* dilated pupils
* panic
* runny or bloody nose
* restlessness, irritability, sleeplessness
* bouts of high energy followed by exhaustion

Health risks

* seizure, cardiac arrest, respiratory problems that can lead to death
* hallucinations
* severe paranoia
* hiv and other diseases resulting from infected needles

Heroin 

Heroin is a highly addictive derivative of morphine, an extract from the poppy plant. In its purest form, it is a white powder but can also be brown in colour because of the presence of impurities. However, heroin is never sold in its pure form, and is often mixed with talcum powder, starch, sugar, powdered milk, or quinine. As the drug is adulterated, it is difficult to determine the actual dose of heroin, which can be fatal. 

After just few hours or days of the last administration, withdrawal symptoms such as intense craving for the drug, restlessness, pain, sleeplessness, vomiting, and kicking can be seen in the average heroin abuser.

Common terms and definitions: smack, horse, junk, h, skag

How is it consumed?

A tin foil containing heroin powder is heated underneath. This results in the solid powder turning into a liquid. Users either inhale the fumes or inject the liquid. Heroin is also smoked.

Visible signs 

The heroin addict typically rushes to the bathroom in the morning for his morning dose. Heroin abuse also often causes constipation, leading to prolonged use of the bathroom.

Here are other visible signs of heroin abuse:

* runny nose, coughing, sneezing, fever, chills
* mental confusion
* staggered gait
* lack of hygiene
* poor appetite
* vomiting
* scratch marks
* pupil dilation
* calmness (when high) and restlessness (when not high)

Health risks

* coma
* death
* hiv and other diseases resulting from infected needles
* collapsed veins
* infections

Other drugs 

Identifying a drug abuser is not easy because there are several drugs with different effects and health risks. Some drugs are available for research, medical, and other legal uses, but are often abused. If you spot any suspicious behaviour in your child, do not panic, but consult a qualified medical professional with experience in drug abuse treatment.

A few other commonly abused groups of drugs include:

* opiods: opium and morphine, along with heroin, belong to the group of drugs derived from the poppy plant. 
* hallucinogens: in addition to ecstasy, drugs like mescaline and psilocybin are often used to induce altered states of perception. 
* inhalants: paint thinners, petrol, gases (butane, propane, and laughing gas) are easily available but highly dangerous, causing death within seconds. Every year, several teenagers accidentally inhale these substances, with some developing an addiction over time.

1 person found this helpful

Sugar - Why Do We Become Addicted to It?

Dt. Shimpy Srivastava 89% (10 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), Msc. Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Lucknow
Sugar - Why Do We Become Addicted to It?

Are you addicted to sugar and all sugary items? Have you tried cutting down your sugar intake, only to realize how tough, and sometimes impossible it is? These facts make it evident that something in your brain does not function normally, or in its usual way when it comes to sugar and sugary food items. This occurs because of several factors.

  1. Sugar addiction is caused by the overstimulation of your brain’s reward center
  2. Sugar is fattening in a unique way because of its high fructose content. There are various ways in which sugar causes you to overeat, leading to weight gain. The primary reason for developing an addiction to sugar is because of its impact on the brain’s reward center.
  3. When you eat sugary food, a large amount of dopamine gets released into the Nucleus Accumbens, which is a certain area of the brain. When you consume these food items frequently, the dopamine receptors become slow in regulating. As a result, the receptors for dopamine get lessened. This indicates that the next time you consume these specific food items, the effects of the receptors become blunt.
  4. For receiving the reward of the same level, you will be tempted into eating more sugary food. Sugar rich food function quite similarly to drugs of abuse such as nicotine, cannabis, amphetamine and cocaine. Similar centers of the brain come into play in both these forms of addiction.
  5. People having some sort of predisposition towards addiction are likely to get more addicted to such sweet and sugary food items, having no control over consumption.

This is the way in which sugar hijacks your brain chemistry, making you crave for more and more sugar, and in turn influences your behavior. 

In some people, certain anatomical changes in the brain take place, when frequently exposed to food rich in sugar. It ends up in full fledged addiction in many people. According to the experiences of drug addicts who have been substance abusers for several years, the addiction to sugar and food rich in sugar content is exactly the same as any kind of drug addiction. There are no major differences, except that the substance of addiction and the consequences are totally different.

Several recovering drug addicts have stated that they crave for sugar, junk food, and any sweet food item in the same way they craved for alcohol and other drugs. This proves the level of addictive sugar, and it is recommended for everybody to abstain from consuming too much sugar. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dietitian/Nutritionist.

2320 people found this helpful

Ways On How To Fight Back Addiction!

Dr. Vinod Raina 89% (5853 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
Ways On How To Fight Back Addiction!

Addiction is a brain ailment that is characterized by irrational engagement in satisfying stimuli despite of argumentative circumstances. Addiction is an ailment where the brain's Reward system malfunctions and only responds to persistently greater level of addictive stimulus like morphine, cocaine, etc.

There are many varieties of addiction like alcoholism, gambling, sexual intercourse, etc. These force a person to isolate himself from the entire society and indulge in his or her addictions. If they are not supplied with the drugs they may react violently and may even die.

Drug treatment is a type of treatment which is intended to aid the abused users stop the uncontrollable usage of drugs and protect them from the adverse effects of it. This treatment has a variety of forms and takes a lot of time as the drug abuse is a chronic disorder and cannot be treated in a short term. Below mentioned are some of the ways by which you can fight back addiction effectively.

• For individuals who are addicted to drugs such as opium and nicotine (Tobacco) are treated with drugs such as methadone, naltrexone for opium addicted individuals and with varenicline and bupropion for tobacco addicted people.

• For individuals who are greatly addicted to alcohol Disulfiram and acamprosate are the best medications that are available.

• Many individuals are addicted to the prescribed drugs and their treatment is the same as that of drug abuse that affects the brain. Like the medicine buprenorphine, can be used to treat both heroin obsession and addiction to medications for opium pain treatment.

Behavioral treatments may help people to take part in drug abuse therapies and teach ways to cope up with drugs and help them to against relapse if it occurs.

• Group therapies are the latest form of treatment that is advised to the addicted individuals. Group therapies provide the individual social support and help in enforcing behavioral incidents that will help the lead a non-drug-using lifestyle.

• Lastly individuals who are greatly addicted to alcohol or drug abuse or any kind of addictions suffer from depression and also face social, legal and family problems.

 

4 people found this helpful

How Does Internet Addiction Affects Your Brain?

Dr. Rahul Chandhok 89% (11 ratings)
M.D Psychiatry , MBBS
Psychiatrist, Faridabad
How Does Internet Addiction Affects Your Brain?

Internet addiction disorder or IAD, more commonly called Problematic Internet use or PIU, refers to excessive internet use that interferes with your daily life. Too much internet use to chat with friends, watch porn, use social media or surf the net for information- all fall under the purview of internet addiction.

Internet addiction disorder is a recently recognised condition in which sufferers spend unhealthy amounts of time “online” to the extent that it impairs their life quality. The internet addicts may experience distress and withdrawal symptoms just like smokers do, if they are denied access to their computers or mobile phones. They suffer withdrawal symptoms like tremours, obsessive thoughts, and involuntary movements of the fingers like typing.

IAD and Your Health
Internet addiction can have two different types of repercussions- physical and mental. Physical problems associated with this disorder are-

  1. Back pain
  2. Carpel tunnel syndrome
  3. Neck pain due to cervical spondylitis
  4. Sciatica pain

Mental Problems

The psychological and organic harm to the brain caused by internet addiction is still being probed but there is enough research to say conclusively that internet addiction disrupts nerve wiring in the brains of addicts. This addiction thus causes a level of brain damage normally seen in heavy substance abusers. The brains of people who use cocaine and cannabis or other narcotics also show similar effects. The brain thus gets damaged when you get hooked to a behaviour- be it obsessive internet use or drugs. IAD is as physically damaging to your brain like an addiction to drugs, scientists believe.

In particular, brain scans have shown that internet addiction causes significant damage to white matter in the brain. This disruption to white matter nerve fibres connecting vital parts of the brain involved in emotions, decision making, and self-control has long-lasting debilitating results. IAD also shrinks the brain’s gray and white matter fibers which result in changes in your brain functioning and the way you handle emotions.
This disruption in white matter fibers is caused by disrupted myelin, the fatty insulating sheath that coats nerve fibres and helps them to function.

The risk factors for IAD
Specific risk factors for IAD include:

  1. Anxiety, depression or other mental health or mood disorders
  2. Loneliness
  3. Absence of social interaction or support
  4. Presence of other addictions like gambling, alcohol, drugs, or sex
  5. An abrupt change that limits social activity or mobility like having a baby, becoming disabled, losing a job etc.
  6. High levels of stress.

IAD is treatable. All you have to do is seek help. Sometimes, trying to get rid of IAD by yourself doesn’t work. This is the right time to seek the help of a counselor. Behavioural therapies that chip at the root of the problem or the main cause of IAD help you in getting rid of it fast.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

5246 people found this helpful

Drug Addiction and It's Interventions!

Ms. Pallavee Walia 91% (89 ratings)
PGDRP Rehabilitation Psychology , M.A Clinical Psychology, Certificate in Guidance and Counselling (CGC)
Psychologist, Agra

 Why do drug addicted person keep using drugs?

Nearly all addicted individuals believe at the outset that they can stop using drugs on their own, and most try to stop without treatment. Although some pedrug are successful, many attempts result in failure to achieve long-term abstinence. Research has shown that long-term drug abuse results in changes in the brain that persist long after a person stops using drugs. These drug-induced changes in brain function can have many behavioral consequences, including an inability to exert 

Characteristic of addiction.

Understanding that addiction has such a fundamental of achieving and maintaining abstinence without treatment. Psychological stress from work, family problems, psychiatric illness, pain associated with medical problems, social cues (such as meeting individuals from one’s drug-using past), or environmental cues (such as encountering streets, objects, or even smells associated with drug abuse) can trigger intense cravings without the individual even being consciously aware of the triggering event. Any one of these factors can hinder attainment of sustained abstinence and make relapse more likely. Nevertheless, research indicates that active participation in treatment is even the most severely addicted individuals.

 Treatment for drug abuse 

Drug addiction treatment can include medications, behavioral therapies, or their combination.Treatment medications, such as methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone (including a new long-
Acting formulation), are available for individuals addicted to opioids, while nicotine preparations (patches, gum, lozenges, and nasal spray) and the medications varenicline and bupropion are available for individuals addiction to medications available for treating alcohol dependence, 1which commonly co-occurs with other drug addictions, including addiction to prescription medications. 

Treatments for prescription drug abuse tend to be similar to those for illicit drugs that affect the same brain systems. For example, buprenorphine, used to treat heroin addiction, can also be used to treat addiction to opioid pain medications. Addiction to prescription stimulants, which affect the same brain systems as illicit stimulants like cocaine, can be treated with behavioral therapies, as there are not yet medications for treating addiction to these types of drugs. 

Behavioral therapies can help motivate people to participate in drug treatment, offer strategies for coping with drug cravings, teach ways to avoid drugs and prevent relapse, and help individuals deal with relapse if it occurs. Behavioral therapies can also help people improve communication, relationship, and parenting skills, as well as family dynamics.

How long does drug addiction treatment usually last? 

Individuals progress through drug addiction treatment at various rates, so there is no predetermined length of treatment. However, research has shown unequivocally that good outcomes are contingent on adequate treatment length. Generally, for residential or outpatient treatment, participation for less than 90 days is of limited effectiveness maintaining positive outcomes. For methadone maintenance, 12 months is considered the minimum, and some opioid-maintenance for many years.Good outcomes are contingent on adequate treatment length.

Treatment dropout is one of the major problems encountered by treatment programs; therefore, motivational techniques that can keep patients engaged will also improve outcomes. By viewing addiction as a chronic disease and offering continuing care and monitoring, programs can succeed, but this will often require multiple episodes of reatment and readily readmitting patients that have relapsed.


What helps people stay in treatment?

Because successful outcomes often depend on a person’s strategies for keeping people in treatment are critical. Whether a patient stays in treatment depends on factors associated with both the individual and the program. Individual factors related to engagementand retention typically include motivation to change drug-using behavior; degree of support from family and friends; and, frequently.

2 people found this helpful

Drug Addiction (Substance Abuse)!

Dr. Radhika A (Md) 85% (10 ratings)
MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Drug Addiction (Substance Abuse)!

Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)

Homeopathic Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Psychotherapy Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Surgical Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Other Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
What is Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Symptoms of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Causes of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Risk factors of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Complications of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Lab Investigations and Diagnosis of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Precautions & Prevention of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)

Homeopathic Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)

Homeopathy treatment is an effective against heroin, opium, morphine, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, or any other addictive drug. It is thought that homeopathic remedies are able to stimulate a person’s bodily systems to deal with stress and illness more efficiently. Homeopathy helps at three levels, detoxification, the present physical condition and the actual state of mind. Some common homeopathic medicines for drug addiction (substance abuse) are:

Avena
Cham
Lach
Nux V
Passi

Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)

Acupuncture and auriculopuncture are worldwide popular for curing drug addiction (substance abuse). Electroacupuncture at the specific point effectively reduced the alcohol-drinking behavior. Acupuncture not only handles the symptoms and craving, but it also reduces fears and hostilities that usually upset drug abuse treatment options.

Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)

Psychologist, psychiatrist or addiction counselor may help you resist the temptation to resume using addicting drugs. Behavior therapies can help you develop ways to deal with your drug cravings, suggest strategies to avoid drugs and prevent relapse, and offer recommendations on how to deal with a relapse if it takes place. Hypnotherapy is excellent in curing dependence, subconscious urges as well as withdrawal symptoms.

Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)

Allopathic medicines of drug addiction (substance abuse) help defeat addictive craving. They compete with cells in the brain and cause reversal of drug effects. Such medicines are Buprenorphine and Suboxone. Methadone has been used for decades to withdraw addicts from severe heroin dependence and has a history of successful maintenance therapy.

Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Drug addiction (substance abuse)

High-fiber diet with plenty of complex carbohydrates
Take vitamin and mineral supplements.

What is Drug addiction (substance abuse)?

Drug addiction (substance abuse) is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by persistent drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviours. Common addictive drugs are barbiturates, alcohol, and morphine and other opioids, especially heroin.

Symptoms of Drug addiction (substance abuse)

You may need the drug just to feel good.
Using the drug becomes a habit
Failing in your attempts to stop using the drug
Spending money on the drug, even though you can’t afford it
Doing things to obtain the drug that you normally wouldn’t do, such as stealing
Feeling that you need the drug to deal with your problems
Doing risky activities when you’re under the influence of the drug
Causes of Drug addiction (substance abuse)
Personality and peer pressure
Severe Anxiety
Depression

Risk factors of Drug addiction (substance abuse)

Inherited
A lack of attachment with your parents
Psychological problem such as depression or hyperactivity disorder

Complications of Drug addiction (substance abuse)

Physical health problems
Commit suicide
Accidents
Communicable disease 

Diagnosis of Drug addiction (substance abuse)

Your physician may ask concerns about the consistency of drug use, whether any family member has criticized your drug use or whether you’ve ever thought you might have an issue. Mental health professionals diagnose the mental conditions.

Precautions &Prevention of Drug addiction (substance abuse)

Talk to your children about the risks of drug use and abuse
Strengthen your relationship with your children
Stick with your treatment plan

3 people found this helpful

Addiction

Dr. P K Sukumaran 93% (2673 ratings)
MBBS, DPM (Psychiatry)
Psychiatrist, Thrissur
Addiction

ADDICTION


Decades ago addiction was a pharmacologic term that clearly referred to the use of a tolerance-inducing drug in sufficient quantity as to cause tolerance (the requirement that greater dosages of a given drug be used to produce an identical effect as time passes). With that definition, humans (and indeed all mammals) can become addicted to various drugs quickly. Almost at the same time, a lay definition of addiction developed. This definition referred to individuals who continued to use a given drug despite their own best interest. This latter definition is now thought of as a disease state by the medical community.
Physical dependence, abuse of, and withdrawal from drugs and other miscellaneous substances is outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV TR). Unfortunately, terminology has become quite complicated in the field. To wit, pharmacologists continue to speak of addiction from a physiologic standpoint (some call this a physical dependence); psychiatrists refer to the disease state as dependence; most other physicians refer to the disease as addiction. The field of psychiatry is now considering, as they move from DSM-IV to DSM-V, transitioning from "dependence" to "addiction" as terminology for the disease state.
The medical community now makes a careful theoretical distinction between physical dependence (characterized by symptoms of withdrawal) and psychological dependence (or simply addiction). Addiction is now narrowly defined as "uncontrolled, compulsive use"; if there is no harm being suffered by, or damage done to, the patient or another party, then clinically it may be considered compulsive, but to the definition of some it is not categorized as "addiction". In practice, the two kinds of addiction are not always easy to distinguish. Addictions often have both physical and psychological components.
There is also a lesser known situation called pseudo-addiction.{(Weissman and Haddox, 1989}} A patient will exhibit drug-seeking behavior reminiscent of psychological addiction, but they tend to have genuine pain or other symptoms that have been undertreated. Unlike true psychological addiction, these behaviors tend to stop when the pain is adequately treated.
The obsolete term physical addiction is deprecated, because of its connotations. In modern pain management with opioids physical dependence is nearly universal. While opiates are essential in the treatment of acute pain, the benefit of this class of medication in chronic pain is not well proven. Clearly, there are those who would not function well without opiate treatment; on the other hand, many states are noting significant increases in non-intentional deaths related to opiate use. High-quality, long-term studies are needed to better delineate the risks and benefits of chronic opiate use.
Not all doctors agree on what addiction or dependency is, because traditionally, addiction has been defined as being possible only to a psychoactive substance (for example alcohol, tobacco and other drugs) which ingested cross the blood-brain barrier, altering the natural chemical behavior of the brain temporarily. Many people, both psychology professionals and laypersons, now feel that there should be accommodation made to include psychological dependency on such things as gambling, food, sex, pornography, computers, work, exercise, cutting, and shopping / spending. However, these are things or tasks which, when used or performed, cannot cross the blood-brain barrier and hence, do not fit into the traditional view of addiction. Symptoms mimicking withdrawal may occur with abatement of such behaviors; however, it is said by those who adhere to a traditionalist view that these withdrawal-like symptoms are not strictly reflective of an addiction, but rather of a behavioral disorder. In spite of traditionalist protests and warnings that overextension of definitions may cause the wrong treatment to be used (thus failing the person with the behavioral problem), popular media, and some members of the field, do represent the aforementioned behavioral examples as addictions.
In the contemporary view, the trend is to acknowledge the possibility that the hypothalmus creates peptides in the brain that equal and/or exceed the effect of externally applied chemicals (alcohol, nicotine etc.) when addictive activities take place [citation needed]. For example, when an addicted gambler or shopper is satisfying their craving, chemicals called endorphins are produced and released within the brain, reinforcing the individual's positive associations with their behavior.

Despite the popularity of defining addiction in medical terms, recently many have proposed defining addiction in terms of Economics, such as calculating the elasticity of addictive goods and determining, to what extent, present income and consumption (economics) has on future consumption.
Varied forms of addiction
Physical dependency
Physical dependence on a substance is defined by the appearance of characteristic withdrawal symptoms when the substance or behavior is suddenly discontinued. While opioids, benzodiazepinesbarbiturates, alcohol and nicotine are all well known for their ability to induce physical dependence, other categories of substances share this property and are not considered addictive: cortisone, beta-blockers and most antidepressants are examples. So, while physical dependency can be a major factor in the psychology of addiction and most often becomes a primary motivator in the continuation of an addiction, the initial primary attribute of an addictive substance is usually its ability to induce pleasure, although with continued use the goal is not so much to induce pleasure as it is to relieve the anxiety caused by the absence of a given addictive substance, causing it to become used compulsively. A notable exception to this is nicotine. Users report that a cigarette can be pleasurable, but there is a medical consensus [citation needed] that the user is likely fulfilling his/her physical addiction and, therefore, is achieving pleasurable feelings relative to his/her previous state of physical withdrawal. Further, the physical dependency of the nicotine addict on the substance itself becomes an overwhelming factor in the continuation of most users' addictions. Although 35 million smokers make an attempt to quit every year, fewer than 7% achieve even one year of abstinence (from the NIDA research report on nicotine addiction).[citation needed]
Some substances induce physical dependence or physiological tolerance - but not addiction - for example many laxatives, which are not psychoactive; nasal decongestants, which can cause rebound congestion if used for more than a few days in a row; and some antidepressants, most notably venlafaxineparoxetine and sertraline, as they have quite short half-lives, so stopping them abruptly causes a more rapid change in the neurotransmitter balance in the brain than many other antidepressants. Many non-addictive prescription drugs should not be suddenly stopped, so a doctor should be consulted before abruptly discontinuing them.
The speed with which a given individual becomes addicted to various substances varies with the substance, the frequency of use, the means of ingestion, the intensity of pleasure or euphoria, and the individual's genetic and psychological susceptibility. Some alcoholics report they exhibited alcoholic tendencies from the moment of first intoxication, while most people can drink socially without ever becoming addicted. Studies have demonstrated that opioid dependent individuals have different responses to even low doses of opioids than the majority of people, although this may be due to a variety of other factors, as opioid use heavily stimulates pleasure-inducing neurotransmitters in the brain. The vast majority of medical professionals and scientists agree that if one uses strong opioids on a regular basis for even just a short period of time, one will most likely become physically dependent [citation needed]. Nonetheless, because of these variations, in addition to the adoption and twin studies that have been well replicated, much of the medical community is satisfied that addiction is in part genetically moderated. That is, one's genetic makeup may regulate how susceptible one is to a substance and how easily one may become psychologically attached to a pleasurable routine.
Eating disorders are complicated pathological mental illnesses and thus are not the same as addictions described in this article. Eating disorders, which some argue are not addictions at all, are driven by a multitude of factors, most of which are highly different than the factors behind addictions described in this article.

5 Ways To Fight Your Sugar Addiction!

Dr. Mahima Bhomavat Innani 87% (32 ratings)
MA - Psychology, Certificate Course In Application of Counselling Therapies
Psychologist, Mumbai
5 Ways To Fight Your Sugar Addiction!

Scientists have concluded that sugar stimulates the exact same centers of the brain, which derive pleasure out of heroin or cocaine. For those who are addicted to sugar, getting off it leads to intense cravings and withdrawal symptoms. If you have an uncontrollable urge to devour something sweet, you probably have sugar addiction too. Sugar is known to release dopamine and opioids, which not only makes it addictive, but makes it extremely difficult for you to overcome the withdrawal symptoms. 

Mentioned below are 5 signs to figure out if you are addicted to sugar: 

  1. Despite being full or not hungry, you consume certain foods due to cravings
  2. You worry about consuming certain foods and cutting down on them 
  3. You overeat and then feel fatigued or sluggish 
  4. Despite negative consequences that affect your health and cause social problems, you continue eating or overeating certain foods
  5. You try to eliminate any negative emotion by consuming the foods you crave and experience pleasure. 

If you suffer from the aforementioned problems, you should seriously consider sugar detox or food rehab. Sugar and foods containing high levels of sugar causes behavioral changes, nutrient deficiency or imbalance, impairs your body and immunity system leading to an increased risk of illnesses and diseases. Sugar is also known to feed cancer cells and obesity. Fungi, which are living organisms, thrive on sugar and feed on it to reproduce and function properly leading to most infections. However, it is never too late to break your sugar habit. 

Mentioned below are 5 ways to fight your sugar addiction:

  1. Substitute sweets with whole foods
  2. Ditch artificial sweeteners 
  3. Clean your house
  4. Create a backup plan 
  5. Manage your magnesium levels 

Although, sugar withdrawal symptoms vary from individual to individual, they usually last for about 3 to 4 weeks. Withdrawing from sugar can be extremely difficult and causes the following symptoms in you, which will sorely tempt you into giving in to your cravings: 

  1. Feeling lightheaded
  2. Craving for sugar 
  3. Binge eating 
  4. Anxiety 
  5. Depression 
  6. Headaches
  7. Irritability and moodiness
  8. Fatigue and tiredness
  9. Muscular aches
  10. Flu symptoms. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Psychologist.
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