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Thorax Tips

Perfect Back Posture

Dr. Vishwas Virmani 92% (23114 ratings)
MPT, BPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
Perfect Back Posture

ABNORMAL POSTURES INCREASE NEURO-CENTRAL COMPRESSION

Deviant spinal alignment can be a potent cause of segmental stiffening. Anomalies can stem from poor postural habits, just as much as from congenital curvatures like spinal scoliosis.

As a rule, spinal segments stiffen more readily in zones where the spine’s function alters; where it changes from neck to thorax to low back. These are called the transition zones and they correspond to where ‘S' curves (viewed sideways on) change direction. Hence, the common trouble spots in the spine are the lumbosacral level (where the spine joins the fixed pelvis), the thoracolumbar level (where the thorax becomes the lower back), the cervicothoracic level (where the neck joins the thorax) and the atlanto-occipital joint (where the neck joins the base of the skull). 

A ROUNDED (KYPHOTIC) LOW BACK 

All transition zones give greater trouble if the regular ‘S’bend of the spine deviates too far from normal. However, a fixed kyphotic low back (rounded into a hump instead of a hollow) is particularly troublesome for the neurocentral core because the facet joints at the back take no weight at all. Many spinal levels develop segmental stiffness because of unremitting compression and difficulty in absorbing shockA fixed kyphosis creates a poorer exchange of fluids through the lower discs. As the spine pile-drivers down into itself, there is a less than vigorous fluid movement because the natural bowing sink-and-spring does not exist. At the time it needs it most, the excessively jarred lower back has to make do with reduced nutrition to carry out vital running repairs. This only heightens the natural attrition of weight-bearing activity and the back wears out faster.Running with a humped low back is an exceptional hazard. The spine cannot bow gracefully into a shock-receiving hollow like a hoop bending as it receives impact, and all the shock is taken up through the neurocentral core. 

As your weight descends earthwards through the body, the lumbar segments cannot squelch forward on their discs to dissipate the downward forces. Apart from the incessant jarring which affects the whole frame, there is also no corresponding uplift to spring the spine skywards which can pull up the disc walls. Even walking can be juddering instead of feline and youthful, with the head no longer tracing an imaginary wavy line along through the air as the spine bounces along with every step.

Even the most youthful spines collapse into a ‘C’ shape when sitting, but it is better if they keep a proper lordosis. This applies even more even more when sitting in a vehicle when the added vibration causes greater fluid loss. Accordingly, car seats should have a firm and pronounced upholstered bulge filling out the entire lumbar hollow (to the extent that it feels too much when you first sit down) and the seat should not be tipped down at the back which throws you into slumped sitting on the neurocentral core. Incidentally, the correct horse riding attitude is almost the perfect posture for the back to disperse weight. 

Providing the stirrups are the right length, the low back assumes the optimum alignment to ride out shock and balance the upper body over the pelvis. There is another ill effect of lumbar kyphosis. It means that the weight of the upper body is carried too far forward, in front of the line of gravity; the spine cannot stack itself with minimum effort, which causes a ‘turning moment’ (a tendency for the upper spine to move forward)around the thoracolumbar junction. 

With the shoulders stooped, the lumbar segments slide forward, jamming the spine at mid-lumbar level. A lumbar-kyphosis creates a similar tendency for the whole body to tip forward on the pelvis, also contributing to the typical ‘bottom out’ appearance.

This is a great source of strain. Pain can emanate from two sites- the bottom and top end of the lumbar spine-at the same time. Upper lumbar problems often refer pain down lower in the back of the lumbosacral junction. When isolating your problem levels it is important not to assume that all your trouble is coming from L5, where the pain is. Both levels must be dealt with if you are to get better.

Best Flexibilty Exercises for Parkinsonism!

Dr. Vishwas Virmani 92% (23114 ratings)
MPT, BPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
Best Flexibilty Exercises for Parkinsonism!

MAINTAINING THE FLEXIBILITY OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM IN PARKINSONISM

  • Flexibility of the musculoskeletal systems can be maintained by encouraging the patient to lead an active life. However passive exercise by the therapist or the relatives may be of help in maintaining or increasing flexibility. Passive exercise to the patient should be given at least 2 to 3 times in a day. As the patient has a predominantly flexed posture the mobility exercises should involve plenty of extension activity. Passive stretching should be given for all shortened muscles. Sometimes braces may be used for prolonged stretching of tight muscles. PNF technique of hold relax or contract relax can be used to bring about lengthening of contracted muscles and thus increase the ROM of various joint. PNF pattern of flexion abduction with elbow extension for the upper limb, extension abduction with knee extension for the lower limb and neck extension with rotation to either side should be emphasized to overcome the flexed posture of a Parkinsonism patient. During the extension movement the patient should be asked breath in. This will help in increasing the thoracic expansion of the patient.
  • Apart from passive exercise, the patient should be encouraged to maintain joint mobility through active exercises and auto stretching. Calisthenics exercises in supine, sitting or standing posture is of great use to patients of Parkinsonism. As there is an tendency in parkinsonism patients to develop overall flexed posture, this may be countered by various simple stretching programs like standing erect with arms in elevation against a wall or corner of the room, and the patient should try and stretch out his whole body. Also, the patient should be instructed to lie supine with a pillow under the upper thorax, which can play a significant role in stretching the upper limb and upper thoracic spine.

Lung Cancer

Dr. Swarup Kumar Ghosh 89% (82 ratings)
MD - Bio-Chemistry, MF Homeo (London), DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery), BHMS
Homeopath, Kolkata
Lung Cancer

Lungs are two cone shaped spongy organs of respiration are contained within the pleural cavity of the thorax. They are connected with pharynx through trachea larynx. The base rests on the diaphragm. The primary purpose of the lungs is to bring air blood into intimate contact so that oxygen can be added to the blood carbon dioxide can be removed. Adenosarcoma use ally arise from outer areas of the lungs. Cancer may appear as an ulcer in the windpipe, a nodule or small flattened lump blocking the air tubes. It may invade surface of tubes & extend to lymphatics blood vessels. About 40 to 45% of lung cancers are squamous cell cancers.
This cancer, even well advanced, produces no out ward symptoms. Cough is the most common symptom it may also triggger shortness of breath wheezing. Cough can be taken as ordinary symptom & this is way treatment is delayed. By the time, lung cancer is found the patient is nearly dead.
80% about of lung cancers are produced by smoking. Sometimes coal tar asbestos products can also produce it. Smoking causes lung cancer in two ways. First of all smoke inhalation damages the normal cleaning process by which the lung protects itself from the injury. Bronchi tube like structure, conduct inhaled air to the lung tissues. Hair like cilia beat in rhythmic fashion to move the mucous membranes continually upwards from the lung, removing any inhaled particles trapped in the sticky mucus. On account of these changes, the lung cannot keep itself clean. A person who has smoked for about 20 years is at the maximum risk of this type of cancer. Smoking includes passive smoking. All of them are harmful to the lungs.

Under the microscope examination of sputum. Examination of the airways is done by passing a tube through the mouth or nose into the airways subdivision of each lung. If an obstructing tumor is seen its biopsy is done. Needle biopsy when the cancer cannot be detected by test no. 2 a fine needle is introduced through the chest wall directly in the tumor with the help of x -ray guidance. A small sample is taken out for biopsy. Cat scan. Surgery.
Homeopathic patient treatment symptoms and signs or medicines apply.

1 person found this helpful

RICKETS [RICKETS]

Dr. Mrs Neeraj Gupta 91% (331 ratings)
BHMS, Certificate in Gynaecology & Obestric, MD - Homeopathy, Ph.D Homeopathy
Homeopath, Delhi
It is the characteristic result of vitamin D deficiency in children.


CAUSES:

• It is less common in breastfed infants.
• Less exposure to sunlight.
• Dark skinned infants.
• Dietary deficiency of vitamin D.
• Malabsorption.
• Chronic liver disease.
• Renal osteodystrophy.
• Calcium wasting.
• Hereditary.


SIGN AND SYMPTOMS:

• Head:
– Prominent forehead.
– Delayed closing of anterior fontanels (normally closes by 6 months of age).
– Frequent rocking movement of the head.
– Temporary teeth usually appear late.
– Excessive sweating over the forehead.
• Thorax:
– Beading of ribs (rachitic rosary), at the junction of the ribs and cartilages.
– Prominent sternum (Pigeon`s Breast).
• Spinal column:
– Patient has hump in the back (Kyphosis).
• Extremities:
– Bow legs.
– Knock knees.
– Outwards curving of bones of forearm.
– Dwarfism in severe cases.
– Green stick fractures can occur in severe cases.
• Ligaments and muscles:
– Weakness of legs.
– Delayed walking and standing.
– Over extension of knee joints.
– Pot belly due to weakness of abdominal muscles.
• Digestive system:
– Indigestion due to liver and spleen affection.
• Nervous system:
– Restless at night.
– Rocking of head on the pillow.
– A predisposition to titanic convulsion.
• Respiratory system:
– Adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy.
– Rhinitis.
– Pharyngitis (inflammation of mucous lining of the pharynx).
– Bronchitis.
– Bronchopneumonia.
• Spasmophilia:
– Triad of tetany.
– Laryngismus strides.
– Convulsion may be expected in low calcium type of rickets.


DIETARY MANAGEMENT:

Avoid:
• Avoid bony injuries, to prevent factures.


CONSUME:

• You should have sun bath for at least 1 – 2 hrs every day.
• Consume foods rich in vitamin D:
– Animal food: egg yolk and fish liver oils are riches source.
– Liver, veal, beef, oyster, salt water fish – mackerel, kipper, herrings, salmon, sardines and tuna.
– Dairy products like – cream, butter, cheese, fortified milk and margarines.
– Plant foods are low in vitamin D – vegetable oils, fruits, nuts and green leafy vegetables.
• Reduce calcium intake (reduce but do not completely avoid calcium as it is needed for maintenance of our body):-
– milk and sea food, nuts, green leafy vegetables, whole grains, peas, lotus stem, pulses, legumes and oil seeds
– Should avoid custard apple and banana as they are high in calcium.
• Breast feeding should be continued.
• You can take vitamin D supplements – cod liver oil, fortified milk.


CONSULT PHYSICIAN:

• Consult physician if you have any of the above sigh and symptoms.
• Associated illness should be treated.
• Vitamin D injections can be injected under the guidance of your physician.

Fast Food Diet - How It Is A Threat To Your Health?

Dr. Sudeepta Kumar 86% (129 ratings)
DNB, Surgical Gastroenterology, MS(Surgery)
Gastroenterologist, Chennai
Fast Food Diet - How It Is A Threat To Your Health?

Are you the one who lives on burgers or packaged foods? Well, then it's time for you to check your diet. These delicious food items that you die for contain excess carbohydrates and unhealthy fats that are extremely dangerous for your health. Most of these food items contain excess of carbs, fats, added sugars and salt. These items do not have sufficient nutritional values. They only offer you high calories that are harmful for the body and its various organs. Researchers have found that when most of these food items were given to lab animals, they yielded dangerous results, offering negative nutritional value to them. Prolonged exposure to these food items can affect the health of the heart, gastrointestinal organs and lead to obesity.

According to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, it has been found that most people underestimate the number of calories intake at a fast-food selling outlet. A 2013 study published in JAMA Pediatrics reveals that individuals consume more calories in restaurants than at their respective home. This trend is quite dangerous. It is responsible for the occurrence of a number of diseases. 

Here's why you should avoid fast foods:

  1. Save your digestive and cardiovascular systems: Fast foods are packed with unhealthy amounts of carbohydrates and fats. When these are consumed, our digestive system breaks down these carbs into sugar or glucose. The glucose is then released into the blood. As the blood is loaded with sugar, pancreas releases insulin hormone into the body. Insulin regulates the transportation of the sugar to cells. As the sugar reaches various cells, pancreas releases another hormone-glucagon. It commands the liver to make use of the sugar. Now, when excess sugar is produced in the body due to intake of fast foods, the balance between insulin and glucagon is hampered and the level of sugar in bloodstream changes. Consequently, you develop type 2 diabetes.
  2. Check your weight and heart: The added sugars and unsaturated fats in the fast foods lead to obesity. You consume more calories and as a result of which your body weight increases. This is quite dangerous for your health. Under such circumstances, you tend to develop chronic heart diseases due to the increasing levels of cholesterol in your body.
  3. Your kidney is at risk: Fast foods often contain excess salt. The intake of fast foods changes the level of sodium in the body. Sodium is responsible for maintaining the fluid content in the body. Increasing fluid levels due to intake of excess sodium in the form of salt exerts pressure on the heart muscle and causes high blood pressure. Besides, excess sodium also damages the kidney.
  4. Protect your respiratory system: According to a study in journal Thorax, children who eat excess fast food are at increased risk of developing asthma and rhinitis. In fact, increased body weight puts extra pressure on your respiratory organs and causes difficulty in breathing.
  5. Affects central nervous system: Intake of junk food affects the brain synapses and the molecules that are related to the process of memory and learning in both children and adults.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3615 people found this helpful

Testicular Cancer - Possible Ways It Can Be Treated!

Dr. Arun Kumar Goel 90% (104 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FICS (Surgical Oncology), Fellowship of Association of Indian Surgeons(FAIS), Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery(FMAS) & Reproductive Medicine, Fellowship of Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo Surgeons (FIAGES)
Oncologist, Ghaziabad
Testicular Cancer - Possible Ways It Can Be Treated!

Cancer that starts in the testicles is called testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is more commonly seen in men who are from 25 to 40 years of age. It is generally of two major types. 

  1. Seminomatous: These are less aggressive and respond very well to chemotherapy and radiation therapy 
  2. Non-seminomatous: These grow and spread rapidly, and often require surgery and chemotherapy

While the exact causes for testicular cancer are not clear, the following are considered to be the possible risk factors: 

  1. Family history 
  2. Undescended testicles 
  3. Prior history of testicular cancer 
  4. Genetic abnormalities of some types 

Symptoms:

While testicular cancer is often diagnosed late, the patient can have early symptoms, which are often ignored. 

  1. Painful swelling in one (or both) testicle(s) 
  2. Pain in the lower abdomen and groin area

Often, this type of cancer originates in the testicles and spreads to the lymph nodes inside the abdomen. It can also reach distant organs like lungs, liver, and lymph nodes in chest, neck. If attention to paid to early symptoms such as testicular swelling with or without pain, testicular cancer can be diagnosed early. However, even if diagnosed in the late stages, treatment is quite effective and outcome is good.

Tumor Markers in Testicular Cancers

Tumor markers are very important for diagnosis of testicular cancers. Alpha feto protein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are very important markers that are testing in blood. They are very useful in diagnosis, staging and follow up of testicular cancer. 

Stages of Testicular Cancer


There are three stages of testicular cancer – I to III, and treatment and prognosis would depend on the stage at which it is diagnosed. 

Treatment:

Various modalities are used depending on the stage and extent of spread. 

  1. Surgery: Removal of the testicle is usually the first step in testicular cancer treatment. Removal of testicle for cancer is done by a procedure called “high orchidectomy” or radical orchidectomy and not through the scrotum. This may need to be followed up by chemotherapy or radiation in most cases. 
  2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy drugs are used to kill the existing cancer cells and arrest the further growth of testicular cancer. Chemotherapy can be given in early cancers to prevent recurrence of cancer and for advanced cancer to cure the advanced cancer. Chemotherapy is very effective in testicular cancer and cures majority of cases in advanced stages too. 
  3. Radiation: External radiation can be used to target nodes in the abdomen. Radiation is very effective in seminomatous cancers. As is true of all cancers, surveillance and follow-up is very essential. History, examination and testing (blood tests for tumor markers) and scanning (CT scan of abdomen, thorax) are used for follow up.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3126 people found this helpful

Are You Fond of Fast Food? Know The Reason Why You Must Avoid

Dr. Rajeev Kumar Bansal 89% (21 ratings)
DNB(Gastroenterology), Gujarat University
Gastroenterologist, Ahmedabad
Are You Fond of Fast Food? Know The Reason Why You Must Avoid

Are you the one who lives on burgers or packaged foods? Well, then it's time for you to check your diet. These delicious food items that you die for contain excess carbohydrates and unhealthy fats that are extremely dangerous for your health. Most of these food items contain excess of carbs, fats, added sugars and salt. These items do not have sufficient nutritional values. They only offer you high calories that are harmful for the body and its various organs. Researchers have found that when most of these food items were given to lab animals, they yielded dangerous results, offering negative nutritional value to them. Prolonged exposure to these food items can affect the health of the heart, gastrointestinal organs and lead to obesity.

According to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, it has been found that most people underestimate the number of calories intake at a fast-food selling outlet. A 2013 study published in JAMA Pediatrics reveals that individuals consume more calories in restaurants than at their respective home. This trend is quite dangerous. It is responsible for the occurrence of a number of diseases. 

Here's why you should avoid fast foods:

  1. Save your digestive and cardiovascular systems: Fast foods are packed with unhealthy amounts of carbohydrates and fats. When these are consumed, our digestive system breaks down these carbs into sugar or glucose. The glucose is then released into the blood. As the blood is loaded with sugar, pancreas releases insulin hormone into the body. Insulin regulates the transportation of the sugar to cells. As the sugar reaches various cells, pancreas releases another hormone-glucagon. It commands the liver to make use of the sugar. Now, when excess sugar is produced in the body due to intake of fast foods, the balance between insulin and glucagon is hampered and the level of sugar in bloodstream changes. Consequently, you develop type 2 diabetes.
  2. Check your weight and heart: The added sugars and unsaturated fats in the fast foods lead to obesity. You consume more calories and as a result of which your body weight increases. This is quite dangerous for your health. Under such circumstances, you tend to develop chronic heart diseases due to the increasing levels of cholesterol in your body.
  3. Your kidney is at risk: Fast foods often contain excess salt. The intake of fast foods changes the level of sodium in the body. Sodium is responsible for maintaining the fluid content in the body. Increasing fluid levels due to intake of excess sodium in the form of salt exerts pressure on the heart muscle and causes high blood pressure. Besides, excess sodium also damages the kidney.
  4. Protect your respiratory system: According to a study in journal Thorax, children who eat excess fast food are at increased risk of developing asthma and rhinitis. In fact, increased body weight puts extra pressure on your respiratory organs and causes difficulty in breathing.
  5. Affects central nervous system: Intake of junk food affects the brain synapses and the molecules that are related to the process of memory and learning in both children and adults.
3 people found this helpful

The Dangers Of Fast Food Diet

Dt. Neha Suryawanshi 90% (14865 ratings)
M.Sc. in Dietetics and Food Service Management , Post Graduate Diploma In Computer Application, P.G.Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics , B.Sc.Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
The Dangers Of Fast Food Diet

Are you the one who lives on burgers or packaged foods? well, then it's time for you to check your diet. These delicious food items that you die for contain excess carbohydrates and unhealthy fats that are extremely dangerous for your health. Most of these food items contain excess of carbs, fats, added sugars and salt. These items do not have sufficient nutritional values. They only offer you high calories that are harmful for the body and its various organs. Researchers have found that when most of these food items were given to lab animals, they yielded dangerous results, offering negative nutritional value to them. Prolonged exposure to these food items can affect the health of the heart, gastrointestinal organs and lead to obesity.

According to the robert wood johnson foundation, it has been found that most people underestimate the number of calories intake at a fast-food selling outlet. A 2013 study published in jama pediatrics reveals that individuals consume more calories in restaurants than at their respective home. This trend is quite dangerous. It is responsible for the occurrence of a number of diseases. 

Here's why you should avoid fast foods:

Save your digestive and cardiovascular systems: fast foods are packed with unhealthy amounts of carbohydrates and fats. When these are consumed, our digestive system breaks down these carbs into sugar or glucose. The glucose is then released into the blood. As the blood is loaded with sugar, pancreas releases insulin hormone into the body. Insulin regulates the transportation of the sugar to cells. As the sugar reaches various cells, pancreas releases another hormone-glucagon. It commands the liver to make use of the sugar. Now, when excess sugar is produced in the body due to intake of fast foods, the balance between insulin and glucagon is hampered and the level of sugar in bloodstream changes. Consequently, you develop type 2 diabetes.

Check your weight and heart: the added sugars and unsaturated fats in the fast foods lead to obesity. You consume more calories and as a result of which your body weight increases. This is quite dangerous for your health. Under such circumstances, you tend to develop chronic heart diseases due to the increasing levels of cholesterol in your body.

Your kidney is at risk: fast foods often contain excess salt. The intake of fast foods changes the level of sodium in the body. Sodium is responsible for maintaining the fluid content in the body. Increasing fluid levels due to intake of excess sodium in the form of salt exerts pressure on the heart muscle and causes high blood pressure. Besides, excess sodium also damages the kidney.

Protect your respiratory system:

 According to a study in journal thorax, children who eat excess fast food are at increased risk of developing asthma and rhinitis. In fact, increased body weight puts extra pressure on your respiratory organs and causes difficulty in breathing.

Affects central nervous system: intake of junk food affects the brain synapses and the molecules that are related to the process of memory and learning in both children and adults.

type diabetes
2 people found this helpful

The Dangers of Fast Food Diet

Dr. Chetan B. Mahajan 88% (112 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery , DNB (General Surgery), MNAMS (Membership of the National Academy), Fellow HPB Surgery & Liver Transplant (Singapore) , FICS - RPSLH - RPSLH
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
The Dangers of Fast Food Diet

Are you the one who lives on burgers or packaged foods? Well, then it's time for you to check your diet. These delicious food items that you die for contain excess carbohydrates and unhealthy fats that are extremely dangerous for your health. Most of these food items contain excess of carbs, fats, added sugars and salt. These items do not have sufficient nutritional values. They only offer you high calories that are harmful for the body and its various organs. Researchers have found that when most of these food items were given to lab animals, they yielded dangerous results, offering negative nutritional value to them. Prolonged exposure to these food items can affect the health of the heart, gastrointestinal organs and lead to obesity.

According to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, it has been found that most people underestimate the number of calories intake at a fast-food selling outlet. A 2013 study published in JAMA Pediatrics reveals that individuals consume more calories in restaurants than at their respective home. This trend is quite dangerous. It is responsible for the occurrence of a number of diseases. 

Here's why you should avoid fast foods:

  1. Save your digestive and cardiovascular systems: Fast foods are packed with unhealthy amounts of carbohydrates and fats. When these are consumed, our digestive system breaks down these carbs into sugar or glucose. The glucose is then released into the blood. As the blood is loaded with sugar, pancreas releases insulin hormone into the body. Insulin regulates the transportation of the sugar to cells. As the sugar reaches various cells, pancreas releases another hormone-glucagon. It commands the liver to make use of the sugar. Now, when excess sugar is produced in the body due to intake of fast foods, the balance between insulin and glucagon is hampered and the level of sugar in bloodstream changes. Consequently, you develop type 2 diabetes.
  2. Check your weight and heart: The added sugars and unsaturated fats in the fast foods lead to obesity. You consume more calories and as a result of which your body weight increases. This is quite dangerous for your health. Under such circumstances, you tend to develop chronic heart diseases due to the increasing levels of cholesterol in your body.
  3. Your kidney is at risk: Fast foods often contain excess salt. The intake of fast foods changes the level of sodium in the body. Sodium is responsible for maintaining the fluid content in the body. Increasing fluid levels due to intake of excess sodium in the form of salt exerts pressure on the heart muscle and causes high blood pressure. Besides, excess sodium also damages the kidney.
  4. Protect your respiratory system: According to a study in journal Thorax, children who eat excess fast food are at increased risk of developing asthma and rhinitis. In fact, increased body weight puts extra pressure on your respiratory organs and causes difficulty in breathing.
  5. Affects central nervous system: Intake of junk food affects the brain synapses and the molecules that are related to the process of memory and learning in both children and adults. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
5756 people found this helpful
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