Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) refers to a group of disorders affecting the endocrine system. The disease triggers the growth of benign or malignant tumours in multiple endocrine glands and may cause the glands to produce more hormones or become overactive.
Of the various forms of MEN, Type 1 and Type 2 are the most common ones.
MEN Type 1
MEN Type 1 involves tumours of the pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, or the pancreas. Most often, the tumour appears first in the parathyroid glands. The initial symptoms of the disease are signs of a hyperactive thyroid gland.
MEN Type 2 -
MEN Type 2 has three subtypes – Type 2A, Type 2B, and Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. Most patients with Type 2 MEN develop FMTC regardless of their subtype. Some people with the disorder may develop a tumour in the adrenal gland called pheochromocytoma.
How is MEN diagnosed?
The condition is typically diagnosed when a person develops tumours in at least two or more of the endocrine glands. The doctor will also take into consideration your family history of multiple endocrine neoplasias. Genetic testing is done to check for specific mutations in genes associated with the disease.
How does Bilateral Adrenalectomy treat MEN?
Laparoscopic or bilateral adrenalectomy has gained favour and popularity as a preferred surgical approach in the treatment of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, particularly in Type 2 patients.
The minimally invasive procedure involves making small incisions to remove the adrenal tumour. The operation is performed under general anaesthesia. About 3-4 incisions, each measured at 1cm, is made in the abdomen. The surgeon then inserts a small instrument and a telescope into the abdomen through the keyhole incisions. This allows him/her to free and dissect the diseased adrenal gland without having to use the hands.
The entire procedure, which takes about 3 hours, provides patients with minimal pain, discomfort, and fewer complications. In comparison to traditional open surgery that requires larger incisions, the bilateral adrenalectomy resulted in faster recovery time and shorter hospital stay. Hence, it is becoming a feasible and preferred choice of treatment for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia.
Thyroid nodules are small soft lumps of thyroid tissues that develop around the thyroid gland in the base of your neck. These nodules are neither dangerous nor cancerous. Sometimes you cannot even feel the lump unless your doctor locates it during a routine check.
The thyroid is a small gland above your breast bone, which is responsible for generating hormones in your body. The abnormal growth of the thyroid tissues forms thyroid nodules which are only visible when these lumps are old and big enough.
Most of the thyroid lumps are not symptomatic and dangerous. In some cases, they can only be felt or seen as a swelling in the neck. These lumps press your windpipe, which creates difficulty in swallowing and breathing. In a few cases, thyroid nodules generate additional hormones called thyroxine which can lead to:
If you feel a lump in your neck or feeling any of the symptoms mentioned above, then it is advisable to consult a doctor for the same. Most of the thyroid nodules are not severe. But you need to get them diagnosed to eliminate the risk of cancer.
While evaluating a lump in your neck, the doctor first determines whether it is cancerous or not. For this, he examines the lumps in several ways. These includes:
● Physical examination: Doctors physically test your lumps and ask you to swallow some food or beverage. They also look for hyperthyroidism by checking your heart rate and tremors in hands and feet. If you have
swelling in the facial area then there are chances that you may have developed hypothyroidism.
● Blood work: An initial way to test thyroid problem is to test blood samples for TSH, T3, andT4. If the results are within the normal range, then you do not have a thyroid condition.
● Ultrasound: The high-frequency ultra-wave sound helps to image the thyroid glands from within. So that doctors can look at the imagery and determine the treatment.
There is another excellent way of testing thyroid nodules. It includes biopsy and thyroid special scan. The doctor suggests these tests only when he needs to clear some doubts.
Management and Treatment of Thyroid Nodules
The kind of treatment depends upon your condition. If the thyroid nodules are tested for benign then your doctor may ask you to wait and consistently check for any abnormal condition in your thyroid. This entails regular thyroid testing and conducting biopsy yearly. Doing this will help the doctor to determine whether the nodule is getting bigger. Some of the easy ways to manage thyroid nodule are to use thyroid
suppression medicines. These pills help in treating the thyroid nodules and control the generation of the thyroid hormones in the body. In very rare cases, thyroid nodules require surgery. However, if the nodules become larger and outwardly visible; then your doctor might suggest surgery.
Poor blood circulation
To treat hair loss, first we should know the underlying cause and treat accordingly.
Our endocrine glands work overtime to keep us healthy by secreting hormones which reach each and every cell in our body through the blood. These hormones evoke life-changing responses in other cells to keep us alive and healthy. Endocrine surgery is a term for an operation in any one or more endocrine glands in your body.
Types of endocrine glands-
1. Thyroid gland: This is the most important endocrine gland in your body and it secretes thyroid hormone, which regulates metabolism.
2. Parathyroid glands: There are 4 parathyroid glands and these are located behind the thyroid gland in the neck region. These glands secrete the parathyroid hormone which controls calcium levels in the body.
3. Adrenal glands: These are located over the kidney. There are 2 adrenal glands and these secrete adrenaline, aldosterone and cortisol- the body’s fight or flight hormone. These also maintain salt levels in the blood and the blood pressure.
4. Neuroendocrine glands of the pancreas: These are located in the pancreas behind the stomach. They work to control glucose levels and glucose metabolism.
5. Pituitary gland is the master gland of the body: It secretes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and other important hormones that control ovaries, thyroid and other endocrine glands in your body.
Depending on the endocrine gland being operated upon, there are different types of endocrine surgeries. The most important ones are-
1. Thyroidectomy: It is an operation that involves removal of the entire or parts of the thyroid gland in the neck. IT is indicated for thyroid cancer or hyperthyroidism, goiter or Graves disease. Sometimes it is done for treating an enlarged thyroid gland or obstructions in the neck region, causing problems in swallowing or breathing. In cases of total thyroidectomy patients will need life long thyroid hormone supplementation. Sometime patient can have a change in the voice which is usually temporary.
2. Adrenalectomy: It is the removal of one or both adrenal glands to treat tumors of the adrenal glands. It is done using an open incision or laparoscopic technique. Most adrenal tumors are noncancerous (benign). You may require surgery to remove an adrenal gland if the tumor is producing excess hormones (pheochromocytoma or Conn's syndrome) or is large in size (more than 2 inches or 4 to 5 centimeters). You may also require surgery if the tumor is cancerous (malignant) or suspected to be cancerous. Pheochromocytomas produce excess hormones that can cause very high blood pressure and periodic spells characterized by severe headaches, excessive sweating, anxiety, palpitations, and rapid heart rate that may last from a few seconds to several minutes.
3. Parathyroidectomy: It is the removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands, and it is used to treat hyperparathyroidism. The most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism is a small, tumor called a parathyroid adenoma. It is a benign condition in which one parathyroid gland increases in size and produces parathyroid hormone (PTH) in excess. In most situations, patients are unaware of the adenoma, and they are found when routine blood test results show elevated blood calcium and PTH level. This excess PTH triggers the release of too much calcium into the bloodstream. The bones lose calcium, and increased level of calcium in the urine causes kidney stones.
Hypothyroidism refers to the underproduction of hormones in the thyroid gland. It has a wide range of symptoms. Thyroid hormones affect multiple organ systems, so the symptoms of hypothyroidism are wide-ranging and diverse.
The thyroid creates two thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (t3) and thyroxine (t4). These regulate metabolism, and they also affect the following functions:
Symptoms of hypothyroidism commonly include, but are not limited to:
If left untreated, the following symptoms can manifest:
If it develops in children or teenagers, the signs and symptoms are generally the same as adults.
However, they may also experience:
Hypothyroidism develops slowly. Symptoms may go unnoticed for a long time, and they may be vague and general.
The body is controlled by chemicals known as hormones. These are produced in minute quantities by minute organs, but have great control on almost all body functions. There are different hormones, each determining different functions like how tall a person will grow, how strong the bones will be, how well a person can react to stress and the reproductive ages. There is also a master gland called the pituitary which is situated somewhere deep in the brain, which controls all these organs. Small variations in the amount of these chemicals in the body produce significant effect on their respective control organ.
Thyroid is one such major gland, which produces a hormone called thyroxine or T4 as it is commonly called. This controls metabolism and emotional health to a large extent. Reduced amounts of T4 is very common in women, and with altered metabolism, there is increased musculoskeletal pain in various joints.
Here are some of the best ways to reduce Joint Pain from Hypothyroidism:
Thyroid hormones help all your organs work well. They control how your body uses food for energy.
What Do Thyroids Do
Thyroid hormones affect your metabolism rate, which means how fast or slow your brain, heart, muscles, liver, and other parts of your body work. If your body works too fast or too slowly, you won’t feel well. For example, if you don’t have enough thyroid hormone, you might feel tired and cold. Or, if you have too much thyroid hormone, you might feel nervous, jumpy, and warm.
What hormones does my thyroid gland produce?
The thyroid gland produces thyroxine (T4), which is a relatively inactive prohormone and lower amounts of the active hormone, triiodothyronine (T3). Collectively, T3 and T4 are referred to as the thyroid hormones. Twenty percent of the body’s triiodothyronine is made by the thyroid gland; the other 80% comes from thyroxine converted by organs such as the liver or kidneys.
The thyroid gland also produces calcitonin from cells called C-cells. Calcitonin is understood to play a role in regulating calcium levels in the body, but its exact function in humans remains unclear. Thyroid hormone is one such chemical which has effect on all organs of the body including the joints. Vague pains may be due to thyroid disorders. They are easy to manage with treatment.
Thyroid is one among the many glands in the endocrine system, whose secreted hormones regulate and maintain various metabolic activities. Thyroid problem, in generic terms, refers to a situation where there is an abnormal secretion of the thyroid hormone. The secretion can either be abundant, causing what is known as hyperthyroidism, or insufficient which, in turn, is known as hypothyroidism. Both of these conditions are detrimental to health affecting not only your body weight but also the growth of bones and hair. Though different branches of medicines are constantly dabbling with this problem, Homeopathy is the most preferred choice.
Some of the reasons for it are:
1. Treats severe sweating, problems in menstruation and constipation
One of the most important advantages of Homeopathy medicines is that each one of them is equipped to treat a host of ailments. The condition, hypothyroidism is symptomatic of excessive sweating on the head, constipation and problems in menstruating in women. All of these can be cured by the intake of Calcarea Carbonica.
2. Cures paleness of skin, tendencies of fainting and hair fall
This is another characteristic of hypothyroidism, wherein you suffer from pale, yellow skin and are unable to bear extreme cold temperatures due to the lack of vitality and body heat & at the same time, women in their menopause tend to suffer from excessive hair fall. In all of these situations, a Homeopathic medicine called Sepia. Officinalis is extremely beneficial in curbing these.
3. Does not create overt reliance on medicines
Hyperthyroidism is a condition that is marked by nervousness and anxiety. Though allopathic medicines have always been preferred to others, it must also be considered that in their attempt to cure, they end up creating an overt reliance of medicines in the patients.
4. Suits everybody
The primary reason for preferring Homeopathy to others is their complete lack of any side-effect. Both allopathy and ayurveda may or may not work on certain individuals. However, that is not the case for Homeopathy as it does not adopt any artificial means to cure thyroid problems, rather uses natural means to regulate the secretion of the thyroid gland.
Best Ways to Balance Hormones Naturally-
1. Eat Healthy Fats (Including Coconut Oil and Avocados)
2. Supplement with Adaptogen Herbs
3. Balance Your Intake of Omega-3 to Omega-6 Fats
4. Improve Gut Health &; Heal Leaky Gut Syndrome
5. Eliminate Toxic Kitchen &; Beauty and Body Care Products
6. Exercise (Especially Interval Training)
7. Reduce Stress &; Get More Sleep
8. Watch Your Caffeine & Alcohol Intake
9. Back Off Birth Control Pills
10. Supplement with Vitamin D3
PCOS is a condition that disturbs the hormonal balance in a female patient. The disease causes infrequent periods in ladies and excess production of the male hormone. The reproduction is disturbed in women having PCOS as a fluid gets collected in the ovaries and ovaries are unable to produce eggs. Diagnosis of PCOS can be done in the patients from their puberty or first period. Irregular periods, polycystic ovaries, and excess androgen are common signs of PCOS.
What to Eat?
A patient suffering from PCOS should keep a close watch on their carbs intake. In PCOS condition, insulin and PCOS are intimately connected. Insulin is responsible for fat metabolism. It is a common belief that patient suffering from PCOS should eliminate carbs from their diet. But carbs are a source of energy and essential for the body. If a person is looking to monitor the intake of carbs when she is suffering from POCS, it is recommended by the doctors that she should take only 100g carbs in the entire day. Try to spread the 100g intake all over the day.
Whole food diets are always recommended for patients with PCOS conditions. Whole food diet keeps a person full for a more extended period of time, and one can avoid small snack cravings always. Dieticians suggest that PCOS can be managed with a well-balanced diet and whole food diet is essential since they are full of proteins and fiber. Avoid processed food and follow a balanced diet suggested by the dietician. Include whole grains, lean cut meats, and fishes and vegetables in the diet to maintain PCOS.
Probiotic food is fermented food which is easy to digest and help a person to lose weight. Include probiotics in a daily diet, as it helps a person improve body bloating, and eventually, one can lose weight easily. Yogurt, buttermilk, and probiotic milk are good for the digestion and help a person fight symptoms of PCOS and thyroid.
What to Avoid?
Doctors recommend that sweet foods increase craving. They also contain calorie which is harmful to the body by increasing the sugar levels in the blood. With an increase in the level of sugar in the blood, one may face problems like diabetes, and it will harm overall health even more. If a person is facing problems like weight issues and PCOS, one must try to eliminate sugar as it will help in to improve blood sugar levels. Along with sugary foods also avoid processed foods like pizza, juices, and ice creams. Anything unhealthy and processed should be avoided by patients with PCOS and thyroid. Also, the intake of solid fats like margarine, solid fats, and lard are not good for health.
The cooking method has an impact on managing PCOS symptoms. If a person adds lots of vegetables in the diet and does not cook them properly, one might not get the desired result. It is essential that a person takes proper care in cooking vegetables as directed by the dietician. Follow a strict method of cooking; use dry roasting and grilling methods to cook vegetables. One can also steam the veggies so that they do not lose their nutritional value.
These are some of the most helpful ways to manage PCOS and Thyroid. However, it is always advisable to consult a dietician before following these diets.
Your thyroid glands are important to the body because it produces essential hormones. However, if you suffer from hypothyroidism, your thyroid glands will not be able to produce these hormones sufficiently.
In the early stages of hypothyroidism, you will not detect any noticeable changes in your body or health. However, if you do not start treatment for the condition, you will soon start to experience symptoms, such as obesity and infertility. Joint pain is another serious symptom of hypothyroidism.
Symptoms of musculoskeletal pain related to hypothyroidism-
Hypothyroidism can lead to a range of muscular and skeletal disorders in your body. Here are some musculoskeletal symptoms you are likely to experience if you suffer from hypothyroidism.
Painful and stiff muscles, which mainly affect your hip and shoulder region
Swelling across the joints of feet and hands
Stiffness and pain in the joints
Treating hypothyroidism related muscle and joint pain-
Over-the-counter pain medications help deal with the pain and the swelling. However, they are a temporary solution for the discomfort. Treating hypothyroidism is the best way to reduce your pain and discomfort.
Your doctor will prescribe a levothyroxine supplement, which is a synthetic hormone. This medicine will rectify the imbalance in your hormone levels, which in turn will reduce pain in your muscles and joints. Apart from the joint pain, the medication will also lower your elevated cholesterol levels from hypothyroidism.
How to get the best results from the medication-
If you consume certain foods, supplements and medication while being on levothyroxine, the drug may not work effectively. Here is a look at some things to avoid when you are on the medication.
Excessive soy products
Excessive high-fibre diet
Foods with high iron content
Antacids that contain Aluminium hydroxide
For the best effects, you need to consume the hypothyroidism medication on an empty stomach. Your doctor will likely advise you to take the medicine first thing in the morning and then wait about an hour before having your meal. In some cases, you may need to take the drug before going to bed. However, ensure you consume the medicine at least 4 hours after the last meal for the day.
Hormones are chemicals produced by the body for optimal functioning of the various body systems. The thyroid produces thyroxin which controls body metabolism, and reduced levels affect metabolism. Deficiency of Iodine is the cause behind it as it is required by the body to produce thyroxin. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis which is an autoimmune disorder is another cause.
Some common signs of it are extreme fatigue, intolerance to cold, constipation, puffy face, hoarseness of voice, increased cholesterol level, weight gain, muscle and joint pains and aches, altered menstruation and depression are some of the common symptoms.
Homeopathy has some very good remedies that are aimed at managing the person as a whole and not just the symptoms of hypothyroidism.
These are commonly used remedies; however, a detailed discussion with your homeopath is essential to zero in on the remedy that will work best for you.